Telework in the 21st Century
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Telework in the 21st Century

An Evolutionary Perspective

Edited by Jon C. Messenger

Technological developments have enabled a dramatic expansion and also an evolution of telework, broadly defined as using ICTs to perform work from outside of an employer’s premises. This volume offers a new conceptual framework explaining the evolution of telework over four decades. It reviews national experiences from Argentina, Brazil, India, Japan, the United States, and ten EU countries regarding the development of telework, its various forms and effects. It also analyses large-scale surveys and company case studies regarding the incidence of telework and its effects on working time, work-life balance, occupational health and well-being, and individual and organizational performance.
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Chapter 6: Organization advantage: Experience of telework in India

Ernesto Noronha and Premilla D’Cruz


Telework is defined as using information and communications technologies to work beyond the employers’ premises. In India, the dominant notion is that telework is meant for married people and women who are primarily employed in the information technology/information technology-enabled services, or the finance or media sectors. The chapter finds that although employees from these sectors dominate telework, but other sectors such as hospitality, telecommunications and manufacturing also employ teleworkers. Teleworking is not only restricted to married women, but is equally availed of by both married men and unmarried employees. However, teleworking is not an employee prerogative; the final decision rests with management, which must implement measures to maintain control. Not surprisingly, a substantial number of teleworking employees report that they work all the time. Consequently, teleworkers argue that employees should have more say when it comes to setting targets, influencing performance appraisals and accessing promotions, privileges, leave and holidays, and overtime payments.

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