Outcome Uncertainty in Sporting Events
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Outcome Uncertainty in Sporting Events

Winning, Losing and Competitive Balance

Edited by Plácido Rodríguez, Stefan Kesenne and Brad R. Humphreys

This book examines competitive balance and outcome uncertainty from multiple perspectives. Chapters address the topic in different sports in a range of countries, to help to understand its significance. It provides readers with important new insights into previously unexplored dimensions as well as a rich context for better understanding why fans, teams, and leagues value competitive balance. The book challenges readers to think about the topic in a broad and rigorous way, and in some cases to question widely held beliefs about how outcome uncertainty motivates competitive balance, and how sports fans actually view competitive balance.
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Chapter 8: The price of football depends on the owner of the ball and the unbalance of the league

Luis Carlos Sánchez, Angel Barajas and Patricio Sánchez-Fernández


The influence of market size, purchasing power or sport success in sport pricing policies has been studied. However, the influence of competitive balance and clubs’ ownership is still under-investigated. This chapter covers this gap and studies the effect of both of these on the price of the season tickets for teams of the four main European football leagues from 2014 to 2017. The results show that the competitive unbalance of a league has a positive influence on the price of season tickets. A possible explanation is that fans of teams paid an extra price for competing with more powerful teams that can provide the ‘star effect’. The results also show that a greater concentration of ownership implies more expensive season tickets. These results are in line with the theory that the participation of customer and stakeholder-orientated owners in firms avoids excessive prices in non-competitive situations.

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