Edited by Marta Villar Ezcurra, Janet E. Milne, Hope Ashiabor and Mikael Skou Andersen
Chapter 13: Renewable energy, smart grids and hybrid vehicles: a Brazilian case study
This chapter analyses a Brazilian public programme called Inova Energia, aimed at incentivizing innovative projects in the renewable energy, electricity network and transport sectors. The chapter starts with a doctrinal analysis of the programme in light of the provisions of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. The chapter then explores the source of revenue for the programme and the controversies involving the use of innovation subsidies. The analysis reveals a number of inconsistencies and concerns, including: (1) the non-refundable payments made under the programme constituted subsidies; (2) the programme adopted a de facto local content condition; (3) there is a lack of evidence that the programme effectively fostered innovation; and (4) the programme lacked transparency.
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