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THE ROME III REGULATION

A Commentary on the Law Applicable to Divorce and Legal Separation

SABINE CORNELOUP

This comprehensive Commentary provides an in-depth, article-by-article analysis of the Rome III Regulation, the uniform rules adopted by the EU to determine the law applicable to cross-border divorce and legal separation. Written by a team of renowned experts, private international law scholars and practitioners alike will find this Commentary an incisive and useful point of reference.
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INDEX

aims of Rome III 0.030.05, 5.03, 17.01

allocation of jurisdiction

Brussels II bis regime see Brussels II bis Regulation (2201/2003/EC)

choice of court agreements 0.10, 0.15, 5.43

forum non conveniens 0.09

see also private international law

annulment of marriage 0.14, 1.241.25, 2.04

Apostolides v Orams and Orams (C-420/07) (ECJ) 12.09

applicable law

agreements on see choice of law agreements

choice by parties see choice of applicable law by parties (Article 5)

lex fori see lex fori

objective rules see applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8)

see also private international law

applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8) 0.30, 0.33, 8.01

Article 9 context 9.379.43, 10.07

see also conversion of legal separation into divorce (Article 9)

connecting factors 9.419.42

see also habitual residence; nationality as connecting factor

failure of, lex fori as subsidiary solution 2.10, 8.398.41, 10.2410.25, 14.17

see also lex fori, default application (Article 10)

habitual residence when court seized 8.04, 8.07, 8.098.22

last common habitual residence 0.33, 5.04, 8.238.27

nationality 0.34, 3.33, 5.37, 8.288.38, 10.2410.25

in states with multiple legal systems see territorial conflicts (Article 14)

succession of (Kegel’s ladder) 8.028.10

triggering circumstances

choice of law agreement invalid 8.01

choice of law agreement revoked 5.49

failure of Article 5 connecting factors 5.32

see also choice of applicable law by parties (Article 5)

application date see entry into force and application date (Article 21)

area of freedom, security and justice

mutual trust principle 0.24, 12.09

TFEU Article 81(3) as legal basis of Rome III 0.21, 4.04

Austria 12.03, 19.14

autonomy of parties see party autonomy principle

Belgium, public policy exception 12.03, 12.05, 12.12

Borrás Report on the Brussels II Convention (1998) 5.31

Brussels II bis Regulation (2201/2003/EC) 0.18

Article 3: general jurisdiction 0.04, 0.35, 3.31, 8.09, 8.34, 9.23

Article 5: conversion of legal separation into divorce 9.18, 9.19

Article 16: seising of court 5.44, 6.19, 8.13, 18.06

Article 19: lis pendens and dependent actions 0.04

Article 21: recognition of judgments 9.20

Article 22: grounds for non-recognition of judgments 2.05

Article 46: authentic instruments and agreements 3.17

participating Member States 2.05

proposed reforms 10.28, 12.28

Rome III relationship with (Article 2)

Article 9 context 9.479.48

see also conversion of legal separation into divorce (Article 9)

connecting factors 8.098.10, 8.13

consistent interpretation principle 0.20, 0.22, 1.13, 1.25, 2.062.08, 3.24, 8.09

favor divortii (right to divorce) principle 0.35

independent application of instruments 1.25, 2.042.05

lex fori application in consequence 0.08, 2.092.11

purpose of Article 2 2.012.03

Brussels IIa recast Regulation (2019/1111/EU) 0.10

capacity of parties 1.201.21, 6.11

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 12.08

Article 21: non-discrimination 0.08, 0.23, 10.21, 12.08

see also non-discrimination principle

children

favor divortii (right to divorce) principle, implications for children 0.36

habitual residence of 5.29, 5.31, 6.20, 8.20

parental responsibility

excluded from scope of Rome III 0.18, 1.27

Hague Child Protection Convention 1996 0.18, 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32, 15.04, 19.16

choice of applicable law by parties (Article 5) 0.26, 5.015.10

Article 9 context 9.229.32

see also conversion of legal separation into divorce (Article 9)

capacity to choose 1.201.21, 6.11

choice of law agreements, modification and revocation 5.485.49

see also choice of law agreements

connecting factors 7.01

see also habitual residence; nationality as connecting factor

in choice of law agreements 5.335.34

common habitual residence 5.255.27, 5.32

failure of 5.32

future connecting factors 5.20

last common habitual residence 0.31, 2.08, 5.25, 5.32

nationality 3.32, 5.355.39, 14.2714.31

informed choice see informed choice principle

lex fori selections 2.10, 5.405.43

see also lex fori

limitations on freedom of choice

favor divortii (right to divorce) principle 0.35

proceedings to be commenced in participating Member State 5.06

public policy exceptions see public policy (Article 12)

in states with multiple legal systems 14.2114.22

void choices of religious laws see religious law divorces, void choices of religious laws

modalities of choice 5.155.16

implied choices 5.175.18, 7.02

private divorce see private divorce, choice of applicable law

procedural law 5.505.52

timing of choice 5.445.47

during course of proceedings 5.505.52

see also applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8); party autonomy principle

choice of court agreements 0.10, 0.15, 5.43

choice of law agreements

choice of court agreements combined with 0.15

consent and material validity see consent and material validity of choice of law agreements (Article 6)

formal validity see formal validity of choice of law agreements (Article 7)

habitual residence as connecting factor 5.335.34

implied agreements 7.02

invalid agreements, Article 8 triggered 8.01

see also applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8)

modification and revocation 5.485.49

prenuptial agreements 5.47, 7.06

Rome III applicable to 0.12, 3.06

transitional provisions 18.0818.13

see also transitional provisions (Article 18)

see also choice of applicable law by parties (Article 5)

CIEC Convention on the Recognition of Decisions relating to the Matrimonial Bond 1967 19.12, 19.14

civil partnerships see same-sex couples, registered partnerships

Coester-Waltjen, Dagmar 1.15

Coman and others v Inspectoratul General pentru Imigrări and Ministerul Afacerilor Interne (C-673/16) (ECJ) 0.25, 1.08, 3.23

common habitual residence see habitual residence

conferral principle of EU law 0.26

conflict of laws

Article 13 on see differences in national law (Article 13)

Article 14 on see territorial conflicts (Article 14)

Article 15 on see inter-personal conflicts (Article 15)

Article 16 on see states with multiple legal systems, non-application of Rome III to internal conflicts (Article 16)

‘conflict of laws situations’ 0.16, 1.161.17

see also private international law

connecting factors 3.27

habitual residence see habitual residence

Kegel’s ladder approach 8.028.10

lex fori see lex fori

nationality see nationality as connecting factor

Rome III and Brussels II bis relationship 8.098.10, 8.13

consent and material validity of choice of law agreements (Article 6) 0.32, 6.016.04

capacity of parties 1.21, 6.11

informed choice 5.46, 6.03

see also informed choice principle

invalid agreements, Article 8 triggered 8.01

see also applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8)

material validity, chosen law determining

purpose of rule 6.056.06

scope of rule 6.076.12

non-consent, law of habitual residence determining

see also habitual residence

habitual residence at date of referral 6.19

implementation of rule 6.21

purpose of rule 6.136.18

reasonableness condition 6.22

see also choice of law agreements; formal validity of choice of law agreements (Article 7)

consistent interpretation principle 0.20, 0.22, 1.13, 1.25, 2.062.08, 3.24, 8.09

see also Brussels II bis Regulation (2201/2003/EC), Rome III relationship with (Article 2)

conversion of legal separation into divorce (Article 9) 8.12

Brussels II bis, relationship with 9.479.48

conflict of laws rules

1. party autonomy 9.229.32

2. lex separationis 9.04, 9.339.36

3. applicable law under Article 8 9.379.43, 10.07

see also applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8)

failure of all three rules 9.449.46

future perspective 9.499.50

nature, structure and purposes of Article 9 9.019.11

separation judgments that may be converted 9.169.21

see also legal separation

‘court’ definition see definitions (Article 3), ‘court’

de Lima Pinheiro, Luis 8.40

definitions (Article 3) 3.01

concepts not defined 3.19

divorce and legal separation 1.05

habitual residence 5.285.31, 6.20, 8.148.22, 8.26

marriage 3.203.26, 13.10

‘court’ 1.10, 3.09

notarial offices or other public authorities 3.10, 3.143.18

religious courts 1.121.14, 3.09, 3.123.13, 3.14

‘participating Member State’ see participating Member States

Denmark 2.05

devolved jurisdictions see states with multiple legal systems

differences in national law (Article 13) 0.02, 13.0113.03

Article 10, relationship with 10.02, 13.07

see also lex fori, default application (Article 10)

Article 12, relationship with 12.0112.02, 12.14

see also public policy (Article 12)

concerns 13.3513.36

forum necessitatis clause needed 13.39

free movement of persons 0.25, 13.38, 13.43

legal certainty 13.37

sexual orientation discrimination 1.23, 13.38

divorce law differences 12.0612.07, 12.14

divorce prohibited (‘Maltese clause’) 13.0413.09

as public policy violations 12.1512.18

invalid marriage escape clause 0.25, 0.30, 3.05, 9.12, 13.1013.13

see also marriage recognition

causes of invalidity 13.1413.16

domestic law as source of invalidity 13.1713.23

law applicable to divorce as source of invalidity 13.28

law applicable to marriage as source of invalidity 13.2413.27

same-sex marriage application 0.25, 3.213.22, 13.1513.16, 13.1913.20, 13.2213.23, 13.38

no parallel in other EU private international law instruments 13.4013.43

procedural regime 13.3213.34

discretionary decision-making 13.2913.31

direct effect of Rome III 0.22

disconnection clauses 19.0919.11

see also international conventions, Rome III relationship with (Article 19)

discrimination see non-discrimination principle

dissolution of registered partnerships 1.06, 1.15, 3.243.25

see also same-sex couples

divorce

and children see children

differences in national law see differences in national law (Article 13)

EU vision of 0.35

‘institution’ of proceedings 6.19, 8.13, 18.06

maintenance see maintenance obligations

private divorce see private divorce

private international law see private international law, on divorce and legal separation

religious law divorces see religious law divorces

right to divorce

under international human rights law 12.11

under Rome III (favor divortii principle) 0.350.36, 3.18, 9.09, 10.05

same-sex marriages see same-sex couples, marriage and divorce

as subject matter of Rome III see subject matter

see also legal separation

domestic abuse 12.16

domestic laws see differences in national law (Article 13)

dual nationality situations 3.303.33, 5.365.38, 8.318.36

refugees or stateless persons 5.39, 8.378.38

see also nationality as connecting factor

e-justice portal 6.03, 19.10, 19.12

effectiveness principle of EU law 0.27

enhanced cooperation procedure 0.060.10, 2.02, 3.033.04, 3.07, 19.03

entry into force and application date (Article 21) 0.06, 0.110.12, 3.04, 18.01, 19.0319.05, 21.01

non-retroactivity principle 18.0318.05

transitional provisions see transitional provisions (Article 18)

equal rights of spouses 0.29

informed choice principle see informed choice principle

non-discrimination principle see non-discrimination principle

public policy exceptions see public policy (Article 12)

equivalence principle of EU law 0.27

escape clauses see differences in national law (Article 13)

Estonia

late participation in Rome III 0.06, 3.08, 18.02, 19.05

notarial deeds formalising choice of law agreements 7.04, 17.02

EU citizenship 0.05, 9.10

EU law

fundamental rights see Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

principles

conferral 0.26

consistent interpretation 0.20, 0.22, 1.13, 1.25, 2.062.08, 3.24, 8.09

direct effect 0.22

equivalence and effectiveness 0.27

free movement of persons 0.05, 0.25, 1.08, 13.38, 13.43

mutual trust 0.24, 12.09

primacy of EU law 0.22

of Rome III see Rome III Regulation (1259/2010/EU), principles

private international law see private international law

public policy, EU guidelines on 12.0812.11

TFEU see Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)

European Judicial Network 0.28, 4.11, 5.14, 17.01

evidence, foreign law 5.41, 5.52

see also procedural laws

ex officio application of Rome III 0.26

excluded subject matter see subject matter, excluded matters

exclusion of renvoi see renvoi, exclusion from Rome III (Article 11)

extra-judicial divorce see private divorce

favor divortii (right to divorce) principle 0.350.36, 3.18, 9.09, 10.05

federal states see states with multiple legal systems

financial provision see maintenance

Finland 0.07

flexibility 0.03, 0.05, 0.31, 3.26, 5.03, 8.08, 17.01, 19.10

foreign law

application of see universal application (Article 4)

methods of ascertaining

e-justice portal 6.03, 19.10, 19.12

European Justice Network 0.28, 4.11, 5.14, 17.01

procedural laws see procedural laws

formal validity of choice of law agreements (Article 7) 0.32, 7.01, 7.067.08

additional formalities required by law of habitual residence 7.037.05

notarial deeds 7.04, 7.06, 17.02

and informed choice 5.16

invalid agreements, Article 8 triggered 8.01

see also applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8)

non-application in procedural setting 5.50

professional advice requirement 5.12

professional drafting not required 7.02

writing requirement 5.17, 6.16, 7.01

electronic versions 7.017.02

see also choice of law agreements; consent and material validity of choice of law agreements (Article 6)

forum, law of see lex fori

forum non conveniens 0.09

forum shopping concerns 0.04, 0.09, 3.07, 4.09

fragmentation of laws 0.15, 0.180.20, 1.04

in states with multiple legal systems see states with multiple legal systems

see also private international law, on divorce and legal separation

France

divorce law 12.07

marriage recognition 13.09

notarial divorce system 1.09, 3.16, 3.17, 5.42

public policy exception 12.03

renvoi 11.01

free movement of persons principle 0.05, 0.25, 1.08, 13.38, 13.43

fundamental rights

EU Charter see Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

non-discrimination see non-discrimination principle

and public policy exceptions 0.23, 12.11, 12.13

right to divorce

under international human rights law 12.11

under Rome III 0.350.36, 3.18, 9.09, 10.05

future development of Rome III 1.06, 9.49

future participating Member States 3.08

Germany

choice of law agreements, formal requirements 7.047.05, 17.02

Decision II-3 UF 267/12 (OLG Hamm) 5.17

public policy exception 12.03

Sahyouni v Mamisch (C-281/15 and C-372/16) (ECJ) 1.121.14, 3.09, 3.10, 3.14, 3.16

waiting period before divorce 12.16

get (Jewish law divorce) 10.17

Giuliano-Lagarde Report on Rome Convention (1980) 6.05, 6.07, 6.15, 6.21

Greece

Islamic law application 14.10, 15.09, 15.12, 16.08, 16.14

late participation in Rome III 0.06, 3.08, 18.02, 19.05

private divorce regime 1.09, 3.13

habitual residence 3.283.29, 5.05

choice of law agreements, habitual residence as connecting factor 5.335.34

concept 5.285.31, 6.20, 8.148.22, 8.26

‘common habitual residence’ 5.265.27, 5.32, 14.1914.20

in states with multiple legal systems see territorial conflicts (Article 14), ‘habitual residence’ interpretation

future habitual residence 5.20

last common habitual residence

Article 5 purposes 0.31, 2.08, 5.25, 5.32

Article 8 purposes 0.33, 5.04, 8.238.27

law of habitual residence, applications of

formal validity of choice of law agreements 7.037.05

non-consent to choice of law agreements see consent and material validity of choice of law agreements (Article 6)

more than one habitual residence, whether possible 8.27

prominence as connecting factor 8.07

see also applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8); choice of applicable law by parties (Article 5)

Hadadi v Mesko (C-168/08) (ECJ) 3.31, 3.33, 8.34

Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children 1996 0.18, 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32, 15.04, 19.16

Hague Convention on the International Protection of Adults 2000 1.20, 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32, 15.04

Hague Convention on the Recognition of Divorces and Legal Separations 1970 19.1219.14

Hague Principles on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts 2015 11.23

Hague Protocol on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations 2007 0.18, 1.28, 2.08

states with multiple legal systems

inter-personal conflicts 15.04

territorial conflicts 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32

Hammje, Petra 8.41

human rights see fundamental rights

implied choice of law 5.175.18, 7.02

see also choice of applicable law by parties (Article 5)

information provision by participating Member States (Article 17)

application date 0.11

choice of law during course of proceedings, whether possible 5.51, 17.03

European Judicial Network 0.28, 4.11, 5.14, 17.01

formal requirements 7.04, 17.02

see also formal validity of choice of law agreements (Article 7)

informed choice principle 0.29, 0.32, 5.115.14, 5.16, 5.43

and choice of law agreements 5.46, 6.03

see also consent and material validity of choice of law agreements (Article 6)

foreign law, methods of ascertaining see foreign law, methods of ascertaining

see also choice of applicable law by parties (Article 5); party autonomy principle

inheritance law matters 1.29

see also Succession Regulation (650/2012/EU)

‘institution’ of divorce and legal separation proceedings 6.19, 8.13, 18.06

inter-faith marriages 10.13, 15.20

see also religious law divorces

inter-personal conflicts (Article 15) 5.22, 14.01, 15.0115.03

Article 14, relationship with 14.12, 15.1115.12

see also territorial conflicts (Article 14)

parallels in other EU private international law instruments 15.04, 15.16

public policy considerations 15.20

scope of application 15.0515.10

two-step rule 15.1315.15

1. inter-personal conflicts rules of that state 15.1615.20

2. system with which spouse(s) has closest connection 15.2115.23

see also states with multiple legal systems

international conventions

Hague Conference instruments see under Hague

Rome III relationship with (Article 19) 0.19, 1.26, 4.10, 11.16

concepts and definitions 19.0119.08

disconnection clauses 19.0919.11

existing conventions 19.1219.14

future conventions 0.21, 19.1519.17

international public policy exception 6.12, 13.19

see also public policy (Article 12)

Ireland, waiting period before divorce 12.06, 12.16

Islamic law divorce 3.13, 10.16

Greece, Islamic law application 14.10, 15.09, 15.12, 16.08, 16.14

Sahyouni v Mamisch (C-281/15 and C-372/16) (ECJ) 1.121.14, 3.09, 3.10, 3.14, 3.16

talaq (repudiation of marriage by husband) 10.1510.16, 10.22, 10.24, 10.27, 10.29

Italy

legal separation rules 9.13, 10.06, 12.06

notarial divorce system 1.09, 3.10, 3.15, 5.42

Orlandi and others v Italy (26431/12; 26742/12; 44057/12; 60088/12) (ECtHR) 1.08

renvoi 11.05

Jewish law divorce 10.17

jurisdiction, allocation of see allocation of jurisdiction

Kegel’s ladder approach to connecting factors 8.028.10

Kozłowski (Proceedings concerning the execution of a European arrest warrant issued against) (C-66/08) (ECJ) 8.18

Kruger, Thalia 8.33

last common habitual residence see habitual residence, last common habitual residence

legal capacity of parties 1.201.21, 6.11

legal certainty 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.31, 0.33, 3.05, 4.09, 5.03, 6.01, 6.03, 7.02, 7.06, 11.11, 13.37, 14.03, 15.02, 17.01, 18.03

legal pluralism see states with multiple legal systems

legal separation

compulsory recognition by participating Member States 9.12

conversion into divorce see conversion of legal separation into divorce (Article 9)

‘institution’ of proceedings 6.19, 8.13, 18.06

Italian rules 9.13, 10.06, 12.06

as subject matter of Rome III see subject matter

types 9.139.15

when unavailable under applicable law 5.24, 10.06

see also divorce

legislative history of Rome III 0.060.10, 2.02, 3.033.04, 3.07, 19.03

lex fori

Article 9 context 9.23, 10.07

see also conversion of legal separation into divorce (Article 9)

choice of procedural law, lex fori determining 5.50

chosen by parties (Article 5(d)) 2.10, 5.405.43

combined application of Rome III and Brussels II bis, consequence of 0.08, 2.092.11

default application see lex fori, default application (Article 10)

Member States with lex fori traditions 0.07, 0.09

lex fori, default application (Article 10) 0.08, 4.12, 10.0110.04

Article 11, relationship with 11.1911.21

see also renvoi, exclusion from Rome III (Article 11)

Article 12, relationship with 10.02, 10.18, 10.26, 12.0112.03, 12.14

see also public policy (Article 12)

Article 13, relationship with 10.02, 13.07

see also differences in national law (Article 13)

discriminatory law chosen 10.1410.15

discriminatory consequences of divorce 10.27

discriminatory religious laws 5.23, 10.1510.17, 10.22, 10.24, 10.27, 10.29, 12.17

three interpretative approaches 10.1810.26, 10.29

divorce unavailable under applicable law 0.35, 10.05

general restriction to absolute impediments 10.0810.09

inter-faith marriages 10.13, 15.20

‘limping marriage’ situations 10.1010.12

same-sex couples 10.13

other triggering circumstances

failure of connecting factors (Article 8(d)) 2.10, 8.398.41, 10.2410.25, 14.17

failure of inter-personal conflicts rules 15.23

foreign rules of pleading and proof, non-compliance 5.52

legal separation unavailable under applicable law 5.24, 10.06

public policy violations 12.2312.25

private divorce, non-application of Article 10 10.2810.29

Lima Pinheiro, Luis de 8.40

‘limping marriage’ situations 0.02, 10.1010.12

see also lex fori, default application (Article 10)

Lithuania 0.06, 3.08, 18.02, 19.05

Magdalena Fernandez v Commission of the European Communities (C-452/93 P) (ECJ) 8.15, 8.18

maintenance obligations

excluded from scope of Rome III 0.18, 1.28

Hague Protocol see Hague Protocol on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations 2007

Maintenance Regulation (4/2009/EC) 0.18, 1.28, 2.08, 13.42

Malta 3.05, 9.15, 10.05, 13.0313.08

marriage agreements 5.47, 7.06

see also choice of law agreements

marriage annulment 0.14, 1.241.25, 2.04

marriage recognition

excluded from scope of Rome III 1.221.23, 3.22, 13.1113.12, 13.21, 13.28

‘limping marriage’ situations 10.1010.12

see also lex fori, default application (Article 10)

‘marriage’ not defined under Article 3 3.203.26, 13.10

as public policy violation 13.26

same-sex marriages 1.071.08, 3.213.22, 13.23

Article 13 escape clause applied to 0.25, 3.213.22, 13.1513.16, 13.1913.20, 13.2213.23, 13.38

see also differences in national law (Article 13), invalid marriage escape clause

material scope 1.02

conflict of laws situations 0.16, 1.161.17

subject matter see subject matter

material validity of choice of law agreements see consent and material validity of choice of law agreements (Article 6)

Matrimonial Property Regulation (2016/1103/EU) 0.18, 3.07, 13.41

marriage concept 1.23

matrimonial property agreements, validity of 6.04, 7.05

multiple nationality situations 3.32, 5.38, 8.33

states with multiple legal systems

inter-personal conflicts 15.04

non-application to internal conflicts 16.04

territorial conflicts 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32

Member States

legal differences between see differences in national law (Article 13)

non-participants in Rome III 0.07, 0.090.10, 3.06

participants in Brussels II bis 2.05

participants in Rome III see participating Member States

see also individual Member States

multiple nationality situations 3.303.33, 5.365.38, 8.318.36

refugees or stateless persons 5.39, 8.378.38

see also nationality as connecting factor

mutual trust principle of EU law 0.24, 12.09

national laws see differences in national law (Article 13)

nationality as connecting factor

Article 5 purposes 3.32, 5.355.39, 14.2714.31

Article 8 purposes 0.34, 3.33, 5.37, 8.288.38, 10.2410.25

evidence of nationality 8.298.30

future nationality 5.20

multiple nationality situations 3.303.33, 5.365.38, 8.318.36

refugees or stateless persons 5.39, 8.378.38

nationality-based discrimination 8.36, 14.26

reasons for choosing 5.10

reasons for not choosing 8.07

in states with multiple legal systems see territorial conflicts (Article 14), ‘nationality’ interpretation

see also applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8); choice of applicable law by parties (Article 5)

non-discrimination principle 0.08, 0.23

Article 10 safeguard see lex fori, default application (Article 10)

Article 12 safeguard see public policy (Article 12)

nationality-based discrimination 8.36, 14.26

sex discrimination 0.08, 10.15

discriminatory religious laws 5.23, 10.1510.17, 10.22, 10.24, 10.27, 10.29, 12.17

as public policy exception 12.04

wife’s free choice of discriminatory law 10.2110.22, 12.19, 12.23

sexual orientation discrimination 1.23, 13.38

see also same-sex couples

non-retroactivity principle 18.0318.05

notarial deeds formalising choice of law agreements 7.04, 7.06, 17.02

notarial divorce see private divorce

objective rules see applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8)

Opinion 1/13 (ECJ) 19.1519.16

ordre public see public policy (Article 12)

Orejudo Prieto de los Mozos, Patricia 1.25

Orlandi and others v Italy (26431/12; 26742/12; 44057/12; 60088/12) (ECtHR) 1.08

out-of-court divorce see private divorce

parental responsibility

excluded from scope of Rome III 0.18, 1.27

Hague Child Protection Convention 1996 0.18, 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32, 15.04, 19.16

see also children

participating Member States 3.02

‘courts’ of see definitions (Article 3), ‘court’

founder participants 0.06, 3.03

future participants 3.08

information provision by see information provision by participating Member States (Article 17)

internal conflicts of law see states with multiple legal systems, non-application of Rome III to internal conflicts (Article 16)

late joiners (Lithuania, Greece and Estonia) 0.06, 3.08, 18.02, 19.05

legal differences between see differences in national law (Article 13)

Rome III application by 3.04, 3.063.07, 4.07

Article 13 escape clauses see differences in national law (Article 13)

direct effect 0.22

international conventions taking precedence see international conventions, Rome III relationship with (Article 19)

legal separation cases 9.12

no competence to conclude alternative agreements 0.21

public policy exceptions see public policy (Article 12)

regardless of other connecting factors 1.17

party autonomy principle 0.05, 0.10

Article 9 context 9.229.32

see also conversion of legal separation into divorce (Article 9)

ex officio application of Rome III 0.26

informed choice principle see informed choice principle

limitations

connecting factors see connecting factors

lex fori, default application see lex fori, default application (Article 10)

proximity requirements see applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8)

renvoi excluded 11.1311.14, 11.2211.24

see also renvoi, exclusion from Rome III (Article 11)

weaker spouse, safeguards for 0.29

rationale 5.015.10

see also choice of applicable law by parties (Article 5)

personal scope of Rome III 0.13

Philippines, divorce unavailable 9.15, 9.38

pleading, foreign law 5.41, 5.52

see also procedural laws

pluralism see states with multiple legal systems

Portugal 3.10

predictability 0.03, 0.05, 0.33, 3.05, 3.33, 4.09, 7.02, 8.088.09, 9.11, 13.37, 17.01

prenuptial agreements 5.47, 7.06

see also choice of law agreements

primacy of EU law principle 0.22

principles

of EU law see EU law, principles

of Rome III see Rome III Regulation (1259/2010/EU), principles

private divorce 0.15, 1.091.11, 3.093.10

Article 10 not applicable 10.2810.29

see also lex fori, default application (Article 10)

Article 12 not applicable 12.28

see also public policy (Article 12)

choice of applicable law

lex fori 5.42

timing of 5.45

‘institution’ of proceedings 18.07

notarial offices or other public authorities as ‘courts’ 3.10, 3.143.18

see also religious law divorces

private international law 0.17

allocation of jurisdiction see allocation of jurisdiction

applicable law see applicable law

‘conflict of laws situations’ 0.16, 1.161.17

on divorce and legal separation

Brussels II bis see Brussels II bis Regulation (2201/2003/EC)

Brussels IIa recast Regulation (2019/1111/EU) 0.10

consistent interpretation principle 0.20, 0.22, 1.13, 1.25, 2.062.08, 3.24, 8.09

see also Brussels II bis Regulation (2201/2003/EC), Rome III relationship with (Article 2)

coordination of rules 5.09

forum shopping concerns 0.04, 0.09, 3.07, 4.09

fragmentation concerns 0.15, 0.180.20, 1.04

Maintenance Regulation (4/2009/EC) 0.18, 1.28, 2.08, 13.42

Matrimonial Property Regulation see Matrimonial Property Regulation (2016/1103/EU)

Rome III see Rome III Regulation (1259/2010/EU)

rules and principles originating from divorce context 0.01

Hague Conference instruments see under Hague

renvoi see renvoi

Rome I see Rome I Regulation (593/2008/EC)

Rome II see Rome II Regulation (864/2007/EC)

procedural laws

Article 13 procedural regime 13.3213.34

see also differences in national law (Article 13)

discretionary decision-making 13.2913.31

equivalence and effectiveness principles 0.27

ex officio application of Rome III 0.26

pleading and proof rules 5.41, 5.52

procedural choice of the applicable law 5.505.52

Proceedings concerning the execution of a European arrest warrant issued against Kozłowski (C-66/08) (ECJ) 8.18

proof, foreign law 5.41, 5.52

see also procedural laws

proximity requirements see applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8)

public policy (Article 12) 0.08, 4.12, 12.0112.04

Article 10, relationship with 10.02, 10.18, 10.26, 12.0112.03, 12.14

see also lex fori, default application (Article 10)

Article 13, relationship with 12.0112.02, 12.14

see also differences in national law (Article 13)

contents of public policy

EU guidelines 12.0812.11

fundamental rights law 0.23, 12.11, 12.13

national laws 12.06

proximity to forum state as significant factor 12.1212.13

control of results approach 12.05, 12.1912.20

international public policy exception 6.12, 13.19

private divorce, non-application of Article 12 12.28

violations of public policy

case-based assessment needed 12.2112.22

divorce requirements 12.1512.18

inter-personal conflicts rules 15.20

marriage recognition rules 13.26

preliminary references to ECJ 12.2612.27

rejection of foreign law ex officio in consequence 12.2312.25

purposes of Rome III 0.030.05, 5.03, 17.01

refugees 5.39, 8.38

registered partnerships dissolution 1.06, 1.15, 3.243.25

see also same-sex couples

Registered Partnerships Regulation (2016/1104/EU) 0.06, 5.38, 6.04, 13.41

states with multiple legal systems

inter-personal conflicts 15.04

non-application to internal conflicts 16.04

territorial conflicts 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32

religious law divorces 1.10, 3.123.13

Islamic law see Islamic law divorce

Jewish law 10.17

religious law part of state law see inter-personal conflicts (Article 15)

void choices of religious laws 5.195.20

discriminatory laws 5.23, 10.1510.17, 10.22, 10.24, 10.27, 10.29, 12.17

inter-faith marriages 10.13, 15.20

laws not part of state law 5.215.22, 10.04

see also private divorce

renvoi

diverging national approaches 11.0111.05

EU and treaty-based rules 11.0611.08, 11.18

exclusion from Rome III (Article 11) 4.13, 11.0911.12

absent a choice of law 11.1511.18

mandatory nature of Article 1111.2211.24

and party autonomy principle 11.1311.14, 11.2211.24

‘remission’ to lex fori, whether excluded 11.1911.21

substantive foreign laws in force, Article 11 restricted to 11.2511.26

review clause 20.01

right to divorce

under international human rights law 12.11

under Rome III (favor divortii principle) 0.350.36, 3.18, 9.09, 10.05

Romania, private divorce regime 1.09, 3.10, 3.15

Rome I Regulation (593/2008/EC) 0.20, 4.04, 14.05

consent and material validity of choice of law agreements 6.04, 6.14, 6.18

disconnection clause 19.09

renvoi exclusion 11.07

states with multiple legal systems

non-application to internal conflicts 16.04

territorial conflicts 14.05, 14.14

Rome II Regulation (864/2007/EC) 0.20, 4.04

disconnection clause 19.09

renvoi exclusion 11.07

states with multiple legal systems

non-application to internal conflicts 16.04

territorial conflicts 14.05, 14.14

Rome III Regulation (1259/2010/EU)

Article 1 see scope of application (Article 1)

Article 2 see Brussels II bis Regulation (2201/2003/EC), Rome III relationship with (Article 2)

Article 3 see definitions (Article 3)

Article 4 see universal application (Article 4)

Article 5 see choice of applicable law by parties (Article 5)

Article 6 see consent and material validity of choice of law agreements (Article 6)

Article 7 see formal validity of choice of law agreements (Article 7)

Article 8 see applicable law in absence of choice by parties (Article 8)

Article 9 see conversion of legal separation into divorce (Article 9)

Article 10 see lex fori, default application (Article 10)

Article 11 see renvoi, exclusion from Rome III (Article 11)

Article 12 see public policy (Article 12)

Article 13 see differences in national law (Article 13)

Article 14 see territorial conflicts (Article 14)

Article 15 see inter-personal conflicts (Article 15)

Article 16 see states with multiple legal systems, non-application of Rome III to internal conflicts (Article 16)

Article 17 see information provision by participating Member States (Article 17)

Article 18 see transitional provisions (Article 18)

Article 19 see international conventions, Rome III relationship with (Article 19)

Article 20: review clause 20.01

Article 21 see entry into force and application date (Article 21)

future development 1.06, 9.49

legal basis 0.06, 0.21, 4.04

legislative history 0.060.10, 2.02, 3.033.04, 3.07, 19.03

principles

consistent interpretation 0.20, 0.22, 1.13, 1.25, 2.062.08, 3.24, 8.09

see also Brussels II bis Regulation (2201/2003/EC), Rome III relationship with (Article 2)

favor divortii (right to divorce) 0.350.36, 3.18, 9.09, 10.05

informed choice see informed choice principle

non-discrimination see non-discrimination principle

non-retroactivity 18.0318.05

party autonomy see party autonomy principle

purposes 0.030.05, 17.01

subject matter see subject matter

Sahyouni v Mamisch (C-281/15 and C-372/16) (ECJ) 1.121.14, 3.09, 3.10, 3.14, 3.16

Salvador Roldan v Commission of the European Communities (F-129/06) (CST) 8.16

same-sex couples

marriage and divorce 0.30

Article 10 application 10.13

see also lex fori, default application (Article 10)

Article 13 escape clause applied to 0.25, 3.213.22, 13.1513.16, 13.1913.20, 13.2213.23, 13.38

see also differences in national law (Article 13), invalid marriage escape clause

participating Member States not recognizing same-sex marriage 13.23

scope of Rome III extended to 0.15, 1.071.08, 3.213.23

registered partnerships

dissolution 1.06, 1.15, 3.243.25

Registered Partnerships Regulation see Registered Partnerships Regulation (2016/1104/EU)

sexual orientation discrimination 1.23, 13.38

see also non-discrimination principle

scope of application (Article 1) 0.09, 1.01

excluded matters

excluded subject matter see subject matter, excluded matters

legal capacity of parties 1.201.21, 6.11

material scope 1.02

conflict of laws situations 0.16, 1.161.17

subject matter see subject matter

personal scope 0.13

temporal scope 0.110.12

territorial scope see participating Member States

separation see legal separation

sex discrimination see non-discrimination principle, sex discrimination

sexual orientation discrimination 1.23, 13.38

see also same-sex couples

sharia law divorce see Islamic law divorce

Spain

choice of law agreements, formal requirements 7.04, 17.02

multiple legal systems 14.10, 16.08, 16.14

see also states with multiple legal systems

notarial divorce system 3.10, 3.15, 5.42

public policy exception 12.03

stateless persons 5.39, 8.37

states with multiple legal systems

definition 14.06, 15.05

‘state’ 14.07, 15.06

‘systems of law or sets of rules’ 14.08, 15.07, 16.07

‘territorial unit’ 14.09, 14.15

examples 14.1014.11, 15.0915.10

inter-personal conflicts see inter-personal conflicts (Article 15)

non-application of Rome III to internal conflicts (Article 16) 14.01, 16.0116.03

parallels in other EU private international law instruments 16.04

practical application 16.14

provision in detail 16.0916.13

scope of application 16.0516.08

territorial conflicts see territorial conflicts (Article 14)

subject matter 0.010.02, 0.140.15, 1.031.05

excluded matters 1.181.19

annulment of marriage 0.14, 1.241.25, 2.04

existence, validity or recognition of marriage 1.221.23, 3.22, 13.1113.12, 13.21, 13.28

inheritance law matters 1.29

maintenance obligations 0.18, 1.28

matrimonial property matters 1.27

parental responsibility 0.18, 1.27

registered partnership dissolution 1.06, 1.15, 3.243.25

trust law matters 1.29

private divorce see private divorce

religious law divorces see religious law divorces

same-sex marriages 0.15, 1.071.08, 3.213.23

see also divorce; legal separation; scope of application (Article 1)

Succession Regulation (650/2012/EU) 1.29

habitual residence concept 5.30

multiple nationality situations 3.32, 5.38

renvoi accepted 11.07, 11.18

states with multiple legal systems

inter-personal conflicts 15.04

non-application to internal conflicts 16.04

territorial conflicts 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32

succession agreements, validity of 6.04, 18.11

Swaddling v Adjudication Officer (C-90/97) (ECJ) 8.18

Sweden 0.07, 10.05

talaq 10.1510.16, 10.22, 10.24, 10.27, 10.29

see also Islamic law divorce

temporal scope 0.110.12

territorial conflicts (Article 14) 11.12, 14.0114.04

Article 15, relationship with 14.12, 15.1115.12

see also inter-personal conflicts (Article 15)

direct and indirect referral approaches 14.1314.14

general rule (‘law of such state’ interpretation) 14.1514.17, 16.10

‘habitual residence’ interpretation 8.11, 14.18

see also habitual residence, concept

choice of law complications 14.2114.22

objective conflicts rule 14.1914.20

‘nationality’ interpretation 14.2314.24

see also nationality as connecting factor

territorial unit designated by law of that state 14.2514.26

territorial unit chosen by parties 14.2714.31

territorial unit with which spouse(s) has closest connection 14.3214.34

parallels in other EU private international law instruments 14.05, 14.14, 14.25, 14.32

scope of application 14.0614.11

see also states with multiple legal systems

territorial scope see participating Member States

TFEU see Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)

transitional provisions (Article 18) 18.0118.03

choice of law agreements 18.0818.13

divorce and legal separation proceedings 18.0418.07

see also entry into force and application date (Article 21)

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)

area of freedom, security and justice

Article 81(3) as legal basis of Rome III 0.21, 4.04

mutual trust principle 0.24, 12.09

Article 18: non-discrimination 8.36

enhanced cooperation provisions 0.06, 0.11

Rome III relationship with 19.01

tribal law part of state law see inter-personal conflicts (Article 15)

trust law matters 1.29

United Kingdom 0.09, 8.11, 14.10, 16.08

see also states with multiple legal systems

universal application (Article 4) 4.014.03, 5.02, 19.17

assessment 4.094.13

content 4.054.08

controversy over 4.04

Verhellen, Jinske 8.33

weaker spouse, safeguards for 0.29

informed choice principle see informed choice principle

non-discrimination principle see non-discrimination principle

public policy exceptions see public policy (Article 12)

ZH & RH v Switzerland (60119/12) (ECtHR) 13.26