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THE PARIS AGREEMENT ON CLIMATE CHANGE

A Commentary

GEERT VAN CALSTER, LEONIE REINS

Providing in-depth coverage of each article of the Paris Agreement, this Commentary offers a comprehensive, legal analysis of this most recent and important international instrument on climate change. This provision-by-provision textual analysis examines the commitments that parties to the Agreement have made to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, whilst providing additional support to developing countries.
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TABLE OF LEGISLATION

TREATIES

 

Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, 25 June 1998 P.80, 12.04, 12.49, 12.58, 12.63, 14.21, 15.02, 15.44–15.46

Art 2(2) 12.55

Art 2(3) 12.53

Art 4(1) 12.55, 12.60

Art 5 12.57

Art 6 12.43, 12.45

Art 6(2) 12.42, 2.43

Art 6(3) 12.43

Art 6(4) 12.37, 12.43

Art 6(5) 12.37

Art 7 14.21

Art 15 12.60

Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes (adopted on 22 March 1989; entered into force 5 May 1992) 1673 UNTS 57 15.31, 27.01

Art 26(1), (2) 27.01, 27.09

Cancun Agreement FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1, decision 1/CP 16 3.09, 3.10, 4.42, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.20, 7.55, 7.59, 7.69, 7.76, 7.86, 7.89, 7.91, 7.97, 8.04, 8.10, 8.13, 8.20, 9.24, 10.13, 11.01, 13.11, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.42, 14.04

Charter of the United Nations 1945

Art 2(3), (4) 24.04

Copenhagen Accord UN Doc FCCC/CP/2009/11/Add.1 (30 March 2010) 2.03, 2.04, 2.05, 2.06, 2.19, 3.07, 3.09, 3.10, 9.10, 9.11, 9.19, 9.20, 9.24, 9.26, 10.06

Art 1 2.15

Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol’, contained in Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP), Decision 1/CMP 8 1.17, 1.70, 2.10, 3.02, 23.02, 23.07

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force 23 March 1976

Art 19 12.58

International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights

Arts 13, 14 12.30

ILC, Draft Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (2001)

Art 1 8.47

Art 23 4.51

Arts 34–37 8.47

Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted 11 December 1997, entered into force 16 February 2005 P.04, 1.01, 1.17, 1.23, 1.30, 1.43, 1.49, 1.70, 1.71, 2.01, 2.02, 2.03, 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 2.19, 2.24, 2.28, 3.09, 3.29, 3.31, 4.08, 4.52, 5.07, 5.10, 5.11, 5.44, 6.35, 6.36, 6.70, 7.15, 7.30, 9.10, 9.41, 10.05, 11.01, 13.01, 15.02, 15.23, 15.26, 15.46–15.52, 16.01, 23.02, 28.15

Preamble P.17

Art 2(3) P.31

Art 3(1) 1.70, 4.52

Art 3(3) 5.07

Art 5 13.15

Art 6 5.11

Art 7 13.15

Art 8 13.15

Art 9 P.29

Art 10(e) 11.02, 12.13, 12.19

Art 11 9.09

Art 12 6.75, 9.09

Art 12(2) 5.11

Art 12(3) 5.11

Art 12(5) 6.69

Art 12(8) 9.09, 9.26

Art 13(1) 16.02

Art 14 17.01

Art 15 18.01

Art 17 6.25

Art 20 2.05, 3.26, 23.03

Art 20(4) 1.70

Art 21 2.05, 3.26

Art 21(7) 1.70

Annex A 1.70, 23.02, 23.07

Annex B 2.05, 13.15, 23.02, 23.07

Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, opened for signature 15 April 1994, 1867 UNTS 3 (entered into force 1 January 1995) annex 1C (‘Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights’ – TRIPS Agreement 1994) 10.54, 10.57

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 1522 UNTS 3; 26 ILM 1550 (1987) 15.02, 15.41, 15.42, 15.45, 15.46

Art 18 27.01

North American Free Trade Agreement 32 ILM 289, 605 (1993) 10.71

Paris Agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (adopted12 December 2015; entered into force 4 November 2016)

Preamble P.04, P.15, P.16, P.41, P.50, P.52, P.63, P.77, P.91, 1.04, 1.32, 1.38, 22.06

Recital 1 P.06, P.52

Recital 2 P.08, P.09

Recital 3 P.11

Recital 4 P.09, P.16

Recital 5 P.30, P.36, 1.31, 1.38, 1.39, 1.55, 1.56

Recital 6 P.37, 1.31, 1.39

Recital 7 P.40, P.42, 1.27

Recital 8 P.44

Recital 9 P.47

Recital 10 P.50

Recital 11 P.13, P.52, P.56, P.60, P.68, P.75

Recital 12 P.69

Recital 13 P.71, P.75, P.78, P.80

Recital 14 P.79, P.80

Recital 15 P.80, P.81, P.90

Recital 16 P.86, P.88, P.89

Art 1 1.01, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.08, 1.11, 1.13, 1.16, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.45, 20.11, 20.25, 21.04, 22.06

Art 1(a) P.07, 1.22, 1.23

Art 1(b) 1.24, 1.25, 16.01

Art 1(c) P.07, 1.26–1.44

Art 2 P.12, 1.18, 2.02, 2.03, 2.11, 2.12, 2.18, 2.19, 2.21, 2.31, 2.32, 2.37, 2.38, 2.41, 2.42, 2.46, 3.01, 3.18, 4.06, 5.33, 6.03, 6.34, 7.12, 7.23, 7.120, 12.03, 12.64, 14.07, 14.08, 14.09, 14.17

Art 2(1) 1.64, 2.01, 2.14, 2.15, 2.17, 2.20, 2.39, 4.01, 4.03, 4.04, 4.06, 5.01, 5.32, 7.27, 9.05, 9.21, 10.07, 12.53

Art 2(2) 2.01, 2.23, 22.06

Art 2(3) P.15

Art 3 P.13, P.14, P.25, P.91, 1.27, 2.03, 2.23, 2.38, 3.01, 3.12, 3.26, 3.27, 3.37, 4.01, 4.08, 4.21, 4.25, 12.14, 13.09, 20.27, 21.04

Art 3(1) 15.47

Art 4 P.28, P.70, P.80, 1.38, 2.03, 3.18, 4.01, 4.02, 4.07, 4.08, 4.34, 6.35, 7.32, 12.14, 14.17, 20.27

Art 4(1) 1.64, 4.03, 4.04, 4.05, 4.06, 5.01, 5.28, 14.08, 22.06

Art 4(2) P.29, 1.41, 3.24, 4.09, 4.20, 4.28, 4.46, 4.47, 4.48, 4.49, 4.50, 4.51, 4.52, 4.59, 4.61, 5.28, 6.33, 7.120

Art 4(3) P.15, P.25, P.91, 3.26, 4.17, 4.20, 4.21, 5.25, 21.04

Art 4(4) 2.23, 2.24, 3.24, 4.18, 4.20, 4.21, 6.23, 6.33

Art 4(5) 4.19, 12.22

Art 4(6) P.38, 1.31, 1.38, 1.64, 4.20

Art 4(7) 4.40

Art 4(8) 1.27, 3.24, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 4.36, 4.55, 8.02

Art 4(9) 3.24, 4.10, 4.12, 14.11, 14.17

Art 4(10) 3.24, 4.32

Art 4(11) 1.27, 3.24, 4.21, 4.24, 4.26, 4.27

Art 4(12) 3.24, 4.30

Art 4(13) 1.64, 3.24, 4.37, 5.32, 13.29

Art 4(14) 1.64, 3.24, 4.37

Art 4(15) P.42, 1.35, 3.24, 4.41

Art 4(16) 3.24, 4.28, 4.29

Art 4(17) 3.24, 4.28, 4.29

Art 4(18) 1.27, 3.24, 4.28, 4.29

Art 4(19) P.15, 1.27, 4.14, 4.29, 4.44

Art 5 1.14, 1.38, 4.01, 5.01, 5.02, 5.28, 6.37

Art 5(2) P.88, 1.14, 1.38, 1.64, 20.27

Art 6 1.17, 1.41, 1.56, 4.01, 4.37, 5.36, 5.37, 5.38, 5.39, 5.40, 6.01, 6.04, 6.05, 6.14, 6.15, 6.20, 6.85, 6.86, 13.08, 13.28, 13.30, 15.47, 20.26

Art 6(1) P.72, 6.02, 6.44, 6.57

Art 6(2) P.72, 5.37, 6.01, 6.06–6.13, 6.14, 6.17, 6.18, 6.21, 6.23, 6.24, 6.27, 6.28, 6.30, 6.36, 6.39, 6.43, 6.47, 6.61, 6.63, 6.69

Art 6(3) 6.01, 6.07, 6.11, 6.17

Art 6(4) 1.27, 1.64, 5.37, 6.01, 6.12, 6.17, 6.19, 6.27, 6.29, 6.31–6.77, 6.84, 9.41

Art 6(5) 6.01, 6.48, 6.62

Art 6(6) 6.01, 6.12, 6.27, 6.66

Art 6(7) 6.01

Art 6(8) 6.01, 6.78–6.83

Art 6(9) 6.01, 6.78–6.83

Art 7 P.28, P.63, 1.54, 1.56, 1.62, 2.19, 3.27, 4.02, 7.07, 7.08, 7.11, 7.12, 7.20, 7.62, 7.64, 8.20, 12.14, 13.34, 14.08, 20.26

Art 7(1) 7.21

Art 7(2) P.20, 1.56, 7.50, 7.71, 7.76, 7.133, 9.26

Art 7(3) 7.132

Art 7(4) 7.32, 14.10

Art 7(5) 7.27, 7.56, 7.75

Art 7(6) 1.56, 7.71, 12.15

Art 7(7) 7.87, 12.15

Art 7(9) P.88, 7.56, 7.107, 7.135

Art 7(10) 3.24, 7.123, 7.133, 13.36

Art 7(11) 7.123, 7.133

Art 7(13) 7.82

Art 7(14) 7.133

Art 8 7.07, 7.10, 8.06, 8.07, 8.10, 8.12, 8.29, 8.47, 13.20, 13.35

Art 8(1) 8.11

Art 8(2) 8.17, 8.18, 19.01

Art 8(3) 3.24, 8.19, 8.32

Art 8(4) 8.20, 8.31

Art 9 P.39, 1.56, 2.20, 3.27, 4.01, 4.191, 6.82, 8.29, 8.30, 9.01, 9.04, 9.05, 9.13, 9.14, 9.36, 9.38, 9.39, 10.25, 12.14, 13.39, 13.50, 14.08, 14.18, 27.12

Art 9(1) 2.23, 4.19, 8.30, 9.16, 9.18, 9.36, 27.11

Art 9(2) 4.19, 9.17, 9.29, 13.10

Art 9(3) 3.24, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.29

Art 9(4) 1.31, 1.38. 1.56, 3.24, 7.72, 8.30, 9.23, 9.24, 9.26, 9.27, 9.34, 9.42

Art 9(5) 3.24, 9.29, 9.30, 9.31, 13.38, 14.18

Art 9(6) 3.24, 9.34, 9.35, 14.06, 14.09, 14.18

Art 9(7) 3.24, 9.36, 9.37, 9.38

Art 9(8) 2.20, 3.24, 9.41, 19.01

Art 9(9) 1.31, 1.38, 3.24, 9.42, 20.27

Art 10 3.27, 4.01, 4.19, 7.93, 9.36, 10.07, 10.10, 10.24, 10.36, 12.14, 13.39

Art 10(1) 1.38, 1.64, 10.07, 20.26

Art 10(2) 10.08

Art 10(3) 10.09, 10.11, 19.01

Art 10(4) 10.09, 10.11

Art 10(5) 9.05, 10.09, 10.16, 10.43

Art 10(6) 9.05, 10.09

Art 11 1.31, 1.56, 3.27, 4.01, 4.19, 7.93, 9.36, 11.01, 11.07, 11.12, 11.16, 11.17, 11.37, 11.44, 11.47, 11.48, 11.52, 11.55, 11.65, 12.14, 13.39

Art 11(1) 1.38, 1.39, 1.56, 9.05

Art 11(2) P.63, 11.06, 11.64

Art 11(3) 1.27, 11.56, 20.26

Art 11(5) 11.65, 19.01

Art 12 7.129, 11.17, 12.01–12.22, 12.25, 12.30, 12.36, 12.42, 12.49, 12.53, 12.54, 12.56, 12.64, 14.21, 14.30, 15.47, 20.26

Art 12(7) 13.55

Art 13 1.31, 1.38, 3.27, 4.01, 4.34, 4.37, 6.20, 6.26, 6.63, 6.82, 8.29, 8.34, 8.35, 9.36, 11.01, 11.17, 11.18, 11.56, 11.62, 11.65, 12.14, 13.22, 13.23, 13.29, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.50, 13.53, 14.12, 14.17, 15.16, 15.17

Art 13(1) 4.34, 13.02, 13.04, 13.11

Art 13(2) 13.05

Art 13(3) 1.31, 1.38, 9.37, 13.04, 13.11

Art 13(4) 13.11

Art 13(5) 4.34, 4.37, 13.20

Art 13(6) 9.35, 9.36, 13.20

Art 13(7) 1.64, 3.25, 4.37, 13.25, 13.28, 13.29

Art 13(8) 7.118, 7.133, 13.34, 13.36

Art 13(9) 2.23, 9.05, 9.36, 13.37, 13.38

Art 13(10) 9.05, 9.35, 13.37, 13.41

Art 13(11) 9.39, 15.17

Art 13(12) 15.12

At 13(13) 13.06

Art 13(14), (15) 13.56

Art 14 P.28, 4.01, 4.17, 7.49, 7.130–7.136, 8.29, 8.34, 8.35, 9.31, 9.34, 9.35, 10.09, 11.13, 12.17, 13.02, 13.20, 14.02, 14.06, 14.09, 14.10, 14.12, 14.21, 14.24, 14.38, 15.17

Art 14(1) 9.05, 14.05, 22.06

Art 14(2) 4.12, 14.05, 14.07

Art 14(3) 4.12, 14.07, 14.11, 14.32

Art 15 4.01, 14.12, 14.18, 15.01, 15.02, 15.03, 15.07, 15.08, 15.12, 15.14, 15.15, 15.18, 15.19, 15.21, 15.50, 15.51, 15.52, 15.53, 19.01, 22.04, 24.02

Art 15(1) 15.12

Art 15(2) 15.03, 15.12, 15.16

Art 15(3) 15.12

Art 16 16.02, 16.06, 18.03, 22.03

Art 16(1) 1.13

Art 16(2) 16.03

Art 16(3) 1.27, 16.04

Art 16(4) 16.05

Art 16(5) 16.06, 16.11, 29.05

Art 16(6) 16.08

Art 16(7) 16.09

Art 16(8) 16.10

Art 17 3.37, 15.47, 17.01, 18.01, 19.01

Art 18 1.05, 18.01, 19.01

Art 18(3) 16.04

Art 19 19.01, 19.02

Art 19(1) 19.03

Art 20 1.13, 1.28, 4.29, 20.01, 20.02, 20.04, 20.06, 20.12, 20.20, 21.02, 22.06, 28.16, 29.13

Art 20(1) 20.11, 20.13, 20.14, 20.17, 20.18

Art 20(2) 1.27, 4.29, 20.11, 20.19

Art 20(3) 20.21, 20.23

Art 21 1.11, 20.01, 20.04, 21.01, 28.06

Art 21(1) 1.64, 21.03, 21.06, 23.14

Art 21(2) 1.64, 21.04, 23.14

Art 21(3) 21.05

Art 21(4) 21.06

Art 22 1.17, 20.01, 20.04, 22.01, 22.02, 22.03, 22.04, 22.05, 23.05, 23.08, 23.09, 25.07, 26.04

Art 22(1) 22.06

Art 22(2) 22.07

Art 22(3) 22.08, 22.09

Art 22(4) 22.09

Art 22(5) 22.10

Art 22(6) 22.11

Art 23 1.13, 1.17, 20.01, 20.04, 22.01, 22.02, 22.03, 23.01, 23.02, 23.13, 25.07, 26.04

Art 23(1) 23.04, 23.06, 23.07, 23.08, 23.11, 23.12

Art 23(2) 23.13

Art 24 1.17, 12.17, 20.01, 20.04, 22.03, 24.01, 24.02, 24.12, 26.04

Art 24(1) 24.03, 24.04, 24.10, 25.03

Art 24(2) 23.07, 24.03, 24.05, 24.06, 24.07, 24.09

Art 24(3) 24.03, 24.09

Art 24(4) 24.03, 24.09

Art 24(5) 24.03, 24.10

Art 24(6) 24.03, 24.10

Art 24(7) 24.07, 24.03

Art 24(8) 24.03, 24.11

Art 25 1.13, 20.01, 20.04, 20.19, 22.11, 25.01, 25.02, 25.05

Art 25(1) 25.02

Art 25(3) 25.03

Art 26 20.01, 20.04, 20.18, 24.07, 26.01, 26.03

Art 27 20.01, 29.04, 27.01, 27.08

Art 28 20.01, 20.04, 28.01, 28.04, 28.12

Art 28(1) 1.28, 4.61, 28.05, 28.06, 28.07

Art 28(2) 4.61, 28.08

Art 28(3) 28.09

Art 28(4) 28.10

Art 29 4.48, 20.01, 20.04, 29.04, 29.10, 29.11

Annex I 11.19

Ramsar Convention 1971 3.28

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 1992 (1992) 31 ILM 874 P.46, P.63, P.72, 1.41, 10.04, 12.41, 12.58

United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement 2018 10.57

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (adopted 10 December 1982; entered into force 16 November 1994) 1883 UNTS 3 (UNCLOS)

Art 5 8.50

Art 309 27.01, 27.09

Art 310 27.09

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UN 183rd Plenary Meeting, 10 December 1948

Art 19 12.58

Art 21(1) 12.45

Art 27(1) 12.45

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted 9 May 1992, entered into force 21 March 1994, 1771 UNTS 107 P.04, P.41, 1.01, 1.13, 1.19, 1.23, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 1.33, 1.37, 1.46, 1.51, 1.59, 2.01, 2.08, 2.28, 3.03, 3.07, 3.10, 3.35, 4.38, 4.41, 4.60, 5.02, 5.07, 5.27, 5.33, 7.07, 7.13, 7.14, 7.18, 7.54, 7.58, 7.65, 7.112, 7.117, 7.118, 8.01, 8.10, 9.03, 9.06, 11.01, 11.11, 11.55, 12.13, 13.01, 13.15, 18.02, 18.03, 19.01, 20.02, 22.01

Preamble P.17, P.21, 1.34, 1.54, 7.67

Recital 8 1.34

Art 1 P.70, 1.16, 1.17, 1.21, 1.45, 1.48, 1.50, 1.56, 1.61, 1.62, 1.63, 1.65

Art 1(2) P.28

Art 2 P.17, 2.05, 2.15, 7.14, 14.07

Art 3 1.55, 2.19, 6.79

Art 3(1) P.46, 3.10, 14.05

Art 3(2) P.14, 7.67

Art 3(3) 7.29

Art 3(4) P.46

Art 4 P.64, 2.19, 4.48, 5.07, 7.68, 9.07, 11.02, 12.13, 27.11

Art 4(1) P.41, 4.60, 7.54, 7.58, 7.85

Art 4(2) 1.70, 2.03, 4.60

Art 4(3) 4.19, 9.06, 9.16, 15.47

Art 4(4) 7.118, 9.06, 9.26, 15.47

Art 4(5) 15.47

Art 4(6) 1.35

Art 4(8) P.31, P.32, P.41, 1.34, 4.31, 7.14, 7.68, 9.26

Art 4(9) P.31, P.36, P.38, 7.68, 7.98

Art 4(10) P.31, 1.34

Art 5 11.02, 13.13

Art 6 P.80, 11.02, 11.44, 11.65, 12.01, 12.13, 12.18, 12.20

Art 6(1) P.35

Art 7(1) 1.25

Art 7(2) 1.25, 2.20

Art 7 (3) 1.25, 16.12

Art 8 11.02, 17.01, 17.02

Arts 9, 10 18.01

Art 11 2.20

Art 11(1) 9.08

Art 12 7.118, 11.02, 13.12

Art 12(3) 7.118

Art 12(5) P.38

Art 14 23.04, 24.01, 24.02, 24.12, 26.04

Art 15 23.04, 26.04

Art 16 23.03, 26.04

Art 16(8) P.82

Art 17(2) 2.25

Art 18 25.02

Art 19 26.02

Art 21(3) 9.08

Art 25 28.05, 28.07

Art 25(3) 28.10

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (adopted 23 May 1969; entered into force 27 January 1980) 1155 UNTS 331 (VCLT) 1.06, 1.09, 2.08, 2.25, 20.02, 20.05

Preamble Recital 3 1.07

Art 2(1) 12.07, 20.05, 20.09, 27.02, 29.02

Art 6 20.05

Art 7 20.05, 29.02, 29.07

Art 9 29.03, 29.12

Art 10 29.03, 29.10

Arts 11–15 20.06

Art 15 20.17

Art 18 20.07

Art 20 21.03

Arts 20–23 1.07

art 21(a) P.07

Art 24 1.07, 21.02

Art 26 1.07

Art 26 1.07, 7.48

Art 29 20.06

Art 30 1.07

Art 31 1.09, 2.13, 20.11, 27.07

Art 31(1) 1.09, 1.10, 4.27, 8.11

Art 31(2) P.02

Art 31(3) P.91, 4.27

Art 31(4) 1.10, 21.04

Art 31(2) P.02

Art 31(4) 1.10

Art 32 1.09, 20.11, 27.07

Art 33 1.09, 20.11, 27.07

Art 39 22.01

Art 40 22.01

Art 54(a) 28.05

Arts 54–59 28.02

EUROPEAN UNION

 

Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

OJ C 326, 26.10.2012 (TFEU)

Art 258 12.61

Art 260 12.61

Art 267 12.61

Directive 2011/92/EU of 13 December 2011 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment, OJ L 26/1

Art 6(4) 12.50

Regulation (EC) No. 1367/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 September 2006 on the application of the provisions of the Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters to Community institutions and bodies OJ L 264/13

Art 3 12.59

Regulation (EU) 2018/842 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 on binding annual greenhouse gas emission reductions by Member States from 2021 to 2030 contributing to climate action to meet commitments under the Paris Agreement and amending Regulation (EU) No 525/2013, PE/3/2018/REV/2 OJ L 156,19.6.2018, 26–42

Art 7 5.41

NATIONAL

Germany

Environmental Impact Assessment Act (Gesetz über die Umweltvertr.glichkeitsprüfung) in the version of 24.02.2010 (Federal Law Gazette [BGBl.] part I 94)

s 18 12.50

Umweltinformationsgesetz in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 27. Oktober 2014 (Federal Law Gazette [BGBl.] part I, 1643) 12.59

Umwelt-Rechtsbehelfsgesetz in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 23. August 2017 (Federal Law Gazette [BGBl.]part I, 3290)

s 4 12.50

Federal Act Governing Access to Information held by the Federal Government of 5 September 2005 (Federal Law Gazette [BGBl.] Part I, 2722) 12.59

Freedom of Information Act, 1966 12.59

South Africa

Constitution

s 24 12.51

Sweden

Freedom of the Press Act, 1766 12.59

United Kingdom

Environmental Information Regulations 2004, SI 2004 No. 3391 12.59

Planning Act 2008 2.43

s 5(8) 2.42

United States of America

Clean Air Act 3.35

Constitution 1787 3.33, 3.36

Art I(8), (10) 3.33

Art II(2) 3.34

Art VI (2) 3.33