Research Handbook on Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies
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Research Handbook on Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies

A Contextualized Approach

Edited by Paresha Sinha, Jenny Gibb, Michèle Akoorie and Jonathan M. Scott

This Research Handbook offers contextualized perspectives on entrepreneurship in emerging economies. Emphasizing how national context profoundly shapes incentives for entrepreneurial efforts, chapters dissect the opportunities emerging from various institutions and social practices from the Middle East, North and Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. This Handbook is an ideal guide for researchers working on emerging economies, particularly those with an interest in global entrepreneurship.
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Chapter 13: Using trust-based social capital in coping with institutional constraints: the case of entrepreneurs in Myanmar

Khine Tin Zar Lwin, Paresha Sinha and Jenny Gibb


This chapter critically explores the institutional constraints, both formal and informal, conceived by entrepreneurs in Myanmar and the ways in which they attempt to cope with those constraints. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs, the entrepreneurs perceive access to finance as major formal institutional constraints and a shift in values and norms of workers as major informal constraints, undermining their business activities. However, the constraints first tended to appear as an inadequacy or a lack of a support structure that is typical in transition economies. These shadows are from a historical institutional legacy in conjunction with contemporary evolving institutions that have either partial formal reforms or a shift in informal values. Consequently, entrepreneurs in Myanmar rely upon trust-based social capital, such as trust-based borrowing from social networks and hiring through social networks of current workers, to help mitigate the adverse effect of those institutional constraints, and in turn to sustain the survival and growth of their businesses.

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