Handbook of Research on Family Business, Second Edition
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Handbook of Research on Family Business, Second Edition

Edited by Kosmas X. Smyrnios, Panikkos Z. Poutziouris and Sanjay Goel

During the previous decade, the multi-disciplinary field of family business has advanced significantly in terms of advances in theory, development of sophisticated empirical instruments, systematic measurement of family business activity, use of alternative research methodologies and deployment of robust tools of analysis. This second edition of the Handbook of Research on Family Business presents important research and conceptual developments across a broad range of topics. The contributors – notable researchers in the field – explore the frontiers of knowledge in family business entrepreneurship and stimulate critical thinking, enriching the repository of theoretical frameworks and methodologies.
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Chapter 25: The push–pull of Indigenous Sámi family reindeer herding enterprises: a metaphor for sustainable entrepreneurship

Léo-Paul Dana and Kosmas X. Smyrnios


In Norway, the Sámi comprise 96 per cent of the population of Guovdageaidnu/Kautokeino, 94 per cent of Kárá_johka/Karasjok, 75 per cent of Unjárga/Nesseby, and 53 per cent of Deatnu/Tana. A Salish chief referred to Indigenous peoples as the Fourth World (Manuel and Posluns, 1974). According to Paine (1984), Fourth World refers to ‘(a) ethnicity within a minority context, but (b) a minority context different from that of immigrant groups’ (p. 213). Paine (1985) emphasized that these peoples were once free, but disqualified by foreign forces of nationalism. Although reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) herding has traditionally been central to the entrepreneurship sector of Norway’s Indigenous people, recent changes have transformed this occupation. In former times, a herder had approximately 250 reindeer. A greater number of animals meant more wealth and power. The reindeer were useful throughout their lives, and when harvested every part was used; there was no waste. Technological changes transformed this sector; the snowmobile and the helicopter facilitated herding, and in theory it became easier to manage more animals than ever before, but this gave rise to a cash society. Increasing state intervention has been complicating matters, applying food industry norms to the handling of animals and their meat. Mainstream business strategy attempts to view herding as an industry. This sector, however, is more successful when animals are not managed in farms, but when man follows the herd in a natural setting.

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