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The Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) provides a unique, article-by-article, textual analysis of this important international agreement. The ECT outlines a multilateral framework for cross-border cooperation in the energy sector based on the principles of open competitive markets and sustainable development.
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Pierre Serra


This chapter comments the provision dedicated to competition in the Energy Charter Treaty. It analyses the content and the strength of the obligation arising from this article. The latter does not provide a common competition regime per se for the signatory parties. It also discusses the limited dispute settlement means available to the parties. Most of paragraphs encapsulated by the provision emphasize cooperation between the parties – especially between parties with experience in competition and those with little or none.

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