Criminal Enforcement of Intellectual Property
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Criminal Enforcement of Intellectual Property

A Handbook of Contemporary Research

Edited by Christophe Geiger

This wide-ranging Research Handbook is the first to offer a stimulating and systematic review of the framework for criminal enforcement of intellectual property rights. If counterfeiting constitutes an ever-growing international phenomenon with major economic and social repercussions, potentially affecting consumer safety and public health, the question of which are the appropriate instruments to enforce IP rights is a complex and sensitive one. Although criminal penalties can constitute strong and effective means of enforcement, serious doubts exist as to whether criminal sanctions are appropriate in every infringement situation. Drawing on legal, economic, historical and judicial perspectives, this book provides a differentiated sector-by-sector approach to the question of enforcement, and draws useful conclusions for future legislative initiatives at European, international and national levels.
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Chapter 3: Counterfeiting and public health

Duncan Matthews


In the debate about counterfeiting and public health there is a tendency to conflate three distinct issues: first, counterfeit goods that infringe trademarks; second, medicines suspected of infringing patents; and, third, falsified medicines which contain the wrong or insufficient active ingredients. Counterfeiting is a term with a very specific meaning in intellectual property law. It describes the theft of brand owners’ intellectual property, namely a trademark violation.2 This very specific meaning of the term is set out in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement), which defines counterfeiting as use of a trademark or mark similar to a trademark without the permission of the rights holder. Specifically, the TRIPS Agreement defines ‘counterfeit goods’ in footnote 14 of Article 51 as: In the context of pharmaceutical products, the World Health Organization (WHO) uses a similar definition to describe a counterfeit medicine as one that is ‘deliberately and fraudulently mislabelled with respect to identity and/or source.’ Particular countries also define in different ways what is to be understood by counterfeiting. In the United States, it is directly related to trademark violations.5 Other countries focus instead on the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) contained in medicinal products.

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