Constitutional Reform of National Legislatures
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Constitutional Reform of National Legislatures

Bicameralism under Pressure

Edited by Richard Albert, Antonia Baraggia and Cristina Fasone

Despite the importance of second chambers to the success of constitutional democracies around the world, today many fundamental questions about bicameralism remain understudied and undertheorized. What makes bicameral reform so difficult? Why choose bicameralism over unicameralism? What are the constitutional values of bicameralism? This innovative book addresses these questions and many more from comparative, doctrinal, empirical, historical and theoretical perspectives.
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Chapter 7: Concluding chapter - Bicameralism in multi-tiered systems

Patricia Popelier


The concluding chapter of Part I explores the significance of upper houses in territorially divided states and does so with a comparative perspective. On the one hand, it highlights that some requirements have to be fulfilled to enable upper houses to give a voice to sub-state interests. On the other hand, it presents the alternatives to upper houses to ensure territorial representation. Finally, the commentary concludes pointing to the procedural complexity of bicameral arrangements in multi-tiered systems of governance, in particular when federal arrangements at domestic level are coupled with the participation in a process of supranational integration as in the EU.

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