Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty
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Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty

Edited by Rafael Leal-Arcas

The Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) provides a unique, article-by-article, textual analysis of this important international agreement. The ECT outlines a multilateral framework for cross-border cooperation in the energy sector based on the principles of open competitive markets and sustainable development.
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Silke Goldberg, Naomi Lisney and Anne Eckenroth


This chapter introduces the idea that the European Charter Treaty ("ECT") recognised the need to adapt to the World Trade Organisation ("WTO") system whilst preserving its relevance to the entire energy sector. The ECT faced challenges in relation to its scope and applicability in the context of international law. The Amendment to the Trade-Related Provisions of the ECT facilitated by Articles 30 and 31, the transitional arrangements under Article 32, and the Protocols and Declarations negotiated pursuant to Article 33 work to extend the benefits and obligations of WTO membership to those ECT member states not yet in the WTO.

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