Chapter 1: Conservation and violence in Africa
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This opening chapter of the book outlines the concept of violent conservation with specific reference to the African condition to argue that the violence is an enduring feature of conservation on the continent mainly because of four conditions. The first is the perpetual perception and stereotype of black people and indigenous groups in subhuman, hence violence against them is normalized. The second is that Africa's environmental agenda is highly influenced and shaped by global green agendas that the African state implement through violence against its own citizens. Thus, conservation violence at the domestic level cannot be separated from global environmental blueprints. The third condition relates to failure of African states to regain resource sovereignty and transform land tenure regimes. The fourth and last condition is the insertion of neoliberal conservation through which non-state actors exploit both natural resources and people on the continent with the complicity of the state.

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