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COMMENTARY ON THE ENERGY CHARTER TREATY

RAFAEL LEAL-ARCAS

The Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) provides a unique, article-by-article, textual analysis of this important international agreement. The ECT outlines a multilateral framework for cross-border cooperation in the energy sector based on the principles of open competitive markets and sustainable development.
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TABLE OF CASES

ADF Group Inc v. United States of America, Award, 9 January 2003 (ADF)    10.42

AES Corporation and Tau Power BV v. Republic of Albania (ICSID ARB/10/16), Award, 1 November 2013 (AES & Tau) 10.01, 10.24, 10.36, 10.39, 32.09–32.16

AES Summit Generation Ltd, AES-Tisza Erömü Kft v. The Republic of Hungary (ICSID ARB/07/22), Award, 23 September 2010 (AES) 1.31, 10.01, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.22, 10.41, 10.50

Al-Bahloul (Mohammad Ammar) v. The Republic of Tajikistan (SCC V(064/2008)), Partial Award on Jurisdiction and Liability, 2 September 2009 (Al-Bahloul Jurisdiction and Liability) 1.42, 1.52, 1.77, 10.01, 10.05, 10.12, 10.13, 10.15, 10.18, 10.20, 10.27, 10.28, 10.44, 13.13, 13.19, 27.17

Al-Bahloul (Mohammad Ammar) v. The Republic of Tajikistan (SCC V(064/2008)), Final Award, 8 June 2010 (Al-Bahloul) 10.01, 13.01, 26.41

Alapli Elektrik BV v. Republic of Turkey (ICSID ARB/08/13), Award, 16 July 2012 (Alapli) 1.32, 1.38, 1.59, 10.01, 10.09

American Manufacturing & Trading v. Republic of Zaire, Award of 21 February 1997, ICSID Case No. ARl93/1 10.41

AMTO, Ltd Liability Company v. Ukraine (SCC 080/2005), Award, 26 March 2008 (AMTO) 1.26, 1.55, 1.61, 10.01, 10.05, 10.12, 10.18, 10.24, 10.25, 10.29, 10.42, 10.44, 10.55, 17.14, 17.15, 17.18, 17.20, 26.29, 26.30, 40.32

Anatolie Stati, Gabriel Stati, Ascom Group S.A. and Terra Raf Trans Trading Ltd v. Republic of Kazakhstan see Stati

Antaris Solar and Dr Michael Göde v. The Czech Republic (PCA 2014–01), Award, 2 May 2018 (Antaris) [Dissenting Opinion of Mr Gary Born (Antaris Dissenting Opinion), Declaration of Judge Tomka (Antaris Declaration) 10.01, 10.34, 10.36, 10.42

Antin Infrastructure Services Luxembourg Sàrl and Antin Energia Termosolar BV v. The Kingdom of Spain (ICSID ARB/13/31), Award, 15 June 2018 (Antin) 10.01, 10.05, 10.15, 10.16, 10.18, 10.21, 10.24, 10.31, 10.33, 10.34, 10.37

Asian Agricultural Products, Ltd v. Republic of Sri Lanka (ICSID 1991) 10.41

Azpetrol International Holdings B.V., Azpetrol Group B.V. and Azpetrol Oil Services Group B.V. v. The Republic of Azerbaijan (ICSID case no. ARB/06/15, Award of 8 September 2009 26.02

Azurix Corp v. The Argentine Republic, Award, 14 July 2006 (Azurix) 10.17, 10.33, 10.41, 10.42, 13.18, 27.05

Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Co, Ltd (Belgium v. Spain), Judgment of 5 February 1970, ICJ Reports (1970) 27.03

Belilos v. Switzerland, Application No. 10328/83, Judgment of 29 April 1988, ECHR 46.02

Belenergia S.A. v. Italian Republic (ICSID Case No. ARB/15/40) 47.08

Biwater Gauff Ltd v United Republic of Tanzania, ICSID Case No. ARB/05/22, Procedural Order No. 3 (29 September 2006) 20.03

Biwater Gauff (Tanzania) Ltd. v. United Republic of Tanzania, ICSID Case No. ARB/05/22, Award (24 July 2008) 14.04

Blue Ridge Investments, L.L.C. v. Republic of Argentina, United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, Docket No. 12–4139-cv (original proceedings, CMS Gas Transmission Company v. The Republic of Argentina, ICSID Case No. ARB/01/8) 27.05

Blusun SA, Jean-Pierre Lecorcier and Michael Stein v. Italian Republic (ICSID ARB/14/03), Award, 27 December 2016 (Blusun) 1.07. 1.08, 1.14, 1.16, 1.25, 1.72, 1.79, 10.01, 10.16, 10.20, 10.24, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.33, 10.34, 10.36, 47.08

Bogdanov (Iurii), Agurdino-Invest Ltd and Agurdino-Chimia JSC v. Republic of Moldova, Award, 22 September 2005 (Bogdanov) 10.44

Border Timbers Ltd, Border Timbers International (Private) Ltd and Hangani Development Co. (Private) Ltd v Republic of Zimbabwe, ICSID Case No. ARB/10/25, Decision on Application for Provisional Measures (17 March 2016) 20.03

Case concerning Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America), 1996, ICJ Reports 803, at 810 10.12

Cem Cengiz Uzan v. Republic of Turkey, SCC Case No. V 2014/023, Award on Respondent Bifurcated Preliminary Objection, 20 April 2016 1.62, 1.65, 2.01, 2.14

Charanne BV Construction Investments Sàrl v. Kingdom of Spain (062/2012), Final Award, 21 January 2016 (Charanne) 1.79, 10.01, 10.34, 10.36, 13.19

Charanne BV Construction Investments Sàrl v. Kingdom of Spain (062/2012), (Dissenting Opinion of Tawil of 21 December 2015, in Spanish) (Charanne Dissenting Opinion) 10.01, 10.35, 13.01

Chile –Price band system WTO Appellate Body WT/DS207/AB/R (2002) 50.02

CME (2001) 13.18

CMS Gas Transmission Co v. Argentina, Award, 12 May 2005 (CMS) 10.33, 10.42, 10.44, 13.18

Conocophillips Petrozuata B.V., Conocophillips Hamaca B.V. and Conocophillips Gulf of Paria B.V. v Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, ICSID Case No. ARB/07/30, Decision on Jurisdiction and the Merits (3 September 2013) 21.07

Continental Casualty Company v. The Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/9, Award (5 September 2008) 14.04, 14.08, 24.04

Differential and More Favourable Treatment Reciprocity and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries, Decision 28 November 1979 (L/4903) (World Trade Organization 1979) 5.18

EDF see Republic of Hungary v EDF International SA

Eiser Infrastructure Ltd and Energia Solar Luxembourg Sàrl v. Kingdom of Spain (ICSID ARB/13/36), Award, 4 May 2017 (Eiser) 1.16, 2.01, 2.07, 10.01, 10.05, 10.14, 10.21, 10.31, 10.33, 10.34, 10.36, 10.39, 10.42, 13.01, 13.15, 13.43, 13.44, 21.02, 21.13, 21.14, 21.15, 25.14

El Paso Energy International Co. v. Argentina, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/15, Award, 31 October 2011 2.13, 10.16

Electrabel SA v The Republic of Hungary (ICSID ARB/07/19), Decision on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law and Liability, 30 November 2012 (Electrabel Jurisdiction, Applicable Law and Liability) 1.15, 1.23, 1.43, 1.45, 1.51, 10.01, 10.04, 10.05, 10.12, 10.20, 10.21, 10.24, 10.26, 10.31, 10.40, 10.41, 10.43, 10.50, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18

Electrabel SA v. The Republic of Hungary (ICSID ARB/07/19), Award, 25 November 2015 (Electrabel) 10.01, 13.01, 13.12, 13.15, 16.05

Elettronica Sicula SpA (ELSI) (United States of America v. Italy), Judgment, ICJ Reports 1989, p 15 10.41

Emilio Agustín Maffezini v. The Kingdom of Spain, Argentine-Spain BIT, Award on the Merits, Case No. ARB/97/7, 13 November 2000 22.05, 22.06

EnCana Corporation v. Ecuador (LCIA UN3481), Award, 3 February 2006 (EnCana) 13.04

Energoalliance Ltd v. The Republic of Moldova (UNCITRAL, Ad Hoc), Arbitral Award, 23 October 2013 (Energoalliance) 10.01, 10.14, 10.26, 10.39

Energorynok see State Enterprise Energorynok v. The Republic of Moldova

Enron Corporation Ponderosa Assets L.P. v. Argentine Republic (ICSID ARB/01l3), Award of 22 May 2007 (Enron) 10.34, 10.44

Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission, Partial Award, 1 July 2003 10.08

Eskosol S.p.A. in liquidazione v. Italian Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/15/50, Decision on Respondent’s Application Under Rule 41(5), 20 March 2017 1.56, 47.06

Eureko BV v. Poland, Partial Award, 19 August 2005 (Eureko) 10.41

Europe Cement Investment & Trade SA v. Republic of Turkey (ICSI ARB(AF)/07/2) Award, 13 August 2009 (Europe Cement) 10.01, 10.12, 26.30

European Union and certain Members States – Certain Measures Affecting the Renewable Energy Generation Sector, Case DS452 5.05

Factory at Chorzów (Germany v. Poland), Judgment, Claim for Indemnity, Merits, (1928) PCIJ Series A No 1 10.21

Feldman v. United Mexican States, ICSID ARB(AF)/99/1, Award, 16 December 2002 10.42

GAMI (2004) 13.18

Genin, Eastern Credit Ltd Inc and AS Baltoil v. Republic of Estonia, Award, 25 June 2001 (Genin) 10.42

Golder v United Kingdom App no 4451/70 (ECtHR 1975) 50.02

Gradinger v. Austria, Application No. 15963/90, Judgment of 23 October 1995, ECHR 46.02

Greentech Energy Systems and Novenergia v. Italy (Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (SCC) registered 7 July 2015) 47.08

Hulley Enterprises Ltd (Cyprus) v. The Russian Federation (PCA AA 226), Interim Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility, 30 November 2009 (Hulley Jurisdiction and Admissibility) 10.01, 10.04, 10.05, 10.09, 10.10, 10.22, 13.05, 13.06, 13.07, 13.08, 13.09, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.20, 20.05, 40.31, 40.32, 40.33

Hulley Enterprises Ltd (Cyprus) v. The Russian Federation (PCA AA 226), Final Award, 18 July 2014 (Hulley) 10.01, 10.13, 10.16, 13.01, 13.03, 13.05, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.24, 13.25, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.47, 21.02

Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) DD v. Republic of Slovenia (ICSID ARB/05/24), Award, 17 December 2015 (HEP) 10.01, 10.39

Impregilo SpA v. Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Decision on Jurisdiction, 22 April 2005, ICSID Case No. ARB/02/2 (Impregilo) 10.42, 10.44

India – Certain Measures Relating to Solar Cells and Solar Modules, Case DS456 5.07

Indonesia – Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile Industry Report of the Panel (98–2505) [1998] World Trade Organization, §6.6 5.02, 5.12

Ioan Micula, Viorel Micula, SC European Food SA, SC Starmill SRL and SC Multipack SRL v. Romania (ICSID ARB/05/20), Award, 11 December 2013 10.34, 10.39

Ioannis Kardassopoulos v. Georgia see Kardassopoulos (Ioannis) v. Georgia

Isolux Infrastructure Netherlands, BV v. Kingdom of Spain (SCC V2013/153), Award, 12 July 2016 (Isolux) 10.01, 10.31, 10.35, 13.01, 13.19, 25.13, 25.14

Isolux Infrastructure Netherlands, BV v. Kingdom of Spain (SCC V2013/153), Dissenting Opinion of Tawil of 6 July 2016 (in Spanish) (Isolux Dissenting Opinion) 10.01, 10.35

Italian Republic v. Republic of Cuba, Final Award of 1 January 2008 27.09

Kardassopoulos (Ioannis) v. Georgia, ICSID Case No. ARB/05/18, Decision on Jurisdiction, 6 July 2007 1.39, 1.54, 26.03, 40.47

Kardassopoulos (Ioannis) and Ron Fuchs v. The Republic of Georgia (ICSID ARB/05/18 and ARB/07/15), Award, 3 March 2010 (Kardassopoulos) 10.01, 10.31, 13.28

Kasikili/Sededu Island (1999) ICJ Rep 1045 50.02

Kennedy (Rawle) (represented by Simons Muirhead & Burton) v. Trinidad and Tobago, Communication No. 845, UN Doc. CCPR/C/67/D/845/1999 (31 December 1999) 46.02

Khan Resources Inc, Khan Resources BV, CAUC Holding Company Ltd v. The Government of Mongolia, MonAtom LLC (PCA 2011–09), Decision on Jurisdiction, 25 July 2012 (Khan Jurisdiction) 1.58, 2.16, 2.2010.01, 10.04, 10.09, 10.10, 10.31, 27.17

Khan Resources Inc, Khan Resources BV, CAUC Holding Company Ltd v. The Government of Mongolia, MonAtom LLC (PCA 2011–09), Award on the Merits, 2 March 2015 (Khan Merits) 10.01, 10.12, 10.44

Konle v Austria, Case C-302/97, [1999] ECR I-003099 18.25

LaGrand (2001) ICJ Rep 466 50.02

Land Oberösterreich v ČEZ, Case C-115/08 19.15

Lauder (Ronald S) v. The Czech Republic, Award, 3 September 2001 (Lauder) 10.39, 10.42, 13.18

LG&E v. Argentina, Decision on Liability, 3 October 2006 (LG&E) 10.34, 10.42

Libananco Holdings Co Ltd v. Republic of Turkey (ICSID ARB/06/8), Award, 2 September 2011 (Libananco) 1.69, 1.77, 10.01, 40.32

Liman Caspian Oil (LCO) BV and NCL Dutch Investment BV v Republic of Kazakhstan (ICSID ARB/07/14), Award, 22 June 2010 (LCO) 2.19, 10.01, 10.09, 10.33, 10.37

Loewen Group Inc and Raymond L Loewen v. United States of America, Award, 26 June 2003 (Loewen) 10.42

Ltd Liability Company AMTO v. Ukraine (SCC 080/2005) see AMTO

Lucchetti (Empresas), S.A. and Lucchetti Peru, S.A. v. The Republic of Peru, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/4, Award of 7 February 2005 27.09

Mamidoil Jetoil Greek Petroleum Products Société SA v. Republic of Albania (ICSID ARB/11/24), Award, 30 March 2015 (Mamidoil) 10.01, 10.16, 10.32, 10.33

Masdar Solar & Wind Cooperatief UA v. Kingdom of Spain (ICSID ARB/14/1), Award, 16 May 2018 (Masdar) 10.01, 10.08, 10.14, 10.16, 10.18, 10.21, 10.34, 10.35, 10.39

Metalclad 10.39, 13.17, 13.18

Metalpar S.A. and Buen Aire S.A. v. The Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/5, Award (6 June 2008) 14.04

Mondev Intl Ltd v. United States of America, Award, 11 October 2002 (Mondev) 10.42, 10.44

Mox Plant, Provisional Order, ITLOS, 30 December 2001 10.08

MTD Equity Sdn Bhd and MTD Chile SA v. Republic of Chile, Award, 25 May 2004 (MTD) 10.16, 10.33, 10.42

Noble Ventures Inc. v. Romania, Award, 12 October 2005 (Noble Ventures) 10.25, 10.41, 10.42, 10.44

Novenergia II – Energy & Environment (SCA) SICAR v. The Kingdom of Spain (SCC 2015/063), Final Arbitral Award, 15 February 2018 (Novenergia II) 10.01, 10.18, 10.21, 10.31, 10.34, 10.36, 10.37, 10.39, 13.44

Nykomb Synergetics Technology Holding AB v. The Republic of Latvia (SCC), Award, 16 December 2003 (Nykomb) 10.01, 10.12, 10.21, 10.39, 10.42, 13.01, 13.16, 13.19, 13.43, 22.19, 22.28

Occidental Exploration and Production Co v. Ecuador, Award, 1 July 2004 (Occidental) 10.33, 10.41, 10.42

Opinion 2/15 of the Court (Full Court), ECJ, 16 May 2017 40.44

Parkerings-Compagniet AS v. Lithuania (ICSID ARB/05/8), Award, 11 September 2007 (Parkerings) 10.34, 10.35, 13.18

Petrobart Ltd v. The Kyrgyz Republic (SCC 126/2003), Award, 29 March 2005 (Petrobart) 1.44, 1.45, 10.01, 10.10, 10.20, 10.21, 10.25, 10.26, 10.28, 10.37, 10.39, 10.55, 13.01, 13.16, 13.19, 22.20, 22.22, 22.28, 26.03, 40.34, 40.35, 40.37, 40.38, 40.39, 40.40, 40.42

Plama Consortium Ltd v. Republic of Bulgaria (ICSID ARB/03/24), Decision on Jurisdiction, 8 February 2005 (Plama Jurisdiction) 1.30, 1.50, 1.70, 1.71, 10.01, 10.04, 10.05, 10.09, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.16, 17.12, 17.13, 17.19, 17.20, 21.12, 21.15, 26.03, 40.31, 40.32

Plama Consortium Ltd v. Republic of Bulgaria (ICSID ARB/03/24), Award, 27 August 2008 (Plama) 2.13, 2.19, 10.01, 10.14, 10.16, 10.17, 10.26, 10.28, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.34, 10.40, 10.41, 10.42, 10.44, 13.01, 13.17, 13.19, 17.02, 17.05, 17.10, 20.05, 21.06, 26.35, 40.32

Pope & Talbot v. Canada, Award in Respect of Damages, 31 May 2002 (Pope & Talbot) 10.42, 13.18

PSEG Global, Inc., The North American Coal Corporation, and Konya Ingin Electrik Üretim ve Ticaret Limited Sirketi v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/02/5, Award, 19 January 2007 (PSEG) 1.73, 10.33, 10.41, 13.12

Quasar de Valores SICAV SA, Orgor de Valores SICAV SA, GBI 9000 SICAV SA, ALOS 34 SL v. Russian Federation (SCC 24/2007), Award, 20 July 2012 (Quasar de Valores) 13.10

Renta 4 SVSA, Ahorro Corporación Emergentes FI, Ahorro Corporación Eurofondo FI, Rovime Inversiones SICAV SA, Orgor de Valores SICAV SA, GBI 9000 SICAV SA v. Russian Federation (SCC 24/2007), Award, 20 July 2012 (Renta) 10.37

Republic of Hungary v EDF International SA, Decision on Annulment (4A34/2015), 6 October 2015, Swiss Federal Tribunal, First Civil Law Court, (EDF Decision on Annulment) 10.04, 10.16, 10.17, 10.26, 10.42, 10.44

Republique de Moldavie v. Société Komstroy (Cour d’Appel de Paris, RG N°13/22531), Arrêt, 12 Avril 2016 10.12

Reservations to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, ICJ, Advisory Opinion, 1951 ICJ 15, 28 May 1951 46.01

RosInvestCo UK Ltd v. Russian Federation (SCC 79/2005), Final Award, 12 September 2010 (RosInvestCo) 10.37, 13.10

RREEF Infrastructure (GP) Ltd and RREEF Pan-European Infrastructure Two Lux Sàrl v. Kingdom of Spain (ICSID ARB/13/30), Decision on Jurisdiction, 6 June 2016 (RREEF Jurisdiction) 1.37, 1.60, 10.01, 10.53

Russian Federation v. Veteran Petroleum Ltd, The Russian Federation v. Yukos Universal Ltd, The Russian Federation v. Hulley Enterprises Ltd (The Hague District Court Chamber for Commercial Affairs) 10.11

Salini Costruttori S.P.A. and Italstrade S.P.A. v. Kingdom of Morocco, Italy-Morocco BIT, Award on the Merits, Case No. ARB/OO/4, 13 July 2001 22.06

Saluka Investments BV (The Netherlands) v. The Czech Republic, Partial Award, 17 March 2006 (Saluka) 10.33, 10.41, 10.42

SD Myers v. Canada, Award on Liability, 13 November 2000, 8 ICSID Reports 18 (SD Myers) 10.42, 13.18

Sempra (2007) 13.18

SGS v Philippines, Decision on Jurisdiction, 29 January 2004 (SGS) 10.44

SGS Société Générale v. Paraguay 10.39

Siemens v. Argentina, Award, 6 February 2007 (Siemens) 10.33, 10.42

Slovak Republic v. Achmea BV (Case C-284/16), Judgment, 6 March 2018 (Achmea) 10.08, 26.22, 27.14

Spanish Supreme Court, Contentious-Administrative Chamber, 3rd Section, Judgment 1265/ 2017, 14 July 2017, Case 749/2014 (Judgment 1265/2017) 13.15

Starrett Housing Corp v. Islamic Republic of Iran, Case No. 24, Interlocutory Award No. ITL 32–24–1, 19 December 1983, 4 Iran-US CTR 122, p.l54 13.18

State Enterprise Energorynok v. The Republic of Moldova (SCC V (2012/175)), Final Award, 29 January 2015 (Energorynok) 1.45, 1.67, 10.01, 10.12

Stati (Anatolie), Gabriel Stati, Ascom Group S.A. and Terra Raf Trans Trading Ltd v. Republic of Kazakhstan, SCC Case No. V116/2010, Dissenting Opinion of Judge Magnus Ulriksson, 9 December 2016 2.01, 2.26

Stati (Anatolie), Gabriel Stati, Ascom Group SA, Terra Raf Trans Trading Ltd v. The Republic of Kazakhstan (SCC V (116/2010)), Award, 19 December 2013 (Stati) 1.33, 1.68, 1.76, 10.01, 10.14, 10.27, 10.32, 10.38, 10.41, 10.42, 11.01, 13.01, 13.43, 40.41, 40.42, 40.43

Técnicas Medioambientales TECMED SA v. The United Mexican States, Award, 29 May 2003 (TECMED) 10.41, 10.42, 13.17, 13.18

Telenor (2006) 13.18

Texaco Overseas Petroleum Co. and California Asiatic Oil Co. v. the Government of the Libyan Arab Republic, 17 ILM 1(1978) 18.16

Trail Smelter Arbitration (United States v Canada) Arbitral Trib., 3 U.N. Rep. Int’l Arb. Awards 1905 (1941) 19.23

Ulysseas Inc v. Ecuador (Interim Award) (PCA 2009–19 (2010) 10.09

United Parcel Service of America v. Government of Canada, NAFTA/UNICTRAL, Award on the Merits, Case No. UNCT/02/1, 11 June 2007 22.17

United States Nationals in Morocco, ICJ Reports, 183, 184 (1952) P.03

US – Softwood lumber IV WTO Appellate Body WT/DS257/AB/R (2004) 50.02

United Utilities (Tallinn) B.V. and Aktsiaselts Tallinna Vesi v Republic of Estonia, ICSID Case No. ARB/14/24, Decision on Respondent Application for Provisional Measures (12 May 2016) 20.03

Veteran Petroleum Ltd (Cyprus) v. The Russian Federation (PCA AA 228), Interim Award On Jurisdiction and Admissibility, 30 November 2009 (Veteran Jurisdiction and Admissibility) 1.35, 1.40, 1.66, 10.01, 10.04, 10.05, 10.09, 10.10, 10.22, 13.05, 13.06, 13.07, 13.08, 13.09, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.20, 13.21, 20.05, 40.31, 40.32, 40.33

Veteran Petroleum Ltd (Cyprus) v. The Russian Federation (PCA AA 228), Final Award, 18 July 2014 (Veteran) 10.01, 10.13, 10.16, 13.01, 13.03, 13.05, 13.20, 13.22, 13.24, 13.25, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.47, 21.02

Waste Management, Inc v. United Mexican States, Award, 30 April 2004 (Waste Management) 10.42, 10.44

Weber v. Switzerland, May 22, 1990 Series A, No. 177, 12 E.H.R.R., 508, Judgment of 22 May 1990, ECHR 46.02

Wena Hotels Ltd v. Arab Republic of Egypt, Award on the Merits of 8 December 2000, ICSID Case No. ARB/98/4 (Wena Hotels) 10.41

Yukos Universal Ltd (Isle of Man) v. The Russian Federation (PCA AA 227), Interim Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility, 30 November 2009 (Yukos Jurisdiction and Admissibility) 1.13, 10.01, 10.04, 10.05, 10.09, 10.10, 10.22, 13.05, 13.06, 13.07, 13.08, 13.09, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.20, 20.05, 21.14, 26.03, 26.18, 40.31, 40.32, 40.33

Yukos Universal Ltd (Isle of Man) v. The Russian Federation (PCA AA 227), Final Award, 18 July 2014 (Yukos) 10.01, 10.13, 10.14, 10.16, 10.37, 13.01, 13.03, 13.05, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.24, 13.25, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.47, 17.05, 17.10, 17.14, 21.02, 21.06, 21.13, 21.14, 21.15, 21.17, 21.18