Modern Piracy
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Modern Piracy

Legal Challenges and Responses

Edited by Douglas Guilfoyle

Modern Piracy is the first book to survey the law of maritime piracy from both public law and commercial law perspectives, as well as providing a contextual overview of piracy in major hotspots. Topics covered include issues of international law, law-enforcement cooperation, private armed security, ransoms, insurance and carriage of goods by sea. It provides a comprehensive introduction to the range of legal issues presented by the modern piracy menace and will be of interest to scholars and practitioners alike.
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Chapter 10: International and comparative regulation of private maritime security companies employed in counter-piracy

James Kraska


This chapter analyzes the legal issues surrounding the use of private security companies (PSC)/private maritime security companies (PMSC) and their use of private contracted armed security personnel (PCASP) to protect commercial vessels. In particular, standards and rules are emerging for employment of PCASP to guard ships transiting the High Risk Area (HRA) threatened by Somali pirates in the western Indian Ocean. Flag states, the shipping industry and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) have developed recommendations to states and guidelines for the shipping industry to standardize practice and regulate the use of PCASP. The regulations concern the command relationship between the master and the armed security contractors, appropriate rules for the use of force against threats to the vessel or its crew, questions of liability, and carriage of weapons in the ports of other countries. Most of these issues fall within the prerogative of the flag state. Questions arising from the use by PCASP of weapons against persons on board a foreign-flagged ship, the presence of weapons or use of force in foreign ports, or perhaps in some cases, use of PCASP in territorial seas, may require diplomatic negotiation. Amidst the work to develop international standards, chief master Sergeant Massimiliano Latorre and Sergeant Salvatore Girone, guards on board the Italian-flagged oil tanker Enrica Lexie and active duty members of the elite San Marco Marine regiment, were involved in a 15 February 2012 incident off Alappuzha near Kerala, India. The two Marines allegedly shot and killed two Indian fishermen,

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