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THE ROME III REGULATION

A Commentary on the Law Applicable to Divorce and Legal Separation

SABINE CORNELOUP

This comprehensive Commentary provides an in-depth, article-by-article analysis of the Rome III Regulation, the uniform rules adopted by the EU to determine the law applicable to cross-border divorce and legal separation. Written by a team of renowned experts, private international law scholars and practitioners alike will find this Commentary an incisive and useful point of reference.
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TABLE OF LEGISLATION

CONVENTIONS, TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS

 

European Convention on Human Rights 1950

Article 12 1.08, 12.11–12.12

Article 14 1.08

Article 18 1.08

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1951

Article 1A 8.40

Article 12 5.39

Article 12(1) 8.40

Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons 1954

Article 12 5.39

Article 12(1) 8.39

Hague Convention on the International Sale of Goods 1955

Article 2.3 6.04

Convention on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations towards Children 1956

Article 6 4.03

Hague Convention on abolishing the requirement of legalization for foreign public documents 1961 (Apostille Convention) 8.32

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 12.11

Article 26 12.19

CIEC Convention on the Recognition of Decisions relating to the Matrimonial Bond 1967 19.12, 19.14

Brussels Convention on the Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters 1968

Article 55 19.10

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969 19.02

Hague Convention on the Recognition of Divorces and Legal Separations 1970 19.12–19.14

Article 7 19.13

Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to Matrimonial Property Regimes 1978

Article 10 6.04

Rome Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations 1980

Article 2 4.02–4.03

Article 8(1) 6.04

Article 8(2) 6.14–6.15

Article 19(2) 16.04

Convention on the Law Applicable to Trusts and on their Recognition 1985

Article 17 11.08

Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children 1986

Article 21 11.08

Convention on the Law Applicable to Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1986

Article 15 11.08

Convention on the Law Applicable to Succession to the Estates of Deceased Persons 1989

Article 4 11.08

Article 17 11.08

Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children 1996 0.18, 19.16

Article 1 1.27

Article 47 14.05, 14.14, 14.25

Article 48 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32

Article 49 15.04

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 2000

Article 21 1, 0.08, 0.23, 10.21, 12.08, 12.19, 13.38

Hague Convention on the International Protection of Adults 2000 1.20

Article 45 14.05, 14.25, 14.32

Article 46 14.05, 14.25

Article 47 15.04

Convention on the Law Applicable to Certain Rights in Respect of Securities held with an Intermediary 2006

Article 10 11.08

Hague Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance 2007 19.11

Hague Protocol on the law applicable to maintenance obligations 2007 0.18, 1.28

Article 5 2.08

Article 12 11.08

Article 16(1) 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32

Article 16(2) 14.05, 14.14, 14.25

Article 17 15.04

Hague Principles on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts 2015

Article 8 11.08, 11.23–11.24

Treaty of the European Communities (TEC)

Article 65 0.06, 4.04

Treaty on European Union (TEU)

Article 5 7

Article 5(2) 0.26

Article 20 0.06

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)

Article 3(2) 0.21

Article 18 8.38

Article 21(1) 0.25, 1.08

Article 81 2

Article 81(2) 4.04, 19.03

Article 81(3) 0.06, 0.21, 2.02, 3.03, 4.04, 19.03

Article 167 10.25

Article 267 12.26–12.27

Articles 326–334 0.06

Article 328 19.05

Article 328(1) 2–3

Article 330(1) 19.03

Article 330(2) 19.03

Article 331 0.11, 42, 3.02, 3.08, 214

Article 331(1) 214, 19.05–19.06

Article 351 214

EU REGULATIONS

 

Regulation (EC) 44/2001 on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters 19.10, 19.15

Regulation (EC) 2201/2003 on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Matrimonial matters and the matters of Parental Responsibility [Brussels II bis] 2, 0.09–0.10, 0.18, 0.20, 2.01–2.05, 5.28, 13.05

Article 3 0.04, 0.06, 0.35, 8.09–8.10, 9.23, 9.41–9.42

Article 3(1)(a) 8.10, 10.24

Article 3(1)(b) 8.36

Article 5 9.18–9.19, 9.47

Article 16 8.15

Article 16(a) 8.15

Article 16(b) 8.15

Article 19 0.04

Article 22 2.05

Article 24(1) 9.20

Article 56 et seq 12.28

Article 56(b)(1) 10.28

Articles 59–61 19.09

Regulation (EC) 864/2007 on the Law Applicable to Non-contractual Obligations (Rome II) 15.04

Recital 7 0.20, 2.07

Article 3 4.02

Article 5 8.05

Article 23 3.28

Article 24 11.07

Article 25(1) 14.05, 14.14

Article 25(2) 16.04

Article 26 12.03

Article 28 19.09

Article 29 19.10

Regulation (EC) 593/2008 on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations (Rome I) 15.04

Recital 7 0.20, 2.07

Recital 13 11.25

Article 2 4.02

Article 10(1) 6.04

Article 10(2) 6.14–6.15

Article 20 11.07

Article 21 12.03

Article 22(1) 14.05, 14.14

Article 22(2) 16.05

Article 25 19.09

Article 26 19.10

Regulation (EC) 4/2009 on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions and Cooperation in matters relating to Maintenance Obligations 0.18, 1.28

Article 4(1)(c) 9.48

Article 4(1)(c)(ii) 2.08

Article 22 13.42

Article 69 19.09

Regulation (EU) 1259/2010 implementing Enhanced Cooperation in the area of the Law Applicable to Divorce and Legal Separation (Rome III) 0.06

Recital 1 2, 13.42

Recital 2 2

Recital 3 2, 1.18

Recital 4 2

Recital 5 2

Recital 6 2

Recital 7 2

Recital 8 2–3, 3.04, 3.08

Recital 9 3, 0.03, 3.07

Recital 10 3, 0.20, 1.03, 1.18, 2.06, 3.12, 3.17, 3.24

Recital 10(2) 9.18

Recital 11 3, 3.02

Recital 12 3, 4.05

Recital 13 3

Recital 14 3–4, 0.28

Recital 15 4, 0.05, 5.03, 6.01

Recital 16 4, 0.23, 5.23

Recital 17 4, 1.23, 5.14, 6.03, 13.41

Recital 18 4, 5.11, 5.13, 6.03, 9.28, 14.22

Recital 19 4–5, 6.03, 14.22

Recital 20 5

Recital 21 5, 0.34, 13.41

Recital 22 5, 5.37–5.38, 8.33–8.35, 8.38–8.39

Recital 23 5, 9.45

Recital 24 5–6, 10.18

Recital 25 6, 0.08, 0.23, 12.08, 12.19

Recital 26 6, 3.22, 10.08, 13.09, 13.15, 13.17–13.18, 13.24

Recital 27 6

Recital 28 6, 14.29

Recital 29 6–7, 13.42

Recital 30 7, 0.08, 1.23, 10.21, 12.19

Article 1 3.01, 4.10, 11.10, 19.08

Article 1(1) 0.16, 23, 1.01–1.17, 3.09, 6.11, 16.02, 16.10

Article 1(2) 0.14, 23, 1.18–1.25, 1.27–1.28, 13.21

Article 1(2)(b) 3.05, 3.22, 13.11, 13.25–13.27, 13.34, 13.41

Article 1(2)(c) 1.25

Article 1(2)(f) 1.27

Article 1(2)(g) 1.28

Article 1(2)(h) 1.29

Article 1(2)(j) 1.29

Article 2 1.25, 2.01–2.08, 3.01

Article 3 1.05, 42, 3.01, 3.19, 4.10

Article 3(1) 3.02–3.08

Article 3(2) 1.10, 3.09–3.18

Article 4 3.01–3.02, 60, 4.01–4.13, 5.02

Article 5 0.29, 0.31, 1.21, 3.06–3.07, 3.30, 3.32, 65, 5.07, 6.09, 7.01, 8.01, 8.09, 9.04, 9.06, 9.22, 9.27–9.29, 9.34, 9.37, 9.41, 10.01, 10.02, 10.04–10.05, 10.11, 10.19, 10.25, 10.29, 11.14, 11.20, 11.22, 12.09, 12.23–12.25, 13.02, 13.07, 13.37, 14.02, 14.06, 14.29, 15.02, 15.05, 15.15, 18.09–18.10, 19.13–19.14

Article 5(1) 5.15–5.43, 6.16, 14.30

Article 5(1)(a) 14.18, 14.21–14.22

Article 5(1)(b) 2.08, 14.18, 14.21–14.22

Article 5(1)(c) 3.32, 14.23, 14.33

Article 5(1)(d) 2.10, 3.12, 10.25, 14.17

Article 5(2) 0.26, 5.44–5.49, 6.16, 7.06

Article 5(3) 0.26, 5.50–5.52, 17.03

Article 6 0.12, 0.32, 1.21, 5.13, 79, 6.01–6.04, 7.01, 8.01, 18.09, 18.12

Article 6(1) 6.05–6.13

Article 6(2) 6.07, 6.13–6.22

Article 7 0.12, 0.32, 3.02, 5.12, 5.16, 5.18, 5.50, 6.10, 6.16, 6.18, 87, 7.01–7.08, 8.01, 17.02, 18.09, 18.12

Article 7(1) 0.12, 0.32, 3.02, 5.12, 5.16, 5.18, 5.50, 6.10, 6.16, 6.18, 7.01

Article 7(2) 0.12, 0.32, 3.02, 5.12, 5.16, 5.18, 5.50, 6.10, 6.16, 6.18, 7.03

Article 7(3) 0.12, 0.32, 3.02, 5.12, 5.16, 5.18, 5.50, 6.10, 6.16, 6.18, 7.03

Article 8 0.08, 0.30, 0.33, 3.13, 3.30, 3.33, 5.04, 5.19, 5.32, 5.37, 5.49, 92, 8.01–8.43, 9.08, 9.34–9.35, 9.37, 9.39–9.44, 10.01, 10.04–10.05, 10.11, 10.13, 10.19, 10.24, 11.16, 11.19–11.20, 12.02, 12.09, 12.23–12.25, 13.07, 13.28, 14.04, 14.22, 14.29–14.30, 15.15, 19.13–19.14

Article 8(a) 8.03, 8.07, 8.10–8.24, 8.34, 14.18–14.21

Article 8(b) 8.03–8.04, 8.07, 8.25–8.29, 8.34, 14.18–14.21

Article 8(c) 8.03–8.04, 8.30–8.40, 8.43, 10.24, 14.23, 14.33

Article 8(d) 2.10, 3.12, 4.09, 8.03–8.04, 8.34, 8.41–8.43, 14.17

Article 9 113, 9.01–9.50, 10.11, 12.02

Article 9(1) 8.14, 9.32–9.34, 9.36

Article 9(2) 8.14, 9.32–9.34, 9.36, 9.37–9.38, 10.07

Article 10 0.08, 0.30, 0.35, 1.12–1.14, 2.10, 4.12, 5.23–5.24, 125, 10.01–10.29, 12.01–12.04, 12.14, 12.16, 12.19, 12.23, 13.07

Article 11 0.30, 4.13, 10.18, 139, 11.01–11.25, 14.08, 15.07

Article 12 0.08, 0.30, 2.10, 4.12, 9.12, 10.02, 10.18, 10.20, 150, 12.01–12.28, 15.20

Article 13 0.25, 0.30, 3.02, 3.05, 3.21–3.22, 9.12, 9.47, 10.02, 12.01–12.02, 12.14, 163, 13.01–13.43

Article 14 8.11, 11.12, 177, 14.01–14.12, 14.14, 15.01–15.02, 15.05–15.07, 15.11–15.12, 16.07, 16.11

Article 14(a) 14.13, 14.15–14.17, 14.21–14.22, 14.24, 14.30, 15.14

Article 14(b) 14.04, 14.13, 14.18–14.22, 14.24, 14.30, 15.14

Article 14(c) 14.04, 14.13, 14.21–14.34, 15.14, 15.16–15.17, 15.22

Article 15 5.22, 14.01, 14.03, 14.12, 191, 15.01–15.23, 16.07

Article 16 3.02, 14.01, 200, 16.01–16.14

Article 17 0.11, 3.02, 206, 17.01–17.03

Article 17(1)(a) 7.04, 17.01

Article 17(1)(b) 5.51

Article 18 0.12, 210, 18.01–18.12

Article 18(1) 18.04, 18.09–18.10, 18.12

Article 19 0.19, 1.25, 3.02, 4.10, 11.16, 214, 19.01–19.17

Article 19(2) 19.07

Article 20 3.02, 9.49, 223

Article 21 0.11, 3.02, 3.04, 3.08, 13.08, 18.01, 225

Regulation (EU) 650/2012 on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions in matters of Succession 1.29, 5.30

Recital 23 3.28

Recital 24 3.28

Recital 40 6.09

Article 3 3.01

Article 20 4.02

Article 21(2) 11.07

Article 22 11.07

Article 22(1) 3.32, 5.38

Article 22(3) 6.04

Article 27(b) 11.07

Article 28 11.07

Article 30 11.07

Article 34 11.07

Article 36(1) 14.05, 14.14, 14.25

Article 36(2) 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32

Article 37 15.04

Article 38 16.04

Article 75 19.09

Article 83(2) 18.11

Regulation (EU) 1215/2012 on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (Brussels Ibis / Brussels Ia) 2.07

Articles 66–73 19.09

Article 76(1)(c) 19.10

Regulation (EU) 2015/848 on Insolvency Proceedings

Article 85 19.09–19.10

Regulation (EU) 2016/1103 implementing Enhanced Cooperation in the area of Jurisdiction, Applicable Law and the Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions in matters of Matrimonial Property Regimes 0.06, 0.18, 1.06, 1.27, 3.25, 9.01, 13.41

Recital 50 5.38

Article 3 3.01

Article 5 9.48

Article 9 3.22

Article 20 4.02

Article 22(1) 3.32

Article 23 7.05

Article 24 6.04

Article 26 8.35

Article 26(2) 3.33

Article 32 11.07

Article 33 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32

Article 34 15.04

Article 35 16.04

Article 62 19.09

Regulation (EU) 2016/1104 implementing Enhanced Cooperation in the area of Jurisdiction, Applicable Law and the Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions in matters of the Property Consequences of Registered Partnerships 0.06, 1.06, 3.25, 9.01, 13.41

Recital 50 5.38

Article 32 11.07

Article 33 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32

Article 34 15.04

Article 35 16.04

Article 62 19.09

Regulation (EU) 2016/1191 on Public Documents 8.32

Regulation (EU) 2019/1111 on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Matrimonial matters and the matters of Parental Responsibility and on International Child Abduction [Brussels IIa recast] 0.10, 0.18, 1.12, 1.17, 1.23, 1.25, 1.27, 1.29, 3.03–3.04, 3.07, 3.12, 3.24, 9.18, 13.39

Article 2 3.01

Article 2(1) 3.09–3.10

Article 2(3) 3.02

Article 2(4) 1.13

Article 3 3.31, 8.09, 9.23

Article 3(1)(b) 3.31

Article 16 5.44, 6.19, 18.06

Article 25 13.05

Article 30(5) 9.20

Article 46 3.17

Articles 64–68 3.17

EU DIRECTIVES

 

Directive 2004/38/EC on the Right of Citizens to Move and Reside Freely within the Territory of the Member States 1.08

EU DECISIONS

 

Commission Decision 2012/714/EU of 21 November 2012 for Lithuania

Article 3 0.11, 18.02, 19.05

Commission Decision 2014/39/EU of 27 January 2014 for Greece

Article 3 0.11, 18.02, 19.05

Commission Decision 2016/1366/EU of 10 August 2016 for Estonia

Article 3 0.11, 18.02, 19.05

Council Decision 2001/470/EC of 28 May 2001 on a European Judicial Network in civil and commercial matters 3–4

Council Decision 2003/93/EC of 19 December 2002 on 1996 Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Cooperation in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children 19.16

Council Decision 2008/431/EC of 5 June 2008 on 1996 Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Cooperation in respect of Parental Responsibility 19.16

Council Decision 2010/405/EU of 12 July 2010 on Enhanced Cooperation in the area of the Law Applicable to Divorce and Legal Separation 1, 0.06, 3.02

NATIONAL LAWS

Austria

Federal Statute on Private International Law 17.03

Article 6 12.03

Article 9 8.34, 8.37

Marriage Act

Section 46 1.09

Belgium

Private International Law Code

Article 3(2) 8.34, 8.37

Article 21 12.03, 12.05, 12.12, 12.24

Article 55 8.05

Article 55(2)(3) 17.03

Article 59(3) 1.06

England and Wales

Matrimonial Causes Act 1973

Section 1(1) 1.09

Estonia

Family Act

Article 64(2)-(3) 7.04

Article 64(4) 17.03

France

Civil Code

Article 6 12.03

Article 50 1.09

Article 229 3.16, 12.07

Germany

Civil Code (BGB)

Section 1561 1.09

Section 1564 12.07

Family Act

Article 641(2)–(3) 17.02

Introductory Act to the Civil Code (EGBGB)

Article 4 11.20

Article 4(1) 11.05

Article 5(1) 8.34, 8.37

Article 6 10.29, 12.03

Article 14 8.05

Article 17 3.14, 10.29, 11.05, 12.16

Article 17(2) 1.09, 10.29

Article 17b para 1 1.06

Article 46(d)(1) 7.04, 17.02

Article 46(d)(2) 17.03

Greece

Civil Code

Article 31 8.34, 8.37

Article 1438 1.09

Law 1920/1991 14.10, 15.09

Article 5(4a) 15.12

Law 4509/2017

Article 22 1.09

Law 4511/2018 15.09, 15.12

India

Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Second Ordinance 2019 10.16

Italy

Civil Code

Article 30 11.05

Decree Law Nr. 132 (10.11.2014) 3.10

Article 6 1.09

Law Nr. 218/1995

Article 13 11.20

Statute on Private International Law

Article 17 12.03

Article 19 8.34, 8.37

Article 29 8.05

Article 31 8.05, 8.12

Malta

Civil Code

Article 66a 10.05

Poland

Act on Private International Law

Article 51 8.05

Portugal

Civil Code

Article 1773 3.10

Article 1773(2) 1.10

Article 1775 3.10

Spain

Catalan Civil Code 16.08

Civil Code

Article 13(a) 16.14

Article 107(2)(c) 10.14, 12.03

Article 373 3.10

Switzerland

Federal Law on Private International Law 1987

Article 15 11.05

*   Please note that the bold references are page numbers. These denote the bold Regulation text that begins each article.