Research Handbook on Start-Up Incubation Ecosystems
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Research Handbook on Start-Up Incubation Ecosystems

Edited by Adam Novotny, Einar Rasmussen, Tommy H. Clausen and Johan Wiklund

This insightful and comprehensive Handbook explores the concept of start-up incubation ecosystems, investigating the various factors that interact to provide a nurturing environment suitable for the successful development of start-ups and illustrating the critical part this plays within entrepreneurial ecosystems. Chapters include literature reviews, theoretical studies, and empirical research featuring both quantitative and qualitative methods, using data from a range of countries analyzed by an international team of authors.
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Chapter 19: Individual-level determinants of academic patent licensing to start-ups: impacts of principal investigators’ embeddedness in the industry

Dolores Modic and Tohru Yoshioka-Kobayashi


From a knowledge perspective, licensing experiences stimulate licensing to start-ups. However, from a social network context, technology transfer experiences may constitute constraints. Previous literature has mainly investigated organizational capability perspectives and not fully examined personal factors. We provide empirical evidence in regard to moderating effects of licensing activities to existing firms on licensing to start-ups from principal investigators’ (PIs’) points of view. The regression analysis of our dataset, covering 809 licensing and re-assignment agreements in two Japanese research-intensive public universities, revealed that PIs’ past licensing experiences are positively associated with licensing intensity to start-ups, while there is indication licensing to existing large firms decreases motivation to transfer technologies to start-ups. We discovered a negative influence of joint applications with large firms and, surprisingly, with start-ups. Results imply PIs learn technology commercialization from past licensing experiences, but are, simultaneously, embedded in social constraints. Our investigation demonstrates interactions between university–industry transfer channels.

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