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A Commentary


Providing in-depth coverage of each article of the Paris Agreement, this Commentary offers a comprehensive, legal analysis of this most recent and important international instrument on climate change. This provision-by-provision textual analysis examines the commitments that parties to the Agreement have made to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, whilst providing additional support to developing countries.
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International Court of Justice

Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (New Application: 2002) (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Rwanda), Jurisdiction and Admissibility, Judgment (2006) ICJ Reports 6 4.54, 4.55, 4.60

Case concerning the Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso v. Republic of Mali) (1986) ICJ Reports 573 4.54, 4.55

Case concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Judgment (1986) ICJ Reports 132 4.54

Case concerning the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand), Preliminary Objections, Judgment (1961) ICJ 17 4.54

Certain Activities Carried Out by Nicaragua in the Border Area (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua) and Construction of a Road in Costa Rica along the San Juan River (Nicaragua v. Costa Rica), Judgment (2015), ICJ Reports 665 4.52

Certain Questions of Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters (Djibouti v. France) Judgment (2008) ICJ Reports 177 1.09

Corfu Channel Case (UK v. Albania) (1949) ICJ Reports 4 8.47

Difference relating to Immunity from Legal Process of a Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, Advisory Opinion (1999) ICJ Reports 62 4.53

Fisheries Jurisdiction (Spain v. Canada), Jurisdiction of the Court, Judgment (1998) ICJ Reports 432 4.55

Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary v. Slovakia) Judgment (1997) ICJ Reports 7 P.87

Kasikili/Sedudu Island (Botswana v. Namibia) Judgement (1999) ICJ 1045 1.09

LaGrand (Germany v. United States of America), Judgment (2001) ICJ Reports 466 4.53

Land and Maritime Boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nigeria), Preliminary Objections, Judgment (1998) ICJ Reports 293 4.55

Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, (1996) ICJ Reports 226 8.47

Nuclear Tests (Australia v. France) (1974) ICJ Reports 268 1.07, 4.27, 4.54, 4.56, 4.59, 4.60

Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America) Preliminary Objections, Judgment (1996) ICJ Reports (II) 812 1.09

Reparation for injuries in the service of the United Nations, Advisory Opinion (1949) ICJ Reports 174 4.54

Territorial Dispute (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Chad) Judgement (1994) ICJ Reports 21 1.09

Permanent Court of International Justice

Legal Status of Eastern Green/and (Denmark v. Norway), Judgment (1933) PCIJ, Series A/E, No. 53, 71 4.54

United Nations Human Rights Committee

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Social and Economic Rights Centre (SERAC) and Centre for Economic and Social Rights (CESR) v. Nigeria (communication No. 155/96), decision of 27 October 2001 24.18

Ioane Teitiota v. New Zealand (CCPR/C/127/D/2728/2016) Adopted 24 October 2019 P.34, P.35, 24.21, 24.22

Norma Portillo Cáceres and others v. Paraguay (CCPR/C/126/D/2751/2016) Adopted 25 July 2019 24.20

Court of Justice of the European Union

Carvalho v. Parliament and Council, Order of the General Court (CJEU, Case T-330/18) 4.45

Flachglas Torgau, Judgment of 14.02.2012 – C-204/09 (ECLI:EU:C:2012:71) 12.61

Mecklenburg, Judgment of 17.06.1998 – C-321/96, No. 30 (ECLI:EU:C:1998:300) 12.61



McVeigh v. Rest, 2 November 2020, unreported 2.40


Huaraz 12.49


Asghar Leghari v. Federation of Pakistan (Lahore High Court, WP No 25501/2015, 18 January 2016) 24.24

New Zealand

Sarah Thomson v. Minister for Climate Change Issues, Judgment of Mallon J (High Court of New Zealand, CIV 2015-485-919, [2017] NZHC 733 4.45

The Netherlands

Gerechtshof Den Haag of 9.10.2018 12.42, 12.49

Stichting Urgenda v. The State of the Netherlands (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy) (Judgement, 24 June 2015) The Hague District Court, Case C/09/456689/HA ZA 13-1396, ECLI:NL:RBDHA:2015:7145 P.23, 24.25

The State of the Netherlands (Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment) v. Urgenda Foundation, C/09/456689, HA ZA 13-1396 Court of Appeal of the Hague, (9 October 2018) 4.60, 24.25

The State of the Netherlands (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy) v. Stichting Urgenda (Judgement, 20 December 2019) Supreme Court of the Netherlands Civil Div, Case 19/00135, ECLI:NL:HR:2019:2007 24.25, 24.26

The State of the Netherlands (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy) and Stichting Urgenda ECLI:NL:PHR:2019:1026, Supreme Court of the Netherlands P.23

United Kingdom

J. H. Rayner (Mincing Lane) Ltd v. Department of Trade and Industry [1990] 2 AC 418 2.42

Plan B Earth and Others v. Secretary of State for Transport [2020] EWCA Civ 214 2.41, 2.45

Plan B Earth and Others v. Secretary of State for Transport [2019] EWHC 1070 (Admin), March 2019 2.45

Plan B Earth and Others v. Secretary of State for Transport [2020] UKSC 52 2.46

United States of America

Cleveland National Forest Foundation v. San Diego Association of Governments, Supreme Court of California, 3 Cal. 5th 497, 515; 397 P.3d 989 4.45

United States v. Belmont, 301 U.S. 324, 330 (1937) 331 3.35