This chapter argues that industrial policy in these times of deep structural changes has to become sustainable, in the sense of contributing to the resolution of global societal challenges. These “megatrends” are in fact linked to the ongoing deep transformations and have to be taken into account in a comprehensive vision in order for socio-economic development to become sustainable. The sustainability is here intended as both socio-political (guaranteeing rights of people: namely, access to a decent life, to education, and so on) and environmental. For this purpose, important institutional changes will be required.
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