Transforming Industrial Policy for the Digital Age
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Transforming Industrial Policy for the Digital Age

Production, Territories and Structural Change

Edited by Patrizio Bianchi, Clemente R. Durán and Sandrine Labory

This book argues that digital globalization is inducing deep and productive transformations, making industrial policy necessary in order to reorientate development towards inclusive and more sustainable growth. The book also demonstrates that industrialization remains an important development process for emerging countries. Regarding the future of jobs, the authors show how the substitution of labour in automation is not inevitable since technology is also complementary to human capital. Policymakers should pay more attention to the new skills that will be required. A particular concern is is the rapid change in technology and business compared to institutions which take time to adapt. Territories have an important role to play in order to speed-up institutional adaptation, providing they can act coherently with the other levels of government.
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Chapter 3: The National Innovation System (NIS) and readiness for the fourth industrial revolution: South Korea compared with four European countries

Keun Lee and Jongho Lee


This chapter analyzes and compares the national innovation systems (NISs) of Korea, Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), France, and Germany. For these five economies, five aspects of the NIS are analyzed using United States patent data in the last decade: originality (wider combination of knowledge), cycle time of technologies, knowledge localization, technological diversification, and inventor-level concentration of innovation activities. The NISs of the UK and Germany exhibit a high degree of originality and technological diversification, which is good in terms of preparedness for the fourth industrial revolution (4IR). Meanwhile, while the NIS of Italy has the longest cycle time, which is often considered as a basis for higher profitability, its low originality and lesser diversification implies a low degree of preparedness for the 4IR. In the meantime, the NIS in France tends to be in the middle in the five aspects of the NIS, thereby exhibiting no clear-cut distinction in any of the five aspects. In comparison, Korea shows the highest degree of knowledge localization and concentration, which is regarded as a feature of the East Asian model of NIS in the sense of a somewhat nationalistic and big business-led NIS. Although the short cycle technologies and big business-based NIS have served well as the catch-up mode of NIS, the former does not bode well in terms of long-term perspective and preparedness for the 4IR. Its NIS is still low in terms of originality.

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