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THE PARIS AGREEMENT ON CLIMATE CHANGE

A Commentary

GEERT VAN CALSTER, LEONIE REINS

Providing in-depth coverage of each article of the Paris Agreement, this Commentary offers a comprehensive, legal analysis of this most recent and important international instrument on climate change. This provision-by-provision textual analysis examines the commitments that parties to the Agreement have made to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, whilst providing additional support to developing countries.
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INDEX

Aarhus Convention 1997 P.80, 12.04, 12.37, 12.4212.45, 12.5312.55, 12.60, 15.4415.45

accelerators 10.5210.53

acceptance 20.06, 20.14

accession 20.06

accounting

additionality 5.05, 5.12, 6.17, 6.21, 6.26, 6.37, 6.39, 6.546.55, 6.59, 6.64

carbon debits and credits, attribution of 5.06, 5.32

differentiation in obligations 5.075.10

reference levels 5.08

temporary credits 5.13

environmental integrity testing requirements 6.21

ITMOs 6.06, 6.10, 6.12, 6.146.22

Business and Usual Scenario (BAU) 6.22, 6.26

inside/outside activities 6.236.24, 6.26

natural vs. human emissions 5.06

NDCs, for 4.374.38, 6.216.22

Business and Usual Scenario (BAU) 6.22, 6.26, 6.55

double counting 1.39, 4.374.38, 6.06, 6.10, 6.206.21, 6.626.65

inside/outside activities 6.236.24, 6.26, 6.38, 6.546.55

point of zero balances 6.21

target years vs. multiple years 6.22

Action for Climate Empowerment 12.01, 12.21, 12.27, 12.6512.66

Action Plan on Climate Change 2016–2020 24.15

Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) 8.03

Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform (ADP) P.10, P.85, 2.07, 2.11

compliance mechanism 15.08

final text, informal note on 1.03

nationally determined contributions 3.043.06, 3.08

Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA) 1.05

drafting role of 1.121.13, 1.83

global stocktake, and 14.1914.20

NDCs, guidance on contents of 4.364.37

adaptation

Adaptation Committee, role of 7.55, 7.89, 7.104

best available scientific knowledge P.28

Cancun Adaptation Framework 7.16, 7.18, 7.55, 7.76, 7.86, 7.97

climate finance allocation 9.249.25

concept development 7.127.20

cooperation obligations 7.11, 7.847.93

definition 7.077.08, 7.107.11

developed countries, obligations of 1.56, 1.62, 2.19

developing countries, support for 7.61, 7.657.74

finance for 7.817.82, 7.113

global adaptation goal 7.217.49

implementation challenges 7.387.47

legally binding status 7.387.39, 7.48

political influences on 7.357.37

global stocktake and 7.49, 7.1307.136

guiding principles 7.757.79

human rights, and 7.767.79

importance of P.20, 7.04

information sharing 7.897.92

international cooperation 7.847.93

international dimension 7.11, 7.587.64

least developed countries

funding for P.39, 7.68

priority of 7.657.74

legally binding status 7.05, 7.135

loss and damage, distinction from 8.068.07

maladaptation, risks of 7.25

mechanisms 7.09

National Adaptation Plans 7.947.120

national dimension of 7.517.57, 7.62

purpose of 7.10

regional dimension 7.587.59, 7.617.64

reporting obligations 13.3413.36

scope of 7.09

sustainable development, and 7.237.26

technical guidance 7.90

temperature targets, links with 7.277.28

UNFCCC provisions, compared with 2.01, 2.19, 7.057.06

Warsaw International Mechanism 7.09, 8.058.09

adaptation communication

definition 1.83

global stocktake, and 7.1307.136

mechanisms for 7.1167.129

NDCs 7.1207.122

principles of 7.1237.129

purpose 7.1237.127

registration 7.129

reporting obligations, and 13.36

Adaptation Fund 2.19, 9.09, 11.50, 19.04

adoption

treaty amendments, of 22.0322.04, 22.07

treaty, of 29.01, 29.1229.13

adverse impacts

climate change, of

cause and effect links 1.55

definition 1.46, 1.501.56, 1.83

developing countries, vulnerability to P30–P.36, 4.414.42, 7.19

estimated global costs of 7.80

fundamental priorities, and P.47–P.49, 7.657.74

loss and damage 7.10

overview 7.01

physical changes and significant deleterious effects 1.511.53

social and economic development, on 7.26

urgent action, need for 7.03

Warsaw International Mechanism 7.09, 8.058.09

response measures, of

recognition of P.40–P.43, 1.34, 4.414.42

aerosols 1.80

afforestation 5.125.13, 5.15, 5.31

Agenda 21 1992 P.46, P.63, P.76, P.87

agriculture

biofuels 5.265.27

food security, and 5.24

UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol GHG schemes 5.235.26

aims and objectives

adaptation 2.19

climate finance 2.05, 2.202.22

common but differentiated responsibilities 2.01, 2.03, 2.072.08, 2.232.27, 20.27

credible commitments 2.282.35

development of 2.042.12

domestic law interpretation 2.412.46

national conflicts 2.08, 2.11, 2.14

temperature targets 2.12, 2.152.18, 2.37

Alliance of Small Island States 1.43, 2.12

loss and damage insurance proposal 8.018.03, 8.13

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) 24.10

amendments to treaties see treaty amendments

Annex I Parties 1.291.30, 1.32, 1.361.41, 1.83, 2.232.24, 13.15, 27.12

Annex II Parties 1.291.30, 1.32, 1.361.41, 2.232.24, 27.12

annexes

declarations 27.12

general role in climate change treaty law 23.02

Paris Agreement, to 23.02

adoption and entry into force 23.0923.10, 23.12

alternative methods of incorporation 23.1423.15

amendments or additions by way of 23.0323.12

legal relationship 23.0523.07, 23.13, 23.14

status of 23.1423.15

Antarctica 1.75

anthropogenic gases 1.701.71, 1.791.80

approval 20.06, 20.1420.15

Asia-Pacific Finance Fund 11.59

atmosphere, gaseous constituents of 1.661.69

atolls see small island developing states

authentication 29.01

authentic and definitive text 29.0929.11

Draft Rules of Procedure 29.01, 29.0429.06, 29.08

duly authorised representatives 29.0229.03

non-state party, by 29.0729.08

procedures 29.01

Bali Action Plan 8.03, 9.10

Berlin Mandate 2.03, 2.24

best available scientific knowledge P.8, P.26–P.29, 1.04

biennial transparency reports (BTRs) and biennial update reports (BURs) 13.16, 13.1913.21, 13.23, 13.29, 13.4513.46

biodiversity P.75, 1.53

bioenergy with carbon capture storage (BECCS) 4.06

biofuels 5.265.27

blue carbon 1.75

Breakthrough Energy Coalition 10.34

burden sharing 9.179.18

Bureau of the Parties 16.04

Cancun Adaptation Framework 7.16, 7.18, 7.55, 7.76, 7.86, 7.97, 8.04, 8.13, 8.20, 8.31

capacity-building 1.05

approaches 11.09, 11.13, 11.2211.24, 11.63

capacities needed, scope of 11.3711.43

challenges and limitations of 11.15, 11.4211.43, 11.6211.65

cooperation obligations 11.0811.09

developed country obligations 1.56, 13.5513.57

developing countries, in 11.03, 11.0811.09, 11.1211.14, 11.3811.40, 13.5413.57

Durban Forum on 11.05, 11.3311.34

economies in transition, in 11.03, 11.1911.21

education and training, and 11.4411.49, 11.64

Enhanced Transparency Framework 1.83, 4.384.39, 8.34, 11.01

flexibility in 11.08, 11.10, 11.21

funding for 11.01, 11.20, 11.23, 11.27, 11.42

Global Coordination Platform 13.57

global stocktake, and 11.13

human rights, and 11.3911.40

information sharing 11.10

Initiative on Transparency (CBIT) 11.18, 13.5613.57

initiatives, generally 11.39, 11.44, 11.5011.61

institutional support mechanisms 11.16

least developed countries, in 11.2211.27, 11.4211.43

Measurement, Reporting and Verification Framework (MRV) 11.01

Modalities, Procedures and Guidelines (MGPs) 11.01

Paris Committee on 11.16, 11.2811.35, 11.62

policy development 11.0211.06

priorities for 11.2011.21

reporting obligations 13.41, 13.5413.57

role of 11.01, 11.08, 11.14, 11.62

think tanks, role of 11.4811.49

transparency, and 13.54–13.57

understanding climate change impacts, importance of 11.3711.41

universities, role of 11.4611.47

Capacity-Building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) 11.18, 13.5613.57

Capacity Building Portal 11.06, 11.36

Capacity Development for Policy Makers to Address Climate Change 11.23, 11.26

certified emissions reductions (CERs) 5.11, 5.26, 6.756.77

children P.13, P.66–P.68, P.78

clarity, of NDCs 4.334.36

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 5.105.13, 5.15, 5.26, 5.36, 9.09

SDM, and

compared with 6.34, 6.46, 6.55

transfer arrangements 6.356.36, 6.706.77

Climate Action Tracker 3.23

Climate and Development Knowledge Network 11.58

climate change, generally

adverse effects of (see adverse impacts)

definitions 1.11, 1.46, 1.571.59, 1.83

global warming trends 1.53

human rights, and (see human rights)

overview 7.01

climate change litigation P.78, 24.1224.13, 24.1524.16

right to life 24.1724.22

climate constitutionalism 2.332.35

climate finance 1.83, 2.202.22 see also funds; Green Climate Fund

access to 9.42

allocation of

adaptation vs. mitigation, balancing 9.249.25

vulnerable countries, prioritization of 9.269.27

Bali Action Plan 9.10

collective mobilization commitments 9.199.22

Copenhagen Accord 9.109.11, 9.19

definitions 9.03, 9.08

developed country obligations 9.04, 9.069.07, 9.159.18

reconsideration of 9.15, 9.22

reporting 9.299.33

developing countries

burden sharing 9.179.18

reporting 9.369.40

Enhancing Direct Access (EDA) 11.54

Global Environment Facility (GEF), role of 7.98, 9.08, 9.41

global stocktake, and 9.349.35

importance of 9.02, 10.32

information reporting obligations

finance provided 9.299.33

finance received 9.369.40

institutional arrangements 9.41

institutional obligations 9.42

need for 2.20, 9.01

Paris Alignment concept 2.22

policy development 9.069.13, 10.31

provisions 2.22, 9.05, 9.07

purpose of 9.04

quantum thresholds 2.21, 2.27

reporting obligations 9.299.33, 9.369.40, 13.41

state-to-state transfers 9.03

technology development and transfer 10.25

transparency 9.289.40

climate forcers 1.15, 1.83

climate justice P.77–P.78

climate system 1.46, 1.601.62, 1.83, 2.02

Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) 10.1110.21, 11.57

CMA see under Conference of the Parties

collective aim 4.034.06

commitments

collective commitments 2.172.18

climate finance 9.199.22

global stocktake 14.0114.03, 14.05, 14.0714.10, 14.1714.18

temperature targets 2.172.18

credible commitments 2.03, 2.282.35

incentives, approaches to 2.292.31

national commitments 2.03, 2.05, 2.292.32, 2.37, 2.39

non-performance, implications of 2.29

common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities P.11–P.12, P.14–P.15, 1.04, 1.56, 2.01, 2.03, 20.27

concept development 2.072.08

interpretation of 2.03

mitigation obligations, and 4.174.20

nationally determined contributions 2.232.24, 2.37, 3.013.37

common concern of mankind P.13, P.52–P.68

communication

adaptation communication 1.83, 7.1167.136, 13.36

long-term strategies, of 4.144.16, 4.284.29

national commitments 4.074.13

NDCs, of 3.203.22, 4.044.13

compliance see also compliance mechanism

Aarhus Convention 15.4415.45

capacity constraints on 15.01, 15.07

commitments, flexibility and parallelism in 15.03, 15.07

facilitative approaches 15.4115.45, 15.56

implementation, compared with 15.0415.05

legally binding status 15.40, 15.49

managerial model of compliance 15.01

Montreal Protocol 15.4115.43

non-compliance, reasons for 15.06

regime development, generally 15.40

compliance mechanism

Compliance Committee 15.2115.28, 15.5015.53

developing countries, relevance to 15.5315.56

Expert Review Teams (ERTs) 15.46

flexibility in 15.1515.16

information, access to 15.39

initiation procedures 15.2915.34

Katowice implementation guidelines 15.1815.39

Kyoto Protocol 15.12, 15.40, 15.4615.52

measures and outputs 15.3515.37

policy development 15.0815.13

principles of 15.1215.13

procedural rules, development of 15.5315.54

purpose 15.1915.20

system issues 15.38

systemic review function 15.52

transparency, and 15.17, 15.51

conciliation 24.10

Conference of the Parties see also individual COPs by number

Bureau of the Conference 16.04

characteristics of 16.02

decisions, legal status of 2.262.27

definitions 1.13, 1.241.25, 1.83, 16.01

Draft Rules of Procedure 29.04

establishment 1.25

institutional provisions 16.02

obligations of 1.25, 1.56

Paris Agreement, of (CMA) 16.0116.02

Draft Rules of Procedure 16.06, 16.12, 25.0425.07, 29.01, 29.0529.06, 29.08

mandate 16.05

non-parties, participation of 16.03, 16.1016.12

sessions 16.0616.09

voting rights 25.0225.03

role 1.25, 16.01

consent 20.17

constitutional law 2.332.35

contemporaneity, principle of P.23

continuing obligations 20.23

cooperation see international cooperation; voluntary cooperation

COP13 (Bali) 7.16, 8.03

COP15 (Copenhagen) 2.032.06, 3.10, 9.109.11, 9.19

COP16 (Cancun) 2.07, 3.10, 7.16, 7.18, 8.04, 14.04

COP17 (Durban) P.08–P.10, 2.07, 3.02, 7.99, 11.05

COP19 (Warsaw) 3.03, 3.053.07, 3.13, 3.18

COP20 (Lima) 3.02, 3.04, 3.20, 11.06

COP21 (Paris) 1.03, 1.121.13, 1.15, 2.07, 2.092.10, 8.17

COP22 (Marrakech) 8.16, 11.31

COP24 (Katowice) 1.05, 1.15, 4.14, 6.04, 8.22, 11.35, 12.11, 13.06, 15.1815.39, 20.24

COP25 (Madrid) 6.22, 6.29, 6.81, 6.836.85, 11.16

COP26 (Glasgow) 6.84, 6.86

cultural heritage P.62, P.75, 7.76

Decision 1/CP.21 P.21, P.83, 1.05, 1.09, 1.12

adoption of Paris Agreement 29.13

annexes adopted by way of 23.14

capacity-building 13.56

flexibilities, applicability of 13.07

long-term strategies, invitation to communicate 4.14

loss and damage 8.15, 8.198.21, 8.23, 8.27

mitigation co-benefits 4.40

NDCs, guidance on contents of 4.354.36

non-state actors, participation by P.83–P.84

reporting obligations 13.23

response measures, adverse impacts of 4.42

Sustainability Development Mechanism, guidance on 6.53

threat to human societies 1.54

Decision 1/CP.24 13.19

Decision 2/CP.7 11.03

Decision 4/CMA.1 4.364.38, 4.40

Decision 7/CMA.1 4.42

Decision 20/CMA.1 15.1815.39

definitions and terms

adaptation 7.077.08, 7.107.11

adaptation communication 1.83

adverse effects of climate change 1.46, 1.501.56, 1.83

aerosols 1.80

anthropogenic gases 1.701.71, 1.791.80

carbon market mechanisms 1.83

climate change 1.11, 1.46, 1.571.59, 1.83

climate finance 9.03, 9.08

climate system 1.46, 1.601.62, 1.83

collective aim 4.044.06

Conference of the Parties 1.241.25, 1.83

Convention 1.221.23

Convention definitions, application of 1.501.81

drafting history 1.121.15

education and training 12.30, 12.34

emissions 1.46, 1.631.64, 1.83

environmental integrity 1.83

global peaking 1.83, 4.05

greenhouse effect 1.69

greenhouse gases 1.46, 1.651.71, 1.80, 1.83

information 12.53

interpretation of 1.07, 1.091.10, 1.481.49

loss and damage 7.10, 8.128.13

nationally determined contributions 1.83

parties 1.261.41, 1.83, 20.1120.12

physical changes 1.511.53

public information 12.55

for purposes of the Convention 1.191.21

Regional Economic Integration Organizations 1.28, 1.46, 1.721.73, 1.83

reservoirs 1.46, 1.741.76, 1.83

scope of 1.191.21

additional terms and definitions 1.451.47, 1.821.83

broadening 1.05, 1.13

significant deleterious effects 1.511.53

sinks 1.46, 1.771.78, 1.83

sources 1.46, 1.71, 1.791.81, 1.83

special meanings 1.101.11, 1.48

technical and scientific meanings of 1.48

total greenhouse gas emissions 1.11, 1.64, 21.04

deforestation P.76, 1.76, 5.04 see also REDD+

depositary 20.18, 21.05, 26.0126.05

developed countries see also Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

carbon debits and credits accounting obligations 5.07, 5.09, 5.115.12, 5.14, 5.36

climate change response obligations P.69–P.70, 1.41, 1.55, 1.78, 3.24

developing countries, support for 4.19

mitigation 4.184.19

progression 4.214.23

climate finance obligations 9.04, 9.069.07, 9.159.18

definition 1.14, 1.29, 1.83

economywide absolute emission reduction targets 4.18, 4.22

international assessment and review (IARs) 13.17

Joint Implementation 5.115.12, 5.14, 5.36

long-term strategies, communication of 4.15

reporting obligations 13.1213.19

developing countries

capacity-building in 11.03, 11.0811.09, 11.1211.14, 11.3811.40, 15.01

carbon debits and credits accounting obligations 5.08, 5.105.13, 5.15, 5.26, 5.36

Clean Development Mechanism 5.105.13, 5.15, 5.26, 5.36

climate finance reporting 9.369.40

common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities P.11–P.12, P.14–P.15, 4.18, 20.27

definition 1.14, 1.291.33, 1.83

G77 group 1.43

implementation barriers for 15.5415.55

international consultation and analysis (ICAs) 13.17

long-term strategies, communication of 4.15

mitigation 4.18, 4.224.23

reporting obligations 13.1213.19, 13.17, 13.32, 15.01

response measures 3.24

adverse impacts of 4.41–4.42, P.30–P.36

progression 4.224.23

specific needs and special circumstances P.30–P.36

transparency, capacity-related 13.5413.57

vulnerability of P.20, P.32–P.35, 1.33

differentiation see also common but differentiated responsibilities

carbon debits and credits, attribution of 5.075.10

national commitments, in 4.174.20

dispute settlement 12.17, 24.11

ADR options 24.10

alternative mechanisms 24.1424.26

boilerplate provisions 24.01

choice of forum 24.05

climate change and right to life 24.1724.22

conciliation 24.10

inter-state disputes 24.1524.16

international arbitration 24.1224.16

mechanism, criticism of 24.1224.13

non-state actor challenges to state inaction 24.234.26

obligations 24.04

party declarations 24.0524.09

UNFCCC provisions, adoption of 24.0224.03

Doha Work Programme 11.06

double counting 1.39, 4.374.38, 6.06, 6.10, 6.12, 6.206.21, 6.626.65

double-trigger process 21.03

Draft Rules of Procedure

Conference of the Parties 16.06

participation by non-parties 16.12

treaty authentication 29.01, 29.0529.06, 29.08

voting rights and procedures 25.0425.07

duly authorised representatives 29.0229.03

Durban Forum on Capacity-Building 11.05, 11.3311.34

Durban Platform for Enhanced Action P.08–P.10, 1.04, 2.07, 2.25

economies in transition

capacity-building 11.03, 11.1911.21

definition 1.291.30, 1.35, 1.37

economywide absolute emission reduction targets 1.83, 2.24, 3.07, 4.18, 4.22

ecosystem integrity P.71–P.77

education and training P.79–P.80

Action for Climate Empowerment 12.01, 12.21, 12.27, 12.6512.66

capacity-building, role in 11.4411.49, 11.64

climate change, on, sources of 12.3112.33, 12.35

definitions 12.30, 12.34

international cooperation 12.1912.20, 12.2612.29

National Focal Points 12.65

national strategies 12.21

obligations, interpretation of 12.0312.04, 12.0812.10, 12.1312.15, 12.1912.25

provisions

context 12.1212.17

implications of 12.0212.05

scope of 12.0612.11, 12.18

UNFCCC, differences from 12.19

public access to information 12.04, 12.06, 12.1312.14, 12.28, 12.5212.63

public awareness 12.04, 12.06, 12.1312.14, 12.3612.40

public participation 12.06, 12.1312.14, 12.4112.51

right to 12.30

sustainable development, and 12.16

effective and progressive response P.24–P.25

emission reduction units (ERUs) 5.11, 5.14

emission reductions

definition 1.83

developing country obligations 4.18

least developed country obligations 4.20

mechanism cost trends 2.39

national commitments 2.03, 2.05, 2.292.32

targets and timetables for 2.32

US-China Joint Announcement P.15, 1.44, 3.163.17

emissions gap 2.18, 2.37, 5.29

emissions, generally

best available scientific knowledge P.29

definition 1.46, 1.631.64, 1.83

global peaking 1.83, 4.03, 4.054.06, 4.16

total greenhouse gas emissions 1.11, 1.64, 2.18

enhanced action

Durban Platform P.08–P.10, P.85, 2.07, 2.25

Enhanced Transparency Framework 1.83, 4.384.39, 11.01, 18.34

applicability 13.04

definitions 13.03

facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress 13.5013.53

flexibility in 13.0413.10, 13.32

global stocktake, and 13.2013.21

implementation 13.0413.05

modalities, procedures and guidelines (MPGs) 13.0613.10, 13.23, 13.25, 13.27, 13.3413.36, 13.4113.45

national inventory reports 13.22, 13.2513.27

progress tracking, information for 13.2813.33

purpose 13.02

review process 13.4213.53

technical expert review (TERs) 13.04, 13.4413.49

Enhancing Direct Access (EDA) climate finance 11.54

entry into force 20.03, 20.07, 21.01

annexes, additional 23.0923.10, 23.12

double-trigger process 21.03

provisional application of 21.0121.02

ratifications following 21.05

REIOs, ratifications by 21.06

special meaning terms, interpretation 21.04

treaty amendments 22.0922.10

withdrawal following 28.0528.06

Environmental Impact Assessments 12.5012.51

environmental integrity P.71–P.77, 1.83

ITMOs, of 6.07, 6.10, 6.21

Environmental Integrity Group 1.43

equity, principle of P.11–P.14, 1.04, 2.01

European Union 1.43, 1.73

access to information 12.6112.62

authentication of treaty by 29.0729.08

Copenhagen Accord, impacts of 2.042.05

declaration on competence 20.2120.23

intellectual property rights protection 10.40

LULUCF credits allowances 5.41

targets, legally binding status of 4.56

treaty-making capacity 20.1020.11, 20.13, 20.15, 20.19, 20.2120.23

voting rights 25.03

extinction 1.53

facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress 13.5013.53

finance see also climate finance; Green Climate Fund

approaches to 2.05

developed country obligations 1.56

loss and damage, for 8.308.33

REDD+ activities, for 5.195.22, 5.385.39

flexibility

capacity-building, in 11.08, 11.10, 11.21

Enhanced Transparency Framework, and 13.0413.10, 13.32

limitations on 13.09

food security P.47–P.49, P.61, 1.53, 5.24

forests see also LULUCF; REDD+

accounting obligations 5.125.13, 5.15, 5.315.32

afforestation and reforestation 5.125.13, 5.15, 5.31

age-class legacy effect 5.05

compensation and enhancement obligations 5.285.29, 5.32

ecosystem integrity P.76

emissions regulation challenges 5.055.06

Paris Rulebook 5.335.34

progress guidance 5.335.34

reservoirs, as 1.751.76, 5.04

sources, as 1.81, 5.04

fossil fuels

dependence on 1.34, 4.41

divestment incentives 10.3410.35

Framework for Various Approaches (FVA) 6.80

fundamental change of circumstances, doctrine of 4.27

funds see also Green Climate Fund

Adaptation Fund 2.19, 9.09, 11.50, 19.04

Asia-Pacific Finance Fund 11.59

Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund 11.60

international Insurance Pool 8.01

Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) 7.98, 9.09, 9.41

Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) 7.113, 9.09, 9.41

Standing Committee on Finance 8.33, 9.41

gender equality P.63, 7.76

gender equity P.13

Geneva Climate Conference 2015 P.03

Geneva Pledge for Human Rights in Climate Action 2015 11.40

Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development 11.44

global adaptation goal 7.217.49

Global Coordination Platform 13.57

Global Environment Facility (GEF) 7.98, 9.08, 9.41, 11.01

Global Land Outlook 2017 P.76, P.48

global peaking 1.83, 4.03, 4.054.06, 4.16

global stocktake

adaptation, and 7.49, 7.1307.136

assessment criteria 14.0714.10

capacity-building 11.13

challenges and limitations of 14.1314.16, 14.3414.37, 14.39

climate finance 9.349.35

collective obligation 14.0114.03, 14.05, 14.0714.10, 14.1714.18

concept development 14.04

definition 1.83

governance inter-connectedness 14.1714.18

information sources for 14.20, 14.28, 14.30

interpretation challenges 14.0714.08

legally binding status 14.0514.06, 14.11, 14.32

loss and damage reporting 8.418.45

non-party stakeholders, role of 14.30

outputs, consideration of 14.3114.32

overview 14.27

Paris Rulebook provisions 14.1914.37

procedures 14.25, 14.27, 14.30

purpose 14.01, 14.0714.08, 14.13, 14.38

reporting obligations 13.2013.21, 14.1714.18

structure and criteria for 14.2314.29

technology development and transfer 10.09

timetable for 14.12, 14.21

transparency, and 13.2013.21

Global Warming of 1.5°C 2018 1.15, 1.53

global warming potentials (GWPs) 13.27

global warming trends 1.53

good faith, principle of 1.071.09, 2.13, 4.57

governance, forms of 12.48

Green Climate Fund 2.05, 2.20, 7.113

access to, guidance on 7.90

capacity-building role 11.5111.54

development 9.11, 9.41

national contributions to 10.33

readiness support programme 10.26, 11.53

REDD+ payments 5.21

technology development and transfer, role in 10.2310.35

Green Development and Climate Change Programme 11.55

greenhouse effect 1.69

greenhouse gases

anthropogenic gases 1.701.71, 1.791.80

definitions 1.11, 1.46, 1.641.71, 1.791.80, 1.83, 21.04

natural sources 1.71

reporting obligations 13.1213.19

reservoirs 1.46, 1.741.76

sinks 1.771.78

sources 1.46, 1.71, 1.791.81

total greenhouse gas emissions 1.11, 1.64, 21.04

urgent responses P.17, P.23

Heathrow Airport expansion case 2.412.46

high ambition coalition 1.44

human rights

access to information 12.58

adaptation measures, and 7.767.79

capacity-building, and 11.3911.40

climate change, and

implications for P.31, P.34–P.35, P.58, 24.1824.19

poverty P.55–P.62

Ioane Teitiota v New Zealand 24.214.22

loss and damage, liability for 8.488.49

Norma Portillo Caceres v Paraguay 24.20

public participation 12.4612.47

right to health P.61, P.64

right to life P.61, 24.1724.22

technology transfer, significance of 10.4210.44

UNHRC General Comment 36 24.1824.19

implementation see also compliance

challenges 2.362.40

guidelines for 1.01, 1.05, 1.09, 15.1815.39

influences on 15.05

interpretation of 15.04

Subsidiary Body for 1.05, 11.11, 18.0118.02

incubators 10.5210.53

indigenous peoples P.75–P.76, 7.76

Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund 11.60

information see also depositary; reporting

access to P.79–P.80, 12.04, 12.06, 12.1312.14, 12.28, 12.5212.63

capacity-building 11.10

definitions 12.53, 12.55

electronic copies 26.05

human right to 12.58

NDCs, requirements for 3.11, 3.25

public access to P.79–P.80, 12.04, 12.06, 12.13, 12.28, 12.5212.63

enforcement 12.6012.63

public information 12.5512.56

sharing 7.897.92, 11.10

Initiative for Climate Action Transparency (ICAT) 11.56, 13.57

institutional provisions see also Conference of the Parties

climate finance, for 9.41

other subsidiary bodies or arrangements referenced 19.0119.04

Secretariat 17.0117.02

Subsidiary Body for Implementation 1.05, 18.0118.02, 18.0118.03

Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice 1.05, 18.0118.02, 18.0118.03

instruments of acceptance 22.04, 22.09

insurance 8.018.02

intellectual property

law reform, need for 10.5210.53, 10.73

regional trade agreements, and 10.56, 10.6910.73

sustainable development, relationship with 10.4710.51

technology development and transfer, and 10.04, 10.06, 10.16, 10.19, 10.3610.51

trade conflicts 10.5410.73

TRIPS Agreement 10.54, 10.5710.61

UN 2030 Agenda on sustainable development 10.44

US-China trade dispute 10.6310.68

WIPO Green 10.4410.46

Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) 3.03–3.17, 4.13 see also Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

intergenerational equity P.13, P.68, P.78

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

AR5 Synthesis Report 1.49, 1.511.52, 7.02

definitions 1.57, 1.61, 1.64

policy-making, influences on P.27, 1.481.49

scientific knowledge, status of P.26–P.27

special reports, publication of 1.49, 2.02

international arbitration 24.1224.16

international assessment and review (IARs) 13.17

International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 24.1524.16

international consultation and analysis (ICAs) 13.17

international cooperation

adaptation 7.11, 7.847.93

capacity-building 11.0811.09

education and training 12.1912.20, 12.2612.29

International Court of Justice 24.12

International Insurance Pool, proposal 8.018.02

International Law Commission 27.0527.07

international law, generally see also treaties

approaches to, developing trends 2.03

unilateral declarations 4.544.61

internationally transferred mitigation outcomes (ITMOs) 5.37

accounting

averaging approach 6.22

double counting 6.06, 6.10, 6.12, 6.206.21, 6.63

inside/outside activities 6.236.24, 6.26

metrics and units for 6.146.17, 6.21

requirements 6.186.22

definition 1.83, 6.14

environmental integrity and sustainability of 6.07, 6.10, 6.21

governance obligations 6.11

guidance on 6.08

limitations and challenges of 6.116.12, 6.14

nature and features of 6.17

permitted approaches and outcomes 6.06, 6.096.10, 6.14

proceeds sharing 6.276.30

purpose 6.07, 6.10

quality requirements 6.17

safeguards and limits 6.256.26

interpretative declarations/statements

Annex I/Annex II party status, on 27.12

reservations, compared with 27.04, 27.09

use of 27.0927.11

ITMOS see internationally transferred mitigation outcomes

JMAs 1.13, 1.83

Joint Implementation 5.115.12, 5.14, 5.36

just transition imperatives P.50–P.51

justice P.78, P.80, 12.49

Katowice Climate Package 1.05, 1.15, 6.04, 15.12, 20.24, 22.12

Kiribati P.34–P.35, 24.214.22

Kyoto Protocol 1997

adaptation 7.15

Adaptation Fund 2.19, 9.09, 11.50, 19.04

Annex A 1.70

best available scientific knowledge P.28, 1.49

capacity-building 11.0211.04

Clean Development Mechanism 5.105.13, 5.15

common but differentiated responsibilities 2.072.08

compliance 15.12, 15.40, 15.4615.52

credible commitments, approach to 2.30

developing countries, specific needs and special circumstances P.31

drafting, influences on 1.49

education and training 12.13

emission reduction targets 3.29

greenhouse gases regulated by 1.70

Joint Implementation 5.115.12, 5.14

legally binding status 2.03, 2.072.08

limitations of 2.03, 3.293.30

Paris Agreement, compared with 1.01, 1.17, 2.01, 13.0313.04

Preamble P.04

reporting obligations 13.1513.19

transparency arrangements 13.0313.04, 13.1513.19

urgent threat, response to P.17

withdrawals and non-ratifications 2.08, 3.293.30, 28.09

land degradation P.76

land uses see LULUCF

law of treaties see treaties, law of

LDC Universities Consortium on Climate Change (LUCCC) 11.44

leakage 5.05, 5.12

least developed countries

assistance for P.37–P.39, 1.56, 9.269.27

capacity-building, in 11.2211.27, 11.4211.43

climate finance prioritization 9.269.27

definition 1.29, 1.31, 1.381.39

Enhanced Transparency Framework, flexibility in 13.0513.10

mitigation obligations 4.20

reporting obligations 13.13, 13.16, 13.1713.18

specific needs and special circumstances P.37–P.39

Technical Expert Reviews (TERs) 13.45

Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG) 7.73, 7.90, 7.99, 7.104

Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) 7.98, 9.09

legally binding status

adaptation planning and implementation 7.135

climate finance quantum 2.21

compliance mechanisms, of 15.40, 15.49

COP decisions, of 2.042.06, 2.262.27

development of 2.042.08

domestic law interpretation of Paris Agreement 2.412.46

global adaptation goal 7.387.39, 7.48

global stocktake 14.0514.06, 14.11, 14.32

Kyoto Protocol, of 2.03, 2.072.08

limitations of 3.14

loss and damage prevention obligations 8.11

NDCs, of 3.04, 3.133.14, 3.18, 3.24, 4.444.61

Paris Agreement, of, generally 12.0712.09, 20.04, 21.04

technology development and transfer provisions 10.10

temperature targets 2.18

treaty conclusion, party obligations 20.2420.27

treaty interpretation 2.25, 12.07

unilateral declarations, of 4.544.61

liability and compensation 8.11, 8.278.28, 8.47

Lima Work Programme on Gender P.63

long-term strategies, communication of 4.144.16, 4.284.29

loss and damage

accounting, challenges of 8.368.40

adaptation, distinction from 8.068.07

AOSIS proposals 8.018.03

averting, minimizing and addressing 8.118.13

Cancun Adaptation Framework 8.04, 8.13, 8.20, 8.31

cooperation and facilitation 8.198.24, 8.32

costs measurement and analysis 8.368.40

customary law, role of 8.47

definition 7.10, 8.128.13

finance 8.308.33

global stocktake, and 8.418.45

human rights law, role of 8.488.49

international insurance, proposal for 8.018.02

law of the sea, and 8.50

liability and compensation 8.11, 8.278.28, 8.47

obligations, legally binding status of 8.11

policy and mechanisms, development of 8.048.09

slow onset events, from 7.097.10, 8.038.05, 8.07, 8.11, 8.13, 8.31, 8.398.40

state responsibility, law of 8.47

transparency framework, and 8.34, 8.368.40

Warsaw International Mechanism 7.09, 8.058.09, 8.148.18, 8.258.26, 8.31

LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry) see also REDD+

AFOLU emissions 5.04

carbon debits and credits accounting 5.06, 5.32

developed countries obligations 5.07, 5.09, 5.115.12, 5.14

developing countries obligations 5.08, 5.105.13, 5.15

emissions financing mechanisms 5.105.15

EU allowances 5.41

ITMOs 5.375.38

reference levels 5.08

emissions regulation

bottom-up approaches 5.405.41

challenges of 5.055.06, 5.35, 5.41, 5.45

development of 5.425.45

emissions targets 5.295.31

human vs. natural activities, attribution of 5.06

Joint Implementation 5.115.12, 5.14, 5.36

removals targets 5.31

sources of GHG, as 1.81, 5.04

UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, schemes under

agricultural activities 5.235.26

carbon debits and credits accounting 5.075.15

Clean Development Mechanism 5.105.13, 5.15, 5.26, 5.36

Joint Implementation 5.115.12, 5.14, 5.36

limitations of 5.275.28, 5.44

REDD+ activities 5.165.22

voluntary cooperation, and 5.20, 5.31, 5.365.41

mangrove, tidal marshes and seagrasses 1.75

marine environment P.74, 1.75, 8.50

market mechanisms see also internationally transferred mitigation outcomes (ITMOs)

benefits of 6.01, 6.03

costs trends 2.39

definition 1.83

Sustainable Development Mechanism 6.316.77

Measurement, Reporting and Verification Framework (MRV) 11.01

migration P.34–P.35

Mission Innovation 10.34

mitigation 2.19, 4.014.02

aims and objectives 4.034.06, 20.26

bottom-up approach 2.05

climate finance allocation 9.249.25

commitments, parallelism in 15.03

developed country obligations 2.24, 4.184.19, 20.26

developing countries

obligations 4.18, 20.26

progression 4.224.23

downward adjustments 4.244.27

economic development, relevance of 4.23

economywide absolute emission reduction targets 1.83, 2.24, 4.18, 4.22

global peaking 1.83, 4.03, 4.05

ITMOs (see internationally transferred mitigation outcomes (ITMOs))

least developed countries

funding and support for P.39, 4.19

obligations and capabilities 4.20

low carbon solutions, cost trends 2.39

mitigation co-benefits 1.83, 4.394.40

national commitments

communication obligations 4.074.16

differentiation in 4.174.20

joint NDCs 4.284.29

long-term strategies, communication of 4.144.16

progression 4.214.27

NDCs (see Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs))

poverty alleviation, commitment conflicts with 2.08

supporting provisions 4.01

Modalities, Procedures and Guidelines (MGPs) 11.01, 13.0613.10, 13.23, 13.25, 13.27

reporting 13.3413.36, 13.41

review process 13.4213.53

Montreal Protocol 1987 1.701.71, 1.76, 11.01, 14.14, 15.4115.43, 15.4515.46

Mother Earth P.75

multilateral environment agreements

compliance provisions 15.05, 15.4015.45

reservations 27.01

mutatis-mutandis application of treaty provisions 16.11, 17.01, 18.01, 20.04, 20.09, 22.0322.04, 24.0224.03, 26.04, 29.05, 29.07

Nairobi Work Programme (NWP) 7.91

National Adaptation Plans

communication of 7.1167.120

funding for 7.113

process 7.947.105, 7.135

progress of 7.1067.115

purpose 7.977.98, 7.100

National Capacity Self-Assessments Programme (NCSA) 11.23, 11.25

national commitments 2.03, 2.05, 2.29–2.32, 2.37, 2.39 see also Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

communication obligations 4.074.13

differentiation in 4.174.20

long-term strategies, communication of 4.144.16

progression 4.214.27

National Communications Support Programme (NCSP), 11.2311.24

National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 13.25

National Inventory Reports (NIRs) 13.22, 13.2513.27

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) 1.36, 3.013.37

accounting 4.374.38, 6.216.22

Business and Usual Scenario (BAU) 6.22, 6.26, 6.55

double counting 1.39, 4.374.38, 6.06, 6.10, 6.206.21, 6.626.65

inside/outside activities 6.236.24, 6.26, 6.38, 6.546.55

adequacy of 3.223.23

approach to, developments in 3.093.12, 3.203.21, 3.293.31, 4.08

characteristics of 3.203.22, 4.044.13, 4.314.42, 4.314.43

communication of 3.203.22, 4.044.13, 4.084.13, 7.1207.122

comparison, challenges of 4.34, 4.38

contributions, interpretation of 3.19, 3.24

definition 1.83

differentiation, and 3.073.08, 3.12

drafting history 3.023.17

INDCs 3.033.17, 4.13

influences on 3.283.31, 3.353.37

information requirements 3.11, 3.25

joint NDCs 4.284.29

legally binding status 3.04, 3.133.14, 3.18, 3.24, 4.444.61

limitations of 3.24, 3.283.31, 4.504.53

long-term strategies, consistency with 4.16

mitigation co-benefits 4.394.40

mitigation targets, guidance on 4.184.20

obligations

conduct obligations, interpretation of 3.26, 4.474.53

developed countries, of 3.243.27, 4.194.20

generally 1.41, 4.584.61, 20.26

LDCs, of 4.20

limitations of 4.514.53

result obligations 4.49, 4.51, 4.60

substantive obligations 4.444.61

support for developing countries 4.194.20

unilateral declarations, NDCs as 4.544.61

progression 1.83, 3.163.17, 3.263.27, 4.214.27

tracking, reporting obligations 13.2813.33

provisions, scope of 3.183.27

Register of 4.30

REIOs, joint NDCs 4.284.29

role of 2.232.24, 2.37, 5.01

time frames 4.32

transparency requirements 3.25, 4.334.36, 4.384.39

US constitutionalism, influence of 3.353.37

negative emissions technologies (NETs) 4.06

net zero targets 2.39, 3.37

New Market-Based Mechanism (NMM) 6.80

non-market approaches 1.83, 6.01, 6.786.83

non-parties, participation of 16.03, 16.1016.12, 18.03

Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action platform P.84

non-state actors

challenges to state inaction 24.2324.26

participation of P.04, P.79–P.85, 3.37

role of 2.40

treaties, competence to sign/authenticate 20.0920.10, 29.0729.08

oceans 1.751.76

oil prices 2.09

Our Common Future 1987 P.46

pacta sunt servanda 1.071.08

Paris Agreement Work Programme 1.05, 9.13

Paris Committee on Capacity-Building 1.05

Paris Rulebook 1.01, 1.05, 1.09, 1.14, 20.24, 22.12

adaptation communication, guidance on 7.133

global stocktake provisions 14.1914.37

LULUCF schemes, on 5.335.34

treaty amendments incorporated by way of 23.15

parties, generally P.06–P.07 see also Regional Economic Integration Organisations

declarations of competence 20.2120.23

definitions 1.261.41, 1.83, 20.1120.12

eligibility 1.28, 20.1120.12

negotiating groups 1.421.44

non-parties, participation of 16.03, 16.1016.12, 18.03

non-state parties 1.28, 20.10

obligations of 20.2420.27

party groupings 1.291.44, 20.12, 20.25

Partnership on Transparency in the Paris Agreement 13.57

permafrost thawing 1.53

PFCs 1.70

poverty

alleviation of, emissions commitments conflicts with 2.08

climate change relationship with P.44–P.46, P.49, P.55–P.62

Preamble P.01P.92

drafting history P.03–P.05

fundamental priorities P.47–P.49

importance of P.02, P.04, P.91–P.92, 1.04

objective and principles P.11–P.12

purpose P.02

recitals, parallel article provisions P.04, P.12, P.28, P.63, P.70, P.80

SDGs, compared with P.05

urgent threats, response to P.16P.29

proceeds sharing 6.676.69

progression P.25 see also global stocktake

facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress 13.5013.53

NDCs, of 1.83, 3.163.17, 3.263.27, 4.214.27

downward adjustments 4.244.27

economic development, influences of 4.23

reporting obligations 13.2813.33

principle of 13.09

provisional application 21.02

public access to information P.79–P.80, 12.04, 12.06, 12.13, 12.28, 12.5212.63

enforcement 12.6012.63

public awareness P.79, 12.13, 12.3712.40

public information 12.5512.56

public participation P.79, 12.06, 12.13, 12.4112.51, 14.30, 15.4415.45

access to courts and litigation, and 12.49, 15.44

ratification 20.0620.07, 20.1420.16, 21.0521.06

REDD+ 5.10

definition 1.131.14, 1.83

development 5.16, 5.375.38

finance for 5.195.22, 5.385.39

limitations 5.175.18, 5.44

non-state institutional role in 5.22

obligations, scope of 5.185.19

omission from Paris Agreement 1.76

purpose 5.16, 5.375.38

voluntary pledges 5.20, 5.37

Warsaw REDD+ Framework 5.19

reforestation 5.125.13, 5.15, 5.31

refugees P.34–P.35

Regional Economic Integration Organisations (REIOs) 1.28, 20.10

definition 1.28, 1.46, 1.721.73, 1.83, 20.11

joint NDCs 4.284.29

obligations of 20.19

treaties

authentication of Paris Agreement 29.0729.08

competence to sign 20.1020.11, 20.13, 20.15, 20.2020.23

ratification of Paris Agreement 21.06

voting rights 25.03

regional negotiating groups 1.421.44

regional trade agreements 10.56, 10.6910.73

Removal units (RMUs) 5.14

removals 5.31, 5.36

reporting

biennial transparency reports (BTRs) and biennial update reports (BURs) 13.16, 13.1913.21, 13.23, 13.29, 13.4513.46

capacity-building, and 13.41, 13.5413.57

climate change impacts and adaptation information 13.3413.36

common form and table formats 13.24

estimates 13.32

facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress 13.5013.53

financial and technology support information 13.3713.40

global stocktake, and 13.2013.21, 14.1714.18

indicators 13.31

international assessment and review (IARs) 13.17

international consultation and analysis (ICAs) 13.17

Modalities, Procedures and Guidelines (MGPs) 11.01, 13.0613.10, 13.23, 13.25, 13.27, 13.3413.36, 13.4113.44

National Inventory Reports (NIRs) 13.22, 13.2513.27

policy development 13.1613.19

progress tracking, information for 13.2813.33

required elements 13.2213.24

Technical Expert Review (TERs) 13.04, 13.4413.49

transparency flexibilities, and 13.0413.10, 13.32

UNFCCC and Kyoto obligations 13.1113.19

reservations

ICL guidance on 27.0527.07

interpretative declarations/statements, compared with 27.0427.09

legal basis for 27.0227.03

policy development 27.08

prohibition of 20.03, 27.01

reservoirs

conservation and enhancement obligations P.69–P.70, 1.76, 5.01, 5.28

definition 1.46, 1.741.76, 1.83

response measures

adverse impacts, recognition of P.40–P.43, 4.414.42

right to health P.61, P.64

right to life 24.1724.22

rights of nature P.75

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 1992 P.46, P.63, P.72

San José Principles 6.85

scientific knowledge of climate change P.19, P.26–P.29

sea, law of the 8.50

sea-level rise, impacts of P.22, P.31, P.33, 8.50

Secretariat 17.0117.02

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 7.24

signatories 20.13

signature P.07, 20.06, 20.13

significant deleterious effects 1.511.53

sinks

balancing with sources 5.025.04

conservation and enhancement obligations P.69–P.70, 1.76, 1.78, 5.01, 5.28

definition 1.46, 1.771.78, 1.83

emission sequestering trends 5.04

slow onset events

loss and damage from 7.097.10, 8.038.05, 8.07, 8.11, 8.13, 8.31, 8.398.40

response strategies 8.158.16, 8.24

small island developing states (SIDs) 1.43

adaptation support, priority for 7.67

capacity-building in 11.2211.27

climate finance, priority for 9.27

definition 1.31, 1.381.39

Enhanced Transparency Framework, flexibility in 13.05

implementation barriers for 15.55

loss and damage

insurance proposals 8.018.03

law of the sea, role of 8.50

policy development 8.018.09

vulnerability to P.22, P.31, P.33, 7.10, 8.018.03

mitigation obligations 4.20

reporting obligations 13.13, 13.16, 13.1713.18

Technical Expert Reviews (TERs) 13.45

soils 1.751.76

solar PV 2.09

sources

balancing with sinks 5.025.04

definition 1.46, 1.71, 1.791.81, 1.83

sovereignty 2.05, 3.34, 4.06

Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) 7.113, 9.09, 9.41

Special Rapporteur on the Right to Environment P.58

Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food P.49

species loss 1.53

Standing Committee on Finance 8.33, 9.41

state responsibility, law of 4.514.52, 8.47

Stern Report 2006 P.19, 1.49, 1.51

Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments 12.5012.51

Strategic Initiative on Climate Change in LDCs 11.27

Subsidiary Body for Implementation 1.05, 11.11, 18.0118.03

Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice 1.05, 13.27, 14.20, 18.0118.03

sustainability P.87

agricultural practices, of 5.24

climate change, intrinsic relationship between P.44–P.46

response measures, adverse impacts of P.43

sustainable lifestyles P.51, P.86–P.90

sustainable development

concept development P.87

education and training, and 11.44, 12.16

environmental integrity, and P.72

global adaptation goal, and 7.237.26

innovation and technology transfer, role of 10.43

intellectual property, relationship with 10.44, 10.4710.51

production and consumption patterns P.51, P.86–P.90

UN 2030 Agenda on 10.4310.44

voluntary non-market approaches 6.01, 6.786.86

Sustainable Development Goals P.05, P.18, P.87, 7.24, 10.45, 12.11

Sustainable Development Mechanism 6.316.77

accounting

baselines 6.556.56

double counting 6.626.65

activities, eligibility of 6.376.39

additionality issues 6.536.56

applicability 6.33

CDM, compared with 6.34, 6.46, 6.55

governance 6.406.44

legally binding status of 6.60

limitations of 6.51

participation requirements 6.456.51

proceeds sharing 6.676.69

purpose 6.32, 6.34, 6.49, 6.576.61

transfer arrangements 6.356.36, 6.706.77

sustainable lifestyles P.51, P.86–P.90

Suva Expert Dialogue 8.33

Talanoa Dialogue 14.04

Technical Expert Review (TERs) 9.39, 13.04, 13.4413.49

technology development and transfer

climate change response, role in 10.07

Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) 10.1110.21, 11.57

cooperation, importance of 10.0710.08, 10.28

funding for P.37–P.39, 10.09, 10.15, 10.1710.18, 10.20, 10.22

financial mechanism 10.2310.35, 19.01

global stocktake 10.09

Green Climate Fund, role of 10.2310.35

human rights, significance for 10.4210.44

importance of 10.16, 10.27

incubators and accelerators 10.30, 10.5210.53

intellectual property, and 10.04, 10.06, 10.16, 10.19, 10.3610.51

law reform, need for 10.5210.53

regional trade agreements 10.56, 10.6910.73

sustainable development, relationship with 10.44, 10.4710.51

trade conflicts 10.5410.73

TRIPS Agreement 10.54, 10.5710.61

UN 2030 Agenda on sustainable development 10.44

WIPO Green 10.4410.46

least developed countries, support for P.37–P.39, 10.2810.29

legally binding status of provisions 10.10

policy development 10.0110.10

progress 10.21

regional trade agreements 10.56, 10.6910.73

reporting obligations 13.41

sustainable development, role in 10.43

Technology Executive Committee, role of 10.1510.17

US-China trade dispute 10.6310.68

WIPO Green 10.4410.46

Technology Mechanism 10.06, 10.09, 10.1110.15, 19.01

Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) 10.1110.21, 11.57

financial mechanism, relationship between 10.2310.24

limitations of 10.12, 10.14

technology transfer see technology development and transfer

temperature increases P.31

2°C, implications of 2.152.16

trends 1.53, 2.40

temperature targets 2.152.18, 2.37

1.5°C threshold 1.15, 1.53, 2.152.17

best available scientific knowledge P.28

collective aim, and 4.034.06

collective commitments, as 2.172.18

drafting history 2.12

global adaptation goal, links with 7.277.28

interpretation challenges 2.17

land use role in 5.01

legally binding status 2.18

obligations 2.18

tracking, guidance on 5.33

UNFCCC 2.152.16

terms see definitions and terms

think tanks 11.4811.49

total greenhouse gas emissions 1.11, 1.64, 21.04

trade

IPR and trade conflicts 10.5410.73

regional trade agreements 10.56, 10.6910.73

US-China trade dispute 10.6310.68

traditional and indigenous knowledge see cultural heritage

training see education and training

Trans-Pacific Partnership 10.56, 10.70

Transforming our World 2015 P.05, P.18

transparency see also Enhanced Transparency Framework

Capacity-Building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) 11.18, 13.5613.57

climate finance, of 9.289.40

developing countries, capacity of 13.5413.57

facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress 13.5013.53

global stocktake, and 13.2013.21

importance of 13.0113.02

Initiative for Climate Action Transparency (ICAT) 11.56, 13.57

ITMOs, for 6.186.22

loss and damage reporting 8.34, 8.368.40

NDCs, requirements for 3.25, 4.334.36, 4.384.39

policy development 13.1113.19

sinks, conservation obligations 1.78

support information, of 13.3713.40

Technical Expert Review (TERs) 13.04, 13.4413.49

UNFCCC and Kyoto reporting obligations 13.1213.19

travaux préparatoires 1.03, 1.121.15

treaties, law of P.02, 1.06

adoption of treaties 29.12

amendments, rules for 22.01

authentic and definitive text 29.0929.11

authentication 29.0129.03, 29.07, 29.0929.11

duly authorised representatives 29.0229.03

entry into force 21.02

general obligations 1.071.09, 2.13, 2.25, 20.2420.27

good faith, principle of 1.071.09, 2.13

interpretation rules P.02, 1.071.09, 2.13

downward adjustments, effective legal implications 4.264.27

legally binding status 2.25

special meanings 1.101.11

limitations and exclusions 20.09

living tree principle P.91

mutatis mutandis application of 29.05, 29.07

treaties with non-state parties 20.0920.11

treaty conclusion 20.0520.08, 20.2420.27

unincorporated treaties, status of 2.412.46

withdrawal from treaties 28.0128.03

treaty amendments

acceptance and entry into force 22.0922.10

adoption, by 22.0322.04, 22.07

annexes, as 23.0223.13

procedures 22.01, 22.07

proposal 22.06

reasons for 22.01

status of 22.12

voting procedures 22.08, 22.11

treaty conclusion 20.0120.04 see also entry into force; ratification; signature

competence and capacity 20.05

consent to be bound 20.0620.07

principles of 20.0520.08

UNFCCC

adaptation and mitigation 2.01, 2.19, 7.057.06, 7.14, 7.54, 7.58, 7.68

agricultural land use 5.235.26

capacity-building, policy development 11.0211.06, 11.65

commitments of 2.03

common but differentiated responsibilities 2.03

definitions 1.501.81, 1.83

drafting, influences on 1.49

education and training, role of 12.1212.13

finance provisions 2.20, 9.069.07

greenhouse gases regulated by 1.70

international cooperation obligations 7.85

non-parties to Paris Agreement, participation of 16.03, 16.1016.12, 18.03

non-state actors, participation of P.82

objective and principles P.11–P.12, 1.62

Paris Agreement, differences from 1.01, 2.192.20, 13.0313.04

parties P.07

reporting obligations 13.1113.19

technology transfer and development 10.0110.10

temperature targets 2.152.16

transparency arrangements 13.0313.04, 13.1113.19

urgent threats P.8, P.17–P.18, P.20, P.29

withdrawal criteria 28.05

unilateral declarations

interpretation of 4.594.61, 27.07

NDCs as 4.544.61

use of 27.11

United Nations

2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development 10.4310.44

Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 7.76

official languages 29.10

Principles for Responsible Banking 2.22

Secretary General, depositary role of 26.02

UNDP capacity-building initiatives 11.23

UNEP Adaptation Gap Report 7.1087.109

United States

constitutionalism, influence of 3.293.36

intellectual property rights protection 10.40, 10.6310.68, 10.7010.71

Kyoto Protocol, refusal to ratify 2.08, 3.293.31

obligations, breach of 28.1328.14

public international law, approach to 3.33

re-joining 28.16

US-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change P.15, 1.44, 3.163.17

US-China trade dispute 10.6310.68

US-Mexico-Canada Agreement 10.71

withdrawal of P.07, 4.27, 4.52, 10.64, 28.01, 28.1128.16

universities 11.4411.47

urgent threats

best available scientific knowledge P.26–P.29

response to P16P.29

urgency, interpretation of P.20–P.22

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties P.02 see also treaties, law of

voluntary cooperation see also internationally transferred mitigation outcomes

COP progress 6.846.86

definition 1.83

developed country obligations 1.56

LULUCF sector 5.20, 5.31, 5.365.41

market-based GHG mitigation approaches, generally 6.01, 6.036.04, 6.32

non-market approaches to sustainable development 6.01, 6.786.86

purpose 6.02, 6.06, 6.32

recognition of 6.01

Sustainable Development Mechanism 6.316.77

voluntary REDD+ pledges 5.20, 5.37

voting rights and procedures 20.03, 25.01

Draft Rules of Procedure 25.0425.07

general voting rights 25.02

majority requirement 25.0625.07

restricted voting rights 25.03

treaty amendments, for 22.08, 22.11

vulnerability

adverse effects of climate change response measures, to P.40–P.43, 1.34

climate finance prioritization, and 9.269.27

common concern of mankind, and P.65

developing countries, of P.20, P.32–P.35, 1.33, 11.3811.40

fossil fuel dependence 1.34, 4.41

loss and damage, to 7.10, 8.018.03

refugees P.34–P.35

understanding 11.3811.40

Warsaw International Mechanism 7.09, 8.058.09, 8.148.18, 8.258.26, 8.31, 19.01

water security P.61, 1.53

withdrawal

consequences of 28.03, 28.1428.16

effective date of 28.08

notification requirements 28.0528.07, 28.10

provisions 20.03

time limits 28.0528.07

treaty rules for 28.0128.02

US, by P.07, 4.27, 10.64, 28.01, 28.1128.16

women P.63

World Declaration on the Environmental Rule of Law (IUCN) P.74

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 10.44

World Meterological Organisation (WMO) 7.92

World Trade Organization

TRIPS Agreement 10.54, 10.5710.61

US-China trade dispute 10.6310.68

written notice 24.02, 24.09, 28.0528.06, 28.08