Environmental Fiscal Challenges for Cities and Transport
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Environmental Fiscal Challenges for Cities and Transport

Edited by Marta Villar Ezcurra, Janet E. Milne, Hope Ashiabor and Mikael Skou Andersen

As populations become increasingly concentrated in urban centres and mega cities, while demands on transportation continue to grow, the question of how to mitigate the environmental footprint of these trends is ever more pressing. This comprehensive book demonstrates the potentially significant role of environmental taxation and other market-based instruments in meeting these challenges.
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Chapter 16: The use of effective carbon rates as an indicator for climate mitigation policy

Kris Bachus and Ping Gao


In 2016, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) introduced the effective carbon rate (ECR). This innovative indicator measures the combined price put on carbon emissions by energy taxes and emissions trading schemes. In this chapter, we first calculate the national weighted average ECR for a selection of case countries (which is not provided by the OECD), including China, the US, Japan, the UK, France, Germany and Belgium. Second, a comparative case study is carried out for Belgium and China, including the provision of explanations for the differences between them and both countries’ prospects for the near future. Finally, the chapter draws conclusions on two levels. First, lessons from the comparative analysis are transformed into policy recommendations. And second, a discussion is presented on the potential of the ECR as an indicator to measure both the use of economic instruments for the environment and the ambition levels of countries with regard to climate mitigation policy.

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