Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Governance and Politics
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Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Governance and Politics

Edited by Philipp H. Pattberg and Fariborz Zelli

Providing its readers with a unique point of reference, as well as stimulus for further research, the Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Governance and Politics is an indispensable tool for anyone interested in the governance and politics of the environment, particularly students, researchers and practitioners. This comprehensive reference work, written by some of the most eminent academics in the field, contains entries on numerous aspects of global environmental governance and politics, including concepts and definitions; theories and methods; actors; institutions; issue-areas; cross-cutting questions; and overlaps with non-environmental fields.
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Editors and contributors


Philipp Pattberg is professor for transnational environmental governance and department head of the Department of Environmental Policy Analysis, Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam. Within the Netherlands Research School for Socio-Economic and Natural Sciences of the Environment, Pattberg coordinates the research cluster on global environmental governance and politics. He is also chair of the board of the Global Environmental Change Section of the German Political Science Association and a senior research fellow of the international Earth System Governance Project.

Fariborz Zelli is associate professor at the Department of Political Science at Lund University. Prior to this, he worked at the German Development Institute and the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. He is vice-chair of the Environmental Studies Section of the International Studies Association and chair of the board of the Global Environmental Change Section of the German Political Science Association. His publications include a special issue of Global Environmental Politics on institutional fragmentation (2013, as guest editor) and Global Climate Governance Beyond 2012 (Cambridge University Press, 2010, as co-editor).


Kenneth W. Abbott is Jack E. Brown professor of law in the Arizona State University College of Law, professor of global studies in the School of Politics and Global Studies, and senior sustainability scholar in the Global Institute of Sustainability. He is also faculty co-director of the Center for Law and Global Affairs. Abbott is also a lead faculty member of the Earth System Governance Project, and a member of the editorial boards of International Theory, Regulation & Governance and Journal of International Economic Law.

Camilla Adelle is senior fellow at the Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation, Department of Political Sciences, at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, where her work focuses on various aspects of environmental governance. She has a particular interest in policy coordination and coherence as well as the international or the ‘external’ dimension of the EU environmental policy. Previously she was a senior research associate at the University of East Anglia (UK) and a research analyst at the Institute for European Environmental Policy (UK and Belgium).

Liliana Andonova is professor at the International Relations / Political Science Department and academic co-director of the Center for International Environmental Studies at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva. She has been named Giorgio Ruffolo fellow in sustainability science at Harvard University and Jean Monnet fellow at the European University Institute. Andonova is the author of Transnational Politics of the Environment: EU Integration and Environmental Policy p. xviin Eastern Europe (MIT Press, 2003) and co-author of Transnational Climate Change Governance (Cambridge University Press, 2014). Her research and publications focus on international institutions, public–private partnerships, European integration, environmental governance and the interplay between international and domestic politics.

Steinar Andresen is research professor at the Fridtjof Nansen Institute in Norway and adjunct professor at the Pluricourts Center of Excellence at the University of Oslo (UiO). He has been professor of political science at the Department of Political Science, UiO and guest researcher at Brookings Institution, Princeton University, the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, and the University of Washington, Seattle. He has published extensively, particularly on various aspects of global environmental governance.

Walter F. Baber is director of the Graduate Center for Public Policy and Administration at California State University, Long Beach. He holds both a PhD in political science and a JD in law. He is the author or co-author of four books as well as several dozen journal articles and book chapters. In 2009, he held the Fulbright distinguished chair of environmental policy at the Polytechnic Institute of Turin, Italy. In 2011, he received the International Studies Association Book Award (with Robert V. Bartlett).

Karin Bäckstrand is professor in environmental social science at the Department of Political Science at Stockholm University. Her research revolves around global environmental politics, the role of science in environmental decision-making, the politics of climate change and the democratic legitimacy of global governance. Bäckstrand’s work is published in journals such as Global Environmental Politics, European Journal of International Relations, Global Environmental Change and Environmental Politics. Her most recent book is the co-edited volume Rethinking the Green State: Environmental Governance towards Climate and Sustainability Transition (with Annica Kronsell, Routledge, 2015).

Robert V. Bartlett is the Gund professor of liberal arts and chair of the Political Science Department at the University of Vermont. His previous institutions include Purdue University, Boise State University, Texas Tech University and Indiana University. He has twice been a senior Fulbright scholar (Lincoln University and University of Canterbury, New Zealand, and Trinity College, Ireland). In 2007 he was distinguished Fulbright chair of environmental policies at the Turin Polytechnic Institute and University in Italy. He has published many research articles and ten books, most recently (with Walter F. Baber) Consensus and Global Environmental Governance: Deliberative Democracy in Nature’s Regime (MIT Press, 2015).

Isa Baud is professor of international development studies at the University of Amsterdam, leading the research program Governance and Inclusive Development. She is president of the European Association of Development Research Institutes, with 160 institutional members. Her interests lie in urban development, digitized spatial knowledge management, environmental management and poverty. She is scientific coordinator of the EU-funded project Chance2Sustain, examining development strategies of medium-size fast-growing cities in the Global South, through the lens expanding use of ICT-GIS-based knowledge management.

p. xviiSteffen Bauer is senior researcher in the Department of Environmental Policy and Natural Resources Management at the German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) in Bonn, Germany. His research addresses global environmental governance and sustainable development with a focus on the United Nations and international climate policy. Bauer coordinates the environmental module of the DIE’s postgraduate training course and is Germany’s science and technology correspondent to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.

Silke Beck is senior researcher at the Department of Environmental Politics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany. Her research focuses on the relationship between science and governance in global environmental change. Beck has contributed to set up the UFZ Science–Policy Expert Group. This interdisciplinary group has established a leading role in research on science–policy interactions and actively designed and supported such activities in the field of biodiversity and ecosystem services, such as national (stakeholder) contributions to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.

Marianne Beisheim is senior associate at Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, German Institute for International and Security Affairs, an independent research center charged with providing analysis and recommendations to the German parliament and federal government. Her research focuses on global governance issues in the field of sustainable development. She also directs a project on partnerships for sustainable development, funded by the German Research Foundation in the context of the Berlin research center SFB700.

David Benson is lecturer in politics at the University of Exeter. Benson’s research, based at the Environment and Sustainability Institute in Penryn, encompasses a range of issue areas at the interface between political and environmental sciences, most notably EU environmental and energy policy, comparative environmental politics and governance, and public participation in environmental decision-making.

Steven Bernstein is professor of political science and co-director of the Environmental Governance Lab at the Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto. His research and publications span the areas of global governance and institutions, global environmental politics, non-state forms of governance, international political economy and internationalization of public policy. He has also been a consultant for the United Nations on institutional reform for the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development and its follow-up.

Katja Biedenkopf is assistant professor of international and European politics at the University of Leuven, Belgium. Her research focus is on global environmental governance and the external effects of European Union environmental policy, in particular in the areas of chemicals, electronic waste and climate policy.

Frank Biermann is professor of political science at the VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands, where he heads the Environmental Policy Analysis group at the Institute for Environmental Studies. He is also a visiting professor at Lund University, Sweden, and chairs the Earth System Governance Project, a global transdisciplinary research network. His most recent book is Earth System Governance: World Politics p. xviiiin the Anthropocene (MIT Press, 2014). Among other honors, Biermann has won a Societal Impact Award for his ‘path-breaking research on global environmental policy.’

Kate Booth is a place theorist and social scientist at the University of Tasmania, with an ongoing interest in environmental philosophy and research methodology. She is particularly interested in how people construct meaning in relation to the places where they live, and how this relates to perceptions and decision-making pertaining to place-based phenomenon such as natural disasters.

Ulrich Brand is professor of international politics at the University of Vienna, where he currently coordinates two research projects on social-ecological governance and transformation and the research cluster Governance, Democracy, Solidarity at the Faculty of Social Sciences. Brand was co-speaker of the Political Economy section of the German Political Science Association (2006–2012) and member of the Enquete (Expert) Commission ‘Growth, Well-Being, Quality of Life’ of the German Bundestag (2011–2013).

Per-Olof Busch is post-doctoral researcher at the Chair of International Organisations and Public Policy, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Potsdam. He is co-editor of a special issue of the Politische Vierteljahresschrift on politics and environment and has published articles in the Journal of European Public Policy and European Journal of Political Research as well as various contributions to edited volumes with major university presses. He is a member of the management committee of the working group Global Change in the German Association for Political Science.

Sander Chan, PhD, is a political scientist and guest researcher at the Institute for Environmental Studies of VU University Amsterdam, and the German Development Institute. He was also research fellow under the EU Science and Technology Fellowship Program in China, hosted by Renmin University of China. His research interests include the application of public–private partnerships in China’s sustainable development, and the role of non-state and subnational initiatives in global climate governance.

Kathryn Chelminski is a PhD candidate in the International Relations/Political Science Department at the Graduate Institute, Geneva, where she also received her MA. Spanning both academic and policy spheres, her research focuses on clean energy technology diffusion, energy and environmental governance, and international organizations. She has also previously worked as a researcher for the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency within the International Energy Agency, as well as UNEP’s Post-Conflict and Disaster Management Branch.

Jennifer Clapp is a Canada research chair in global food security and sustainability and professor in the Environment and Resource Studies Department at the University of Waterloo. She is also a Trudeau Foundation fellow. Clapp has written widely on global governance issues at the intersection of food security, the global economy, and environmental issues. Her recent books include: Hunger in the Balance: The New Politics of International Food Aid (Cornell University Press, 2012), Food (Polity, 2012) and Paths to p. xixa Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment (with Peter Dauvergne, MIT Press, 2011).

Daniel Compagnon is professor of international relations at Sciences Po Bordeaux, France and holds a PhD from the Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour. His research interests include global governance and environmental politics. He contributed to various projects on transnational governance of climate change, biodiversity negotiations, regionalism and public–private partnerships in sustainable development and regime complexes. Besides several books and book chapters on both the environment and African politics, he has published in a number of academic journals.

Dana Cordell, PhD, is research principal at the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, where she undertakes and leads sustainable resource research projects. Cordell co-founded the Global Phosphorus Research Initiative (GPRI) in 2008 with colleagues in Sweden and Australia, as an outcome of her doctoral research ‘Sustainability implications of global phosphorus scarcity for food security.’ The GPRI now represents six leading research institutes across Europe, Australia and North America. In addition to transdisciplinary research, the GPRI facilitates networking and public debate among policymakers, industry, scientists and the public regarding the risks and opportunities for food systems associated with global phosphorus security.

Vincent Cornelissen is currently doing an internship at the Netherlands’ Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the topic of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. He has field experience in Ghana and has just completed his Master’s degree in human geography from the University of Amsterdam focusing on sustainable and inclusive development. His thesis was about inclusive development related to the post-2015 United Nations development agenda.

Eleni Dellas is PhD researcher at the Department of Environmental Policy Analysis of the Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam. She holds an MSc in political science and global environmental governance from VU University Amsterdam, and a BA in European studies from Maastricht University. Her PhD research examines the allocation of resources in the context of market-based instruments for environmental governance, such as fisheries’ individual transferable quotas and water quality trading schemes.

Simon Dietz is director of the ESRC Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, co-director of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment and professor of Environmental Policy, all at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists and the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management.

Robyn Eckersley is professor of political science and chair of the discipline of political science in the School of Social and Political Sciences, and an Executive Board member of the Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, at the University of Melbourne. She is a fellow of the Australian Academy of Social Sciences and co-convener and treasurer p. xxof the Environmental Politics and Policy Research Standing Group of the Australian Political Studies Association.

Rita Floyd is lecturer and Birmingham fellow in conflict and security at the Department of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Birmingham, UK and a fellow of the Institute for Environmental Security, The Hague. She is author of several peer-reviewed articles and of Security and the Environment: Securitisation Theory and US Environmental Security Policy (Cambridge University Press, 2010). Together with Richard A. Matthew she is the editor of Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues (Routledge, 2013).

David John Frank is professor of sociology and courtesy professor of education and political science at the University of California, Irvine. He studies changes in the cultural infrastructure of world society, with special focus on global environmental protection, the university and the knowledge society, and the criminal regulation of sex. He holds degrees in sociology from Stanford and the University of Chicago. Before coming to Irvine in 2002, he was on the faculty at Harvard University.

Victor Galaz is associate professor in political science at the Stockholm Resilience Centre (Stockholm University) and acting executive director for the program Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. His research interests explore institutional and political dimensions of the Anthropocene era and ‘planetary boundaries.’ His work has been published in journals such as Governance and International Environmental Agreements, and he is also the author of Global Environmental Governance, Technology And Politics: The Anthropocene Gap (Edward Elgar, 2014).

Kenneth Genskow is associate professor in the Department of Urban and Regional Planning at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. He also serves as state specialist for environmental policy and planning with University of Wisconsin-Cooperative Extension. Genskow’s research, teaching, and extension activities address human dimensions of natural resources and environmental management, including strategies for collaboration, understanding the effectiveness of policy tools on voluntary environmental management programs and integration of social and biophysical sciences in planning.

Sophie Godin-Beekmann is senior researcher at Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and director of Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines Observatory. She is secretary of the International Ozone Commission, a member of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy for Ozone panel and a member of the Global Atmospheric Watch Scientific Advisory Group on ozone at the World Meteorological Organization.

Aarti Gupta is associate professor with the Environmental Policy Group, Department of Social Sciences, Wageningen University, the Netherlands. She is also lead faculty of the Earth System Governance Project and associate editor of Global Environmental Politics. Her research focuses on global environmental governance and the role of science, knowledge and transparency therein, in the issue-areas of biosafety, forests and climate. She is the co-editor (with Michael Mason) of p. xxiTransparency in Global Environmental Governance: Critical Perspectives (MIT Press, 2014).

Joyeeta Gupta is professor of environment and development in the Global South at the Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research of the University of Amsterdam and UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education in Delft. She is editor-in-chief of International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics and is on the editorial board of some other journals. She has recently written the History of Global Climate Governance (Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Randolph Haluza-DeLay is associate professor of sociology at King’s University College in Edmonton Alberta. He has edited two books, Speaking for Ourselves: Environmental Justice in Canada (University of British Columbia Press, 2009) and How the World’s Religions are Responding to Climate Change (Routledge, 2013). His recent research focuses on the sociology of environmental sustainability and social justice. He has published more than two dozen publications, journal articles and book chapters from research on environmental justice, social movements, political ecology and the Alberta oil sands, anti-racism and environmental education.

Ann Hironaka is associate professor of sociology at the University of California—Irvine. She studies environmental sociology, politics and war from a global perspective. Her recent book, Greening the Globe: World Society and Environmental Change (Cambridge University Press, 2014), examines the historical emergence of the global environmental regime and its impact on national policy and environmental practices around the world. Her work on environmentalism has appeared in the American Sociological Review, International Organization and Social Forces.

Marija Isailovic is PhD researcher at the Department of Environmental Policy Analysis of the Institute of Environmental Studies at Vrije University in Amsterdam. Her work focuses on examining fragmentation in environmental governance architecture with particular emphasis on the issue of legitimacy from the Global South perspective. In addition, she has a broad experience in conducting research on various sustainability issues in the context of South and Southeast Asia and small island developing states in the Pacific.

Maria Ivanova is associate professor of global governance and co-director of the Center for Governance and Sustainability at the McCormack Graduate School for Policy and Global Studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston. She was coordinating lead author for the flagship UN environmental assessment Global Environmental Outlook, has numerous publications including three short documentaries on global environmental governance and is editor of the Governance and Sustainability Issue Brief Series. She serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of the UN Secretary-General and the Board of UN University.

Anne Jerneck is associate professor of sustainability science at Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies. She is also principal investigator and PhD advisor at Lund University Centre of Excellence for the Integration of Social and Natural Dimensions of Sustainability. Her research and teaching is oriented toward processes of social, structural and institutional change mainly in relation to poverty, gender inequality p. xxiiand the politics of sustainability in sub-Saharan Africa. Her methodological contribution to sustainability science centres on knowledge structuring, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity.

Kristina Jönsson is associate professor in political science at Lund University. Her main research interests concern politics, development and international cooperation, with special focus on governance and policy issues in the field of health. Recent publications include ‘Legitimation challenges in global health governance: the case of non-communicable diseases’ in Globalizations (2014), ‘Global and local health governance: civil society, human rights and HIV/AIDS’ in Third World Quarterly (with Christer Jönsson, 2012) and Politics and Development in a Globalised World (with Anne Jerneck and Malin Arvidson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012).

Andrew Jordan is professor of environmental policy at the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, UK. He is interested in many dimensions of the environmental policy, including policy formulation, policy instrumentation and policy dismantling. He has undertaken comparative work on these topics in many substantive policy areas including climate change, water and sustainable development.

Sylvia Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen is assistant professor with the Public Administration and Policy Group of Wageningen University, the Netherlands and adjunct professor in global environmental governance at Helsinki University, Finland. Her research tries to understand the key determinants of what makes global governance processes with environmental and social implications exert influence and build legitimacy. Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen is senior research fellow of the international Earth System Governance Project and a member of the editorial board of the journal International Environmental Agreements.

Marcel Kok is senior researcher at PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. He studied policy sciences and environmental sciences at Utrecht University. At PBL he has worked extensively with colleagues on integrated assessment models of global environmental change. This collaboration resulted in various PBL reports including Roads from Rio+20—published in the run up to Rio+20 conference—that combines model-based scenario analysis with governance. Furthermore, Kok contributed to global assessment reports including the United Nations Environment Programme’s Global Environmental Outlook and the Global Biodiversity Outlook for the CBD.

Annica Kronsell is professor and researcher in international relations and gender, feminist theory and environmental and climate politics at the Department of Political Science at Lund University, Sweden. Her recent publications include: ‘Rethinking the Green State. Environmental governance towards climate and sustainability transitions,’ Routledge, Earthscan (with Karin Bäckstrand 2015), ‘The (in)visibility of gender in Scandinavian climate policy-making,’ International Feminist Journal of Politics (with Gunnhildur Magnusdottir, 2014), and ‘Climate change through the lens of intersectionality,’ Environmental Politics (with Anna Kaijser, 2013).

p. xxiiiMiriam Lang is a sociologist who currently works as head of office for the German Rosa Luxemburg Foundation for the Andean Region in Quito. She has coordinated the Permanent Working Group on Alternatives to Development since its creation in 2011. In that group, academics, political activists and politicians from Latin America and Europe work on alternatives to capitalist, patriarchal and colonial power relations, aiming also at building democratic and non-depredative societal nature relations beyond western development paradigms.

Sijeong Lim is assistant professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Amsterdam. Her research interests lie at the intersection of international political economy and public policy, especially in the areas of social and environmental policies. She received her doctoral degree in Political Science from the University of Washington, Seattle, and worked as a post-doctoral researcher at Stockholm University.

Jane Lister is senior research fellow at the University of British Columbia. Her research focuses on the global environmental governance implications of transnational private regulation including the business and politics of retail-led supply chain sustain-ability efforts. Her book publications include: Eco-Business: A Big Brand Takeover of Sustainability (with P. Dauvergne, MIT Press, 2013), Corporate Social Responsibility and the State (University of British Columbia Press, 2011), and Timber (with P. Dauvergne, Polity, 2011). She has recently published articles in Global Policy, Global Environmental Change, Millennium and Organization & Environment.

Kyle Magyera is wetland policy specialist with the Wisconsin Wetlands Association (WWA). He coordinates development and delivery of local government outreach tools and trainings, supports WWA’s policy analysis, and provides assistance to citizens and organizations on wetland protection, restoration and management concerns. Magyera previously worked at the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and holds Master of Science degrees in both urban and regional planning and water resources management from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Ayşem Mert is postdoctoral researcher at the Centre for Global Cooperation Research/ Kaete Hamburger Kolleg, University of Duisburg-Essen and research fellow of the international Earth System Governance Project. Her PhD research focused on public–private partnerships for sustainable development, and is published by Edward Elgar as Environmental Governance through Partnerships: A Discourse Theoretical Study. Her current research focuses on transnational cooperation and global discourses of democracy and environment.

Dominic Moran is professor of environmental economics at Scotland’s Rural College in Edinburgh. He specializes in applied cost-benefit analysis of environmental and agri-environmental policy. This includes the economics of biodiversity conservation and climate change (mitigation and adaptation in agriculture and related land use). He has consulted widely for the United Nations, World Bank and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Gerry Nagtzaam is senior lecturer at the Faculty of Law, Monash University, Australia. His research interests include the formation and development of ecoterrorist groups; the study of normative development in international environmental treaties; nuclear waste p. xxivdisposal in democratic states with a particular emphasis on environmental justice issues and biodiversity loss and the critical evaluation of programs and organizations seeking to curtail such activities.

Tobias Nielsen is researcher at the Department of Political Science at Lund University and part of the strategic research area called ‘Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in a Changing Climate.’ Nielsen has conducted research on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and on global climate negotiations at the United Nations Framework Conventions on Climate Change. He is also research fellow of the international Earth System Governance Project.

Måns Nilsson is deputy director and research director at Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) and visiting professor in Environmental Strategies Research at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. He is interested in energy and climate policy analysis, strategic assessment, innovation, European policy and global governance. He has slipped more than 30 papers past unsuspecting editors of academic journals. Nilsson combines academic achievement with extensive management experience, overseeing SEI’s overall research strategy as well as managing multiple research and policy projects and programs including advisory and capacity building projects in Europe, Southeast Asia and Africa. Clients have included the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Bank, the European Commission, the Swedish government, bilateral development agencies and the private sector. He received his MSc in international economics from the University of Lund, Sweden, and his PhD in policy analysis from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands.

Chukwumerije Okereke is an associate professor in environment and development at the Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, UK. He is also a senior visiting fellow at the Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford. His research interest is in the ethical and political economy dimensions of global climate governance. He was a lead author in the Fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report (Chapter 4, ‘Equity and sustainable development’).

Tom Oliver is a well-renowned authority on disruptive innovation and holistic thought leader at the best business schools in the world. He founded the Global Leadership Circle at Manchester Business School and contributed to its being ranked as one of the top international business programs. He is the author of the McGraw Hill bestseller Nothing Is Impossible and created the most influential peace gathering in history, the World Peace Foundation and World Peace Festival. Oliver is also a singer-songwriter, and music producer.

Lennart Olsson is professor of geography at Lund University. He is the founding director of the faculty independent research center Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies and the coordinator of the Linnaeus Centre LUCID. Olsson has participated in several international assignments including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the GEO assessment reports of the United Nations Environment Programme. He was also coordinating lead author for the chapter on livelihoods and poverty in IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report 2011–2014. As regards international experience and networks, he has held research positions in Australia, the USA and Hong Kong.

p. xxvJonatan Pinkse is professor of strategy, innovation and entrepreneurship at the Manchester Institute of Innovation Research at the Manchester Business School, University of Manchester. His areas of expertise are climate change, corporate sustainability and renewable energy, on which he has published widely in international journals, including Academy of Management Review, Journal of International Business Studies, Research Policy, Energy Policy and edited volumes.

Aseem Prakash is professor of political science, Walker family professor for the College of Arts and Sciences and director of the Center for Environmental Politics at University of Washington, Seattle. He is the founding general editor of Cambridge University Press Series in Business and Public Policy, the co-editor of Journal of Policy Analysis and Management and the associate editor of Business & Society.

Ortwin Renn is full professor for environmental sociology and technology assessment and dean of the Economic and Social Science Department at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. He directs the Stuttgart Research Center for Interdisciplinary Risk and Innovation Studies at the University of Stuttgart and the non-profit company DIALOGIK, a research institute for the investigation of communication and participation processes in environmental policymaking. Renn also serves as adjunct professor for integrated risk analysis at Stavanger University, Norway and as affiliate professor for risk governance at Beijing Normal University.

Kristin Rosendal is research professor in political science with the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway. She has published extensively on the formation, implementation and interaction of international regimes on environmental and resources management and trade—in particular, issues relating to biodiversity, forestry management, biotechnology and genetic resources. A main research interest is in access and benefit-sharing and property rights to genetic resources in agriculture and aquaculture. Her work includes participation in program boards for the Research Council of Norway, organization of research collaboration with external universities and research institutes, and scientific panels for international conferences.

Mirjam A.F. Ros-Tonen is associate professor at the Governance and Inclusive Development Group of the Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research, University of Amsterdam. She coordinates the WOTRO integrated program Inclusive Value Chain Collaboration for Sustainable Landscapes and Greater Food Sovereignty among Tree Crop Farmers in Ghana and South Africa and teaches at the Department of Human Geography, Planning and International Development Studies. She is member of the editorial board of TESG, Journal of Economic and Social Geography.

Delf Rothe is research fellow at the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg. He wrote his PhD thesis on the securitization of international climate politics with a scholarship from the German Heinrich-Böll Foundation. Rothe has published on securitization theory, risk management, global climate governance and discourse theory in journals such as Security Dialogue, International Relations and the Journal of International Relations and Development. He is also co-editor of two recent volumes, Interpretive Approaches to Global Climate Governance (Routledge, 2013) and Euro-Mediterranean Relations after the Arab Spring (Ashgate, 2013).

p. xxviEvan Schofer is professor of sociology at the University of California, Irvine. His research addresses the environmentalism, comparative differences in political participation, the global proliferation of voluntary association, and the worldwide expansion of higher education and science. His work, which has appeared in the American Sociological Review, the American Journal of Sociology and International Organization, seeks to develop and extend neo-institutional theory, attending to the central role of world society, international institutions and global culture in shaping social life. Schofer earned his BA, MA and PhD from Stanford University.

Bernd Siebenhüner is professor for ecological economics and vice-president for graduate education and quality management of the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Germany. He is coordinator of the Master’s program on sustainability economics and management and was a member of the steering committee of the Earth System Governance Project. Siebenhüner has coordinated numerous research undertakings in the fields of international organizations, global environmental governance, social learning, corporate sustainability strategies, climate adaptation and biodiversity governance, and the role of science in global environmental governance.

Nils Simon is researcher at the German Institute for International and Security Affairs at the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik in Berlin. He currently studies transnational partnerships for sustainable development as part of the Collaborative Research Center on Governance in Areas of Limited Statehood. His PhD thesis focused on the management of institutional complexity in the case of global chemicals governance.

Jan Stel is emeritus professor of ocean space and human activity at the International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development, Maastricht University, the Netherlands. Stel was trained as a paleontologist at the universities in Groningen and Leiden, the Netherlands. As a science manager he organized the Snellius-II expedition, the Indian Ocean expedition, the first Dutch Antarctic expedition and the first EUREKA/EUROMAR market between industry, government and science. He was actively involved in the development of operational oceanography, developed an international, European consortium for the participation in the Ocean Drilling Program and conceived the notion of ‘Partners in Science’ for UNESCO/IOC as well as the notion of ‘Ocean Space’ for outreach. Stel is a popular science writer and consultant.

Hayley Stevenson is senior lecturer in international relations at the University of Sheffield, UK and a future research leader of the Economic and Social Research Council (2013–2016). She has previously worked at the Centre for Deliberative Democracy and Global Governance, at the Australian National University. She is the author of Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance (University of California Press, 2013) and Democratizing Global Climate Governance (with John S. Dryzek, Cambridge University Press, 2014), as well as numerous articles on international climate change politics.

Olav Schram Stokke is a professor of political science at the University of Oslo and a research professor at the Fridtjof Nansen Institute. His area of expertise is international relations with special emphasis on institutional analysis, resource and environmental p. xxviimanagement, and regional cooperation. Among his recent books are Disaggregating International Regimes: A New Approach to Evaluation and Comparison (MIT Press, 2012), Managing Institutional Complexity: Regime Interplay and Global Environmental Change (MIT Press, 2011) and International Cooperation and Arctic Governance (Routledge, 2010).

Kacper Szulecki is assistant professor at the Department of Political Science, University of Oslo. He is also board director of the Environmental Studies and Policy Research Institute in Poland, and a fellow of the Earth System Governance Project. He was previously Dahrendorf fellow at the Hertie School of Governance and a visiting scholar in the Department of Climate Policy of the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin). He was also a researcher in the Cluster of Excellence EXC 16 at Konstanz University and an intern at the Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU Amsterdam.

Morten Walløe Tvedt is senior research fellow at the Fridtjof Nansen Institute. His main research area is law governing innovation in the bio- and gene technology area. His main focus is patent law, contract law for bioinnovation, genetic resources laws and aspects of constitutional law in the light of international law. He has a special interest in looking at how law can contribute to conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. Currently he is exploring the discretion for developing countries in implementing their patent law obligations and the manner in which contracts can be used to promote bioinnovation.

Arild Underdal is professor of political science at the University of Oslo and at the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo. Most of his research has focused on international cooperation, with particular reference to environmental governance. His main current project deals with Strategic Challenges in International Climate and Energy Policy. Underdal has served as rector of the University of Oslo (2002–2005) and as board member/chair of several institutions.

Thijs Van de Graaf is assistant professor of international politics at the Ghent Institute for International Studies, Ghent University. His research covers international energy politics, global governance and international institutions. Van de Graaf is co-editor of Rising Powers and Multilateral Institutions (Palgrave, 2015), author of The Politics and Institutions of Global Energy Governance (Palgrave, 2013) and co-author of Global Energy Governance in a Multipolar World (Ashgate, 2010).

Detlef van Vuuren is senior researcher at the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency as part of the IMAGE integrated assessment modeling team. Van Vuuren is also professor at Utrecht University on Integrated Assessment of Global Environmental Change and is involved as editor in the journal Climatic Change and Earth System Dynamics. He is also involved in the Integrated Assessment Modelling Consortium, the Working Group on Coupled Models and the Global Carbon Project. Van Vuuren has acted as coordinating lead author and lead author on several environmental assessments, including those by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Global Environmental Outlook.

p. xxviiiPier Vellinga is professor in climate change, Wageningen University and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, and holds a PhD from Delft University of Technology. Vellinga was international advisor on climate change at the Netherland’s Ministry of Environment, active in setting up the International Panel on Climate Change as vice-chairman (1989–1994), helped develop the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, was director of the Institute for Environmental Sciences and chairman of STAP (1994–1998) of the Global Environment Facility. He is now scientific director of the national program ‘Knowledge for Climate’ (2007–2015).

Paul Wapner is professor of global environmental politics in the School of International Service at American University. He is the author of Living through the End of Nature: The Future of American Environmentalism (MIT Press, 2010) and Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics (SUNY Press, 1996) and co-editor of Principled World Politics (with Lester Ruiz, Rowman & Littlefield, 2000) and, most recently, of Global Environmental Politics: From Person to Planet (with Simon Nicholson, Paradigm Publishers, 2014). His interests include: environmental ethics, climate politics and contemplative environmental studies.

Erika Weinthal is the Lee Hill Snowdon professor of environmental policy and associate dean for international programs at the Nicholas School of the Environment at Duke University. She received her PhD in political science from Columbia University. She specializes in global environmental politics with an emphasis on water and energy. Her most recent book is an edited volume entitled, Water and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding (Routledge, 2014). Since 2011, she is associate editor at Global Environmental Politics.

Jørgen Wettestad is research professor at the Fridtjof Nansen Institute (FNI) in Oslo, Norway. His most recent book is EU Climate Policy: Industry, Policy Interaction and External Environment (with Elin Lerum Boasson, Ashgate, 2013). He has published several books and numerous articles on international and EU environmental policy, with particular attention to emissions trading. He has also led and participated in several EU-funded projects, participated in numerous international research projects and has been program director at the FNI for a long period.

Stuart White is professor and director of the Institute for Sustainable Futures, where he leads a team of researchers who create change towards sustainable futures through independent, project-based research. With more than 30 years of experience in sustainability research, White’s work focuses on achieving sustainability outcomes for a range of government, industry and community clients across Australia and internationally. This includes both the design and assessment of programs for improving decision-making and improving resource use. White has written and presented widely on sustainable futures and is a regular commentator on sustainability issues in the media. In 2012, he was awarded the Australian Museum Eureka Prize for Environmental Research.

Oscar Widerberg is researcher at the Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) at VU University Amsterdam, where he studies global environmental governance, climate policy and network theory. He is an Earth System Governance Project research fellow and holds an MSc in environmental policy and management from Utrecht University, and a BSc in international relations from the University of Malmö. Widerberg p. xxixhas published in journals including Global Policy and International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics and is a reviewer for Global Environmental Politics and Environmental Politics, among others. Prior to joining IVM, he worked in the economic research consultancy firm Ecorys and is currently affiliated with Triple E Consulting as (associate) consultant.