The idea that the quality of health care provider performance can be enhanced by publishing information about outcomes (as distinct from merely collecting such information) goes back to the pioneering work in England of Florence Nightingale (1820–1910), William Farr (1807–1883) and Ernest Codman (1869–1940) in the USA. In the US, a major contemporary impetus for such publication has come from managed care and third party payers’ concerns about cost escalation and the large geographical variations in outcomes. In the UK, the main impetus seems to have been the manifest failure of self-regulation in the NHS as revealed by a series of scandals in the 1990s. See Information Asymmetry, Information Bias, Information Cost, Information in Decision Making. See Mason and Street (2005).