Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty
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Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty

Edited by Rafael Leal-Arcas

The Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) provides a unique, article-by-article, textual analysis of this important international agreement. The ECT outlines a multilateral framework for cross-border cooperation in the energy sector based on the principles of open competitive markets and sustainable development.
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Antonio Morelli


Article 44 of the ECT regulates the steps for the entry into force of the agreement under international law. Under the lens of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 1969 and relevant State practice, the analysis focuses on substantial and procedural aspects of the entry into force mechanism in international law. In turn, with regard to the ECT, it shows how Contracting Parties aim at creating a basis of States’ commitment before giving full effects to the treaty.

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