Handbook of Research on Business and Technology Incubation and Acceleration
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Handbook of Research on Business and Technology Incubation and Acceleration

A Global Perspective

Edited by Sarfraz A. Mian, Magnus Klofsten and Wadid Lamine

This pioneering work explores both the theory and practice of business and technology incubation over the past six decades as an approach to new venture creation and development. With a global scope, the Handbook examines key concepts, models, and mechanisms, providing a research-based analytical foundation from which to understand the emerging role of modern incubation tools in building entrepreneurship ecosystems for promoting targeted economic development.
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Chapter 13: Emergence and development of entrepreneurship and innovation intermediaries: the case of business incubators in Japan

Nobuya Fukugawa


Chapter 13 provides an overview of the Japanese incubation policy scenario where incubators act as intermediaries in the broader regional innovation ecosystem. According to the author, the initial private sector attempts in the early 1980s to establish incubation programs were unsuccessful because of the system failures rendering the public sector a key founder of new wave of incubators. The resulting policy changes rapidly increased incubators until early 2000s under regional development policies that aimed to reallocate high-tech agglomerations without focusing sectoral opportunities. New macroeconomic challenges in the 1990s forced policymakers to reach out to individual entrepreneurs, with a fundamental shift from hard support to soft support measures. The last 3 decades of results suggest that policy goals and support instruments had changed according to changes in the system requirements.

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