Smart Cities in the Post-algorithmic Era
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Smart Cities in the Post-algorithmic Era

Integrating Technologies, Platforms and Governance

Edited by Nicos Komninos and Christina Kakderi

Examining the changing nature of cities in the face of smart technology, this book studies key new challenges and capabilities defined by the Internet of Things, data science, blockchain and artificial intelligence. It argues that using algorithmic logic alone for automation and optimisation in modern smart cities is not sufficient, and analyses the importance of integrating this with strong participatory governance and digital platforms for community action.
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Chapter 5: The creation of city smartness: architectures of intelligence in smart cities and smart ecosystems

Nicos Komninos and Anastasia Panori


Smart cities offer a suitable environment for the creation of smart ecosystems by gathering organizations over digital platforms. Smart ecosystems produce externalities similar to spatial agglomerations, and act as environments of intelligence and problem-solving. This chapter identifies a four-layer structure of city intelligence that is generated in smart cities: (i) human intelligence encompassing human abilities and social interaction; (ii) artificial intelligence working complementary to human capabilities, encompassing data collection, mining and analytics; (iii) collective intelligence generated through user engagement and the population of digital spaces; and (iv) collaborative intelligence referring to open innovation, co-creation and co-design in institutions and systems of innovation. Smart cities develop a connected intelligence space, including dimensions of ‘human ability’, ‘artificial modelling’, ‘collectiveness’ and ‘collaboration’. Significant forces that act as connectors in this approach are awareness, collaboration, and positive externalities. Within smart city environments, organizations instead of being part of an established ecosystem have the capacity to build their own smart ecosystem on physical, institutional and digital spaces.

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