Research Handbook on Start-Up Incubation Ecosystems
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Research Handbook on Start-Up Incubation Ecosystems

Edited by Adam Novotny, Einar Rasmussen, Tommy H. Clausen and Johan Wiklund

This insightful and comprehensive Handbook explores the concept of start-up incubation ecosystems, investigating the various factors that interact to provide a nurturing environment suitable for the successful development of start-ups and illustrating the critical part this plays within entrepreneurial ecosystems. Chapters include literature reviews, theoretical studies, and empirical research featuring both quantitative and qualitative methods, using data from a range of countries analyzed by an international team of authors.
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Chapter 20: The university ecosystem and the internationalization of spin-off firms

Eva Jenny B. Jørgensen and Adam Novotny


Based on a sample of 224 university spin-offs (USOs) established at 16 Norwegian universities, this chapter studies whether and to what extent the university as an academic entrepreneurial ecosystem may support the internationalization of the firms that it spins out. We argue that both the size of the university ecosystem and its international orientation provide USOs with resources that are important for them to internationalize. Logistic regressions suggest that more internationally oriented university ecosystems have greater likelihood to spin out firms that internationalize. The international mobility of scientists has a stronger effect on USO internationalization than the international mobility of students. University ecosystem size has no significant effect on USO internationalization. We also discuss our findings and contributions, the limitations of our study, and some possibilities for further research.

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