Encyclopedia of Private International Law
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Encyclopedia of Private International Law

Edited by Jürgen Basedow, Giesela Rühl, Franco Ferrari and Pedro de Miguel Asensio

The role and character of Private International Law has changed tremendously over the past decades. With the steady increase of global and regional inter-connectedness the practical significance of the discipline has grown. Equally, so has the number of legislative activities on the national, international and, most importantly, the European level. With a world-class editor team, 500 content items and authorship from almost 200 of the world’s foremost scholars, the Encyclopedia of Private International Law is the definitive reference work in the field. 57 different countries are represented by authors who shed light on the current state of Private International Law around the globe, providing unique insights into the discipline and how it is affected by globalization and increased regional integration. The Encyclopedia consists of three inter-linked pillars, enhanced by sophisticated search and cross-linking functionality. The first pillar consists of A-Z coverage of the scope and substance of Private International Law in the form of 247 entries. The second pillar comprises detailed overviews of the Private International Law regimes of 80 countries. The third pillar presents valuable, and often unique, English language translations of the national codifications and Private International Law provisions of those countries. This invaluable combination represents a powerful research tool and an indispensable reference resource.
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Authors

  • María Mercedes Albornoz, Associate Professor at CIDE – Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas, México, D.F. (Mexico), mercedes.albornoz@cide.edu

  • Mexico

  • Anton Asoskov, Professor at Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation), aasoskov@gmail.com

  • Russian Federation

  • Mathias Audit, Professor at Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense (France), mathias.audit@wanadoo.fr

  • Bioethics and private international law

  • Louis d’Avout, Professor at Université Panthéon-Assas, Paris (France), ldavout@gmail.com

  • Property and proprietary rights

  • Tito Ballarino († 2014), Professor at the University of Padova (Italy)

  • Italy (together with Andrea Bonomi)

  • Pablo Marcello Baquero, Ph.D. Candidate at the Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom) (CAPES-Cambridge Scholarship), pablo_baquero@hotmail.com

  • Brazil (together with Claudia Lima Marques and Lucas Lixinski)

  • Stefania Bariatti, Professor at the University of Milan (Italy), stefania.bariatti@unimi.it

  • Classification (characterization)

  • Jürgen Basedow, Director at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany) and Professor at the University of Hamburg (Germany), basedow@mpipriv.de

  • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht)

  • Blocking statutes

  • Choice of law

  • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts

  • Competition law (antitrust)

  • Escape clauses

  • Private international law, methods of

  • Rabel, Ernst

  • Vested rights theory

  • Judith Baumann, Associate at Schellenberg Wittmer, Zurich (Switzerland), judith.baumann@swlegal.ch

  • ICAO (together with Alexander von Ziegler)

  • Gary F Bell, Associate Professor at the National University of Singapore (Singapore), lawbellg@nus.edu.sg

  • Indonesia (together with Yu Un Oppusunggu)

  • William Binchy, Professor at Trinity College Dublin (Ireland), william.binchy@tcd.ie

  • Ireland

  • Jan Asmus Bischoff, Inhouse Counsel at M. M. Warburg & Co, Hamburg (Germany) and former Junior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, janasmusbischoff@googlemail.com

  • Arbitration, investment

  • Tushar Kumar Biswas, Ph.D. candidate at the University of Cologne (Germany), tushar.nujs@gmail.com

  • India

  • Joost Blom, Professor at the Peter A. Allard School of Law, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada), blom@allard.ubc.ca

  • Canada

  • Giorgia M Boi, Professor at the University of Genoa (Italy), g.m.boi@unige.it

  • Sea waybills and other transport documents

  • Andrea Bonomi, Professor at the Faculty of Law of the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) and Director of the Center of Comparative, European and International Law (CDCEI), Lausanne, (Switzerland), andrea.bonomi@unil.ch

  • Incidental (preliminary) question

  • Succession

  • Italy (together with Tito Ballarino)

  • Vilim Bouček, Professor at the Faculty of Law of the University of Zagreb (Croatia), vesna.komotar@pravo.hr

  • Croatia

  • Adrian Briggs, Professor at the University of Oxford (United Kingdom), adrian.briggs@law.ox.ac.uk

  • p. ixChoice of forum and submission to jurisdiction

  • Floating choice of law

  • Recognition and enforcement of judgements (common law)

  • Monica Brignardello, Professor at the University of Genoa (Italy), monica.brignardello@tin.it

  • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways

  • Paul Cachia, Visiting Lecturer at the University of Malta, Msida (Malta), paulcachia@gmail.com

  • Malta

  • Gralf-Peter Calliess, Professor at the University of Bremen (Germany), calliess@uni-bremen.de

  • Lex mercatoria

  • Online dispute resolution (together with Simon Johannes Heetkamp)

  • Laura Carballo Piñeiro, Tenured Associate Professor at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), laura.carballo@usc.es

  • Employment, maritime

  • IMO

  • Sergio M Carbone, Professor Emeritus at the University of Genoa (Italy), carbone@carbonedangelo.it

  • Multimodal carriage contracts

  • Laura Carpaneto, Research Fellow and Lecturer at the University of Genoa (Italy), Laura.carpaneto@unige.it

  • Salvage

  • Pierangelo Celle, Associate Professor at the University of Genoa (Italy), Pierangelo.celle@unige.it

  • Marine insurance

  • Rong-Chwan Chen, Professor at National Taipei University, New Taipei City (Taiwan), ronchen@mail.ntpu.edu.tw

  • Taiwan

  • Weizuo Chen, Professor at Tsinghua University School of Law and Director of the Research Center for Private International Law, Beijing (China), chenweizuo@hotmail.com

  • China

  • Donald Earl Childress III, Associate Professor at Pepperdine University, Malibu (USA), donald.childress@pepperdine.edu

  • Jurisdiction, limits under international law

  • Dagmar Coester-Waltjen, Professor Emeritus at Georg August University Göttingen (Germany), coewa@freenet.de

  • Divorce and personal separationMarriage

  • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents

  • Lawrence Collins (Lord Collins of Mapesbury), Former Lord of Appeal and Justice of the UK Supreme Court; Professor, University College London; and arbitrator-member, Essex Court Chambers, London, lcollins@essexcourt.net

  • Dicey, Albert Venn

  • Giuditta Cordero-Moss, Professor at the University of Oslo (Norway), g.c.moss@jus.uio.no

  • Norway

  • Andra Cotiga-Raccah, Researcher, Professor of the Catholic University, Lille, France, Andra.COTIGA-RACCAH@univ-catholille.fr

  • Romania

  • Gilles Cuniberti, Professor at the University of Luxembourg (Luxembourg), gilles.cuniberti@uni.lu

  • Arbitration, (UNCITRAL) Model Law

  • France

  • Duygu Damar, Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), damar@mpipriv.de

  • Flag

  • Transport law (uniform law)

  • Turkey

  • Aliaksandr Danilevich, Partner at Danilevich & Volozhinets, Minsk (Belarus) and Associate Professor at the Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus), aliaksandr.danilevich@dvlaw.by

  • Belarus

  • Gerhard Dannemann, Professor at Humboldt University of Berlin (Germany), gerhard.dannemann@gbz.hu-berlin.de

  • Adjustment/Adaptation (Anpassung)

  • Maria Elena De Maestri, Research Fellow and Lecturer at the University of Genoa (Italy), maria.elena.demaestri@unige.it

  • Property and proprietary rights in vessels

  • Toni Deskoski, Professor at Ss. Cyril and p. xMethodius University, Skopje (Macedonia), deskot@hotmail.com, t.deskoski@pf.ukim.edu.mk

  • Macedonia, FYR

  • Andrew Dickinson, Fellow of St Catherine’s College and Professor of Law, University of Oxford (United Kingdom), andrew.dickinson@law.ox.ac.uk

  • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations)

  • United Kingdom

  • Albert Dinelli, Barrister at 20 Essex Street, London (United Kingdom), adinelli@20essexst.com

  • Freezing injunctions and search orders (together with Alexander Layton)

  • Proper law (doctrine) (together with Alexander Layton)

  • Jason R Dinse, Assistant Professor at University College Roosevelt (Netherlands), j.dinse@ucr.nl

  • Lease contracts and tenancies (together with Christoph U Schmid and Tsubasa Wakabayashi)

  • Slavko Djordjevic, Assistant Professor at the University of Kragujevac (Serbia), slavko.djordjevic77@gmail.com

  • Serbia

  • Tanja Domej, Professor at the University of Zurich (Switzerland), lst.domej@rwi.uzh.ch

  • Debt recovery, cross-border

  • Recognition and enforcement of judgments (civil law)

  • Tim W Dornis, Professor at Leuphana University of Lüneburg (Germany), tim.dornis@leuphana.de

  • Comity

  • Competition, unfair

  • Local data

  • WTO and private international law

  • Anatoliy Dovgert, Professor at Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University (Ukraine), adovgert@yahoo.com

  • Ukraine

  • Adriana Silvia Dreyzin de Klor, Professor at the National University of Cordoba (Argentina), adridreyzin@gmail.com

  • Argentina

  • Sascha Drobnjak, Junior Research Fellow at the University of Zurich (Switzerland), sasa.drobnjak@rwi.uzh.ch

  • Formal requirements and validity (together with Helmut Heiss)

  • Anatol Dutta, Professor at the University of Regensburg (Germany), anatol.dutta@ur.de

  • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment

  • Donation

  • Personal status

  • Reciprocity

  • Trust

  • Eberhard Eichenhofer, Professor Emeritus at the Universty of Jena (Germany), ee@recht.uni-jena.de

  • Social protection and private international law

  • Horst Eidenmüller, Professor at the University of Oxford (United Kingdom), horst.eidenmueller@law.ox.ac.uk

  • Alternative dispute resolution (together with Helge Großerichter)

  • Behavioural economics and private international law (together with Johanna Stark)

  • Talia Einhorn, Professor at Ariel University and Visiting Senior Research Fellow at Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Managment (Israel), taliaeinhorn@gmail.com

  • Israel

  • Carlos Esplugues, Professor at the University of Valencia (Spain), carlos.esplugues@uv.es

  • Foreign law, application and ascertainment (together with Guillermo Palao)

  • Foreign law, judicial review (together with Guillermo Palao)

  • Mediation

  • Katia Fach Gómez, Tenured Associate Professor at the University of Zaragoza (Spain), katiafachgomez@gmail.com

  • Environmental liability

  • Bénédicte Fauvarque-Cosson, Professor at Université Panthéon-Assas, Paris (France), benedicte-fauvarque-cosson@u-paris2.fr

  • Estoppel

  • Richard Fentiman, Professor at the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom), rgf1000@cam.ac.uk

  • Anti-suit injunctions

  • Forum non conveniens

  • Injunction

  • p. xiJosé Carlos Fernández Rozas, Professor at Complutense University of Madrid (Spain), jcfernan@der.ucm.es

  • Cuba

  • Dominican Republic

  • Franco Ferrari, Professor at New York University, New York/NY (USA), franco.ferrari@nyu.edu

  • CISG

  • Factoring (uniform law)

  • Financial leasing (uniform law)

  • Forum (and law) shopping

  • Sale contracts and sale of goods

  • UNCITRAL

  • Uniform substantive law and private international law

  • Axel Flessner, Professor Emeritus at Humboldt University of Berlin (Germany), axel.flessner@t-online.de

  • Optional (facultative) choice of law

  • Morten M Fogt, Professor at Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark), morten.fogt@gmx.de

  • Denmark

  • Matteo Fornasier, Senior Resesarch Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), fornasier@mpipriv.de

  • CESL

  • Employment contracts, applicable law

  • Employment contracts, jurisdiction

  • Employment, posting of workers

  • Stéphanie Francq, Professor at Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium), stephanie.francq@uclouvain.be

  • Unilateralism

  • Belgium

  • Pietro Franzina, Associate Professor at the University of Ferrara (Italy), pietro.franzina@unife.it

  • Aldricus

  • Bartolus

  • Jurisdiction, contracts and torts

  • Place of performance

  • Cecilia Fresnedo de Aguirre, Professor at the University of the Republic, Montevideo (Uruguay), ceciliafresnedo@gmail.com

  • CIDIP

  • Samuel Fulli-Lemaire, Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), fulli-lemaire@mpipriv.de

  • Bartin, Étienne

  • Imen Gallala-Arndt, Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), gallala@mpipriv.de

  • Interreligious law

  • Tunisia

  • Francisco Garcimartín Alférez, Professor at Autónoma University of Madrid (Spain), francisco.garcimartin@uam.es

  • Embargo

  • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations)

  • Richard Garnett, Professor at the University of Melbourne, Carlton (Australia), r.garnett@unimelb.edu.au

  • Remedies

  • Substance and procedure

  • Sandrine Giroud, Counsel at LALIVE, Geneva (Switzerland), sgiroud@lalive.ch

  • Lugano Convention

  • Cristina González Beilfuss, Professor at the University of Barcelona (Spain), cgonzalezb@ub.edu

  • Brussels IIa Regulation

  • Child abduction

  • Guardianship, custody and parental responsibility

  • Interregional/Interstate law

  • Helge Großerichter, Partner at Sernetz Schäfer Rechtsanwälte, Munich (Germany) and Honorary Professor at Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (Germany), grosserichter@sernetz-schaefer.de

  • Alternative dispute resolution (together with Horst Eidenmüller)

  • Aida Gugu Bushati, Legal Expert for the Council of Europe, Tirana (Albania), aidagugu@gmail.com

  • Albania (together with Christa Jessel-Holst)

  • Liis Halling, Legal Counsel at Fondia, Tallinn (Estonia), liis.halling@fondia.com

  • Estonia

  • Wolfgang Hau, Professor at the University of Passau (Germany) and

  • Judge, Higher Regional Court of Munich (Germany), wolfgang.hau@uni-passau.de

  • p. xiiPayment Order Regulation

  • Proceedings, law governing

  • Provisional measures

  • Service of documents

  • Simon Johannes Heetkamp, Associate at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft, Köln (Germany), simon.heetkamp@luther-lawfirm.com

  • Online dispute resolution (together with Gralf-Peter Calliess)

  • Jan von Hein, Professor at the University of Freiburg (Germany), jan.von.hein@jura.uni-freiburg.de

  • Adults, protection of

  • Damages

  • European Account Preservation Order Regulation

  • Germany

  • Markus Heintzen, Professor at the Free University of Berlin (Germany), markus.heintzen@fu-berlin.de

  • Double taxation treaties

  • Taxation, international

  • Christian Heinze, Professor at the University of Hanover (Germany), heinze@iri.uni-hannover.de

  • Multiple defendants and joint liability

  • Unitary intellectual property rights and jurisdiction

  • Unitary intellectual property rights and private international law

  • Helmut Heiss, Professor at the University of Zurich (Switzerland), helmut.heiss@rwi.uzh.ch

  • Formal requirements and validity (together with Sascha Drobnjak)

  • Insurance contracts

  • Austria

  • Liechtenstein

  • Michael Hellner, Professor at Stockholm University (Sweden), michael.hellner@juridicum.su.se

  • Maintenance obligations

  • Set-off

  • Sweden

  • Christian Hertel, Civil Law Notary, Weilheim in Oberbayern (Germany), mail@notar-hertel.de

  • Legalisation of public documents

  • Burkhard Hess, Executive Director of the Max Planck Institute Luxembourg for International, European and Regulatory Procedural Law (Luxembourg) and Honorary Professor at the Universities of Heidelberg (Germany) and Luxembourg (Luxembourg), burkhard.hess@mpi.lu

  • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation) (together with Vincent Richard)

  • Civil and commercial matters (together with Christian Oro Martinez)

  • Paola Ivaldi, Professor at the University of Genoa (Italy), paola.ivaldi@giuri.unige.it

  • Carriage of goods by sea

  • Christa Jessel-Holst, Former Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), jessel@mpipriv.de

  • West Balkan Convention

  • Albania (together with Aida Gugu Bushati)

  • Thomas Kadner Graziano, Professor at the University of Geneva (Switzerland), thomas.kadner@unige.ch

  • Products liability

  • Torts

  • Traffic accidents

  • Farkhad Karagussov, Chief Researcher at the Institute of Private Law and Professor at the Law Faculty, Caspian University, Almaty (Kazakhstan), karagussovyk.f@mail.ru

  • Kazakhstan

  • Eva-Maria Kieninger, Professor at the University of Würzburg (Germany), kieninger@jura.uni-wuerzburg.de

  • Expropriation

  • Immovable property

  • Security interests in mobile equipment (uniform law)

  • Patrick Kinsch, Professor at the University of Luxembourg (Luxembourg), kinsch@vo.lu

  • Human rights and private international law

  • Luxembourg

  • Jens Kleinschmidt, Professor at the University of Trier (Germany), kleinschmidt@uni-trier.de

  • Agency and authority of agents

  • Caroline Kleiner, Professor at the University of Strasbourg (France), carolinekleiner@gmail.com

  • Money and currency

  • Switzerland

  • p. xiiiToshiyuki Kono, Professor at Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan), konoto@law.kyushu-u.ac.jp

  • Territoriality

  • Japan

  • Maja Kostić-Mandić, Professor at the University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro), majak@t-com.me

  • Montenegro

  • Jerca Kramberger Škerl, Assistant Professor at the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia), jerca.kramberger@pf.uni-lj.si

  • Slovenia

  • Xandra Kramer, Professor at Erasmus University Rotterdam (The Netherlands), kramer@law.eur.nl

  • Legal aid

  • Richard Kreindler, Partner at Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton, Frankfurt am Main (Germany) and Honorary Professor at the University of Munster (Germany), rkreindler@cgsh.com

  • Arbitration, recognition of awards (together with Kristina von der Linden)

  • Kathrin Kroll-Ludwigs, Consultant at the German Notary Institute, Würzburg (Germany), k.kroll-ludwigs@dnoti.de

  • Names of individuals

  • Small Claims Regulation

  • Herbert Kronke, Professor Emeritus at the University of Heidelberg (Germany), Judge at the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague (The Netherlands) and former Secretary-General, UNIDROIT, Rome (Italy), kronke@ipr.uni-heidelberg.de

  • Liability, capital market

  • UNIDROIT

  • Hilmar Krüger, Professor Emeritus at the University of Cologne (Germany), hilmar.krueger@uni-koeln.de

  • Saudi Arabia

  • Jan-Jaap Kuipers, Senior Associate at De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek, Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Jan-Jaap.Kuipers@debrauw.com

  • European Union and private international law

  • Personality rights

  • Eugenia Kurzynsky-Singer, Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), kurzynsky@mpipriv.de

  • Commonwealth of Independent States and private international law

  • Andrea La Mattina, Professor at the University of Genoa (Italy), andrea.lamattina@unige.it

  • Arbitration, maritime

  • Akawat Laowonsiri, Lecturer in Law at Thammasat University, Bangkok (Thailand), and Director of the International Law Association of Thailand, akawatlaowonsiri@gmail.com

  • Thailand (together with Kittisak Prokati)

  • Alexander Layton, Queen’s Counsel at 20 Essex Street, London (United Kingdom) and Visiting Professor, King’s College London (United Kingdom), alayton@20essexst.com

  • Freezing injunctions and search orders (together with Albert Dinelli)

  • Proper law (doctrine) (together with Albert Dinelli)

  • Antonio Leandro, Associate Professor at the University of Bari (Italy), antonio.leandro@uniba.it

  • Insolvency, applicable law

  • Insolvency, cooperation and recognition

  • Insolvency, jurisdiction and vis attractiva

  • Matthias Lehmann, Professor at the University of Bonn (Germany), mlehmann@uni-bonn.de

  • Bill of exchange

  • Bonds and loans

  • Cheques

  • Financial instruments

  • Guarantees

  • Claudia Lima Marques, Professor at the Law School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil), dirinter@ufrgs.br, cmarques.ufrgs@gmail.com

  • Brazil (together with Lucas Lixinski and Pablo Marcello Baquero)

  • Kristina von der Linden, Associate at Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton, Cologne (Germany), kvonderlinden@cgsh.com

  • Arbitration, recognition of awards (together with Richard Kreindler)

  • Ulla Liukkunen, Professor at the University of Helsinki and Director of the Finnish Center p. xivof Chinese Law and Chinese Legal Culture (Finland), ulla.liukkunen@helsinki.fi

  • Employment, collective bargaining

  • Employment, industrial disputes

  • Finland

  • Lucas Lixinski, Senior Lecturer at the University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia), l.lixinski@unsw.edu.au

  • Brazil (together with Claudia Lima Marques and Pablo Marcello Baquero)

  • Marco Lopez de Gonzalo, Professor at the University of Milan (Italy), Marco.lopez@mordiglia.it

  • Carriage of passengers

  • Aurelio López-Tarruella Martínez, Tenured Associate Professor at the University of Alicante (Spain), aurelio.lopez@ua.es

  • Peru

  • Gonzalo Lorenzo Idiarte, Professor at Universidad de Montevideo (Uruguay), glorenzo@netgate.com.uy

  • Uruguay

  • Jan D Lüttringhaus, Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), luettringhaus@mpipriv.de

  • Antidiscrimination

  • Life insurance contracts

  • Reinsurance contracts

  • Substitution

  • Andrzej Mączyński, Professor at Jagiellonian University Krakow (Poland), andrzej.maczynski@uj.edu.pl

  • Poland

  • Claudia Madrid Martínez, Professor at the Central University of Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela), cmadridmartinez@yahoo.es

  • Venezuela

  • Peter Mankowski, Professor at the University of Hamburg (Germany), peter.mankowski@jura.uni-hamburg.de

  • Dépeçage

  • Negotiorum gestio

  • Unjust enrichment (restitution)

  • Heinz-Peter Mansel, Professor at the University of Cologne (Germany), ipr-institut@uni-koeln.de

  • Connecting factor

  • Kegel, Gerhard

  • Nationality

  • Prescription

  • Bevan Marten, Senior Lecturer at Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand), bevan.marten@vuw.ac.nz

  • Liability, limitation of maritime

  • Maritime law (uniform law)

  • Andreas Maurer, Junior Professor at the University of Mannheim (Germany), a.maurer@jura.uni-mannheim.de

  • Lex maritima

  • Louise Merrett, Senior Lecturer at the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom), lm324@cam.ac.uk

  • Direct action

  • Zlatan Meškić, Associate Professor at the University of Zenica (Bosnia and Herzegovina), zmeskic@hotmail.com

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Axel Metzger, Professor at Humboldt University of Berlin (Germany), metzger@rewi.hu-berlin.de

  • Licence contracts

  • TRIPS

  • Ralf Michaels, Arthur Larson Professor of Law at Duke University, Durham/NC (USA), michaels@law.duke.edu

  • Comparative law and private international law

  • Jurisdiction, foundations

  • Story, Joseph

  • Wächter, Carl Georg von

  • Pedro de Miguel Asensio, Professor at Complutense University of Madrid (Spain), pdmigue@der.ucm.es

  • Absence (disappearance, presumed death)

  • CLIP

  • Internet, jurisdiction

  • Internet, liability

  • Spain

  • Alex Mills, Reader at University College London (United Kingdom), a.mills@ucl.ac.uk

  • Constitutional law and private international law

  • Public international law and private international law

  • States, failed and non-recognized

  • Australia

  • p. xvGiovanna Montanaro, Counsel at Schellenberg Wittmer, Zurich (Switzerland), giovanna.montanaro@swlegal.ch

  • Air law (uniform law) (together with Alexander von Ziegler)

  • José A Moreno Rodríguez, Partner at Altra Legal Services, Asunción (Paraguay) and Professor of Law at several programs, among them the Master of Laws in International Law at Heidelberg Center for Latin America, Center of Excellence in Research and Teaching of Heidelberg University in Santiago de Chile (Chile), jmoreno@altra.com.py

  • Paraguay

  • Horatia Muir Watt, Professor at Sciences-Po Paris Law School, Paris (France), horatia.muirwatt@sciences-po.org

  • Batiffol, Henri

  • Collective redress

  • Globalization and private international law

  • Party autonomy

  • Francesco Munari, Professor at the University of Genoa (Italy), Francesco.Munari@unige.it

  • Bill of lading

  • Marie-Claude Najm Kobeh, Professor at the Faculty of Law and Political Science, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon), marieclaude.najm@usj.edu.lb

  • Lebanon

  • Trinh Thi Hong Nguyen, Lecturer at Hue University, Hue (Vietnam), nguyenhongtrinh83@gmail.com

  • Vietnam

  • Yuko Nishitani, Professor at Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan), nishitani@law.kyoto-u.ac.jp

  • Kinship and Legitimation

  • Mancini, Pasquale Stanislao

  • Richard Frimpong Oppong, Associate Professor at Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops B.C. (Canada), roppong@tru.ca

  • Ghana

  • Nigeria

  • Yu Un Oppusunggu, Lecturer at the University of Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia), yu_oppu@ui.ac.id

  • Indonesia (together with Gary F Bell)

  • Patricia Orejudo Prieto de los Mozos, Tenured Associate Professor at Complutense University of Madrid (Spain), patricia.orejudo@der.ucm.es

  • Adoption

  • Rome III Regulation (divorce)

  • Surrogacy

  • Cristian Oro Martinez, Lawyer at the Research and Documentation Directorate at the Court of Justice of the European Union (Luxembourg) and former Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for International, European and Regulatory Procedural Law (Luxembourg), cristian.oro@icloud.com

  • Civil and commercial matters (together with Burkhard Hess)

  • Mario JA Oyarzábal, Adjunct Professor at the University of La Plata Law School (Argentina) and Minister Plenipotentiary at the Argentine Foreign Service, moyarzabal@post.harvard.edu

  • Goldschmidt, Werner

  • Guillermo Palao, Professor at the University of Valencia (Spain). guillermo.palao@uv.es

  • Foreign law, application and ascertainment (together with Carlos Esplugues)

  • Foreign law, judicial review (together with Carlos Esplugues)

  • Monika Pauknerová, Professor at the University of Prague (Czech Republic), pauknero@prf.cuni.cz

  • Czech Republic

  • Hernán Pérez Loose, Partner at Coronel & Pérez, Guayaquil (Ecuador), hperez@coronelyperez.com

  • Ecuador

  • Marta Pertegás, First Secretary at the Hague Conference on Private International Law, The Hague (The Netherlands) and Professor at the University of Antwerp (Belgium), marta.pertegas@ua.ac.be, mp@hcch.nl

  • Hague Conference on Private International law

  • Treaties in private international law

  • Eduardo Picand Albónico, Professor at the University of Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile), epicand@minpublico.cl

  • Chile

  • p. xviWalter Pintens, Professor Emeritus at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Louvain (Belgium), walter.pintens@law.kuleuven.be

  • CIEC/ICCS (International Commission on Civil Status)

  • Matrimonial property (together with Jens M Scherpe)

  • Same-sex marriages (together with Jens M Scherpe)

  • Kittisak Prokati, Assistant Professor at Thammasat University, Bangkok (Thailand), prokati@tu.ac.th

  • Thailand (together with Akawat Laowonsiri)

  • Ilaria Queirolo, Professor at the University of Genoa (Italy), Ilaria.Queirolo@unige.it

  • Immunity

  • Luca G Radicati di Brozolo, Professor at Catholic University of Milan (Italy), Luca.radicati@arblit.com

  • Arbitration, international commercial

  • Pavelas Ravluševičius, Associate Professor at Mykolas Romeris University and European Humanities University, Vilnius (Lithuania), pravls@mruni.eu, pavelas.ravlusevicius@ehu.lt

  • Lithuania

  • Mathias W Reimann, Professor at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor/Michigan (USA), purzel@umich.edu

  • Better law approach

  • Interest and policy analysis in private international law

  • Moritz Renner, Junior Professor at the University of Bremen (Germany), moritz.renner@uni-bremen.de

  • Companies, transnational groups of

  • Marta Requejo Isidro, Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for International, European and Regulatory Procedural Law (Luxembourg) and Tenured Associate Professor at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), marta.requejo@usc.es, marta.requejo@mpi.lu

  • Assignability/Assignment of claims

  • Cessio legis

  • Lex fori

  • Vincent Richard, Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for International, European and Regulatory Procedural Law (Luxembourg). vincent.richard@mpi.lu

  • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation) (together with Burkhard Hess)

  • Hannes Rösler, Professor at the University of Siegen (Germany), roesler@recht.uni-siegen.de

  • Court of Justice of the European Union

  • Interpretation, autonomous

  • Baiba Rudevska, Off Counsel, Senior Associate at the Baltic Law Firm ‘VARUL’, Riga (Latvia), Baiba_rudevska@hotmail.fr

  • Latvia

  • Giesela Rühl, Professor at the University of Jena (Germany), giesela.ruehl@uni-jena.de

  • Economic analysis and private international law

  • Private international law, foundations

  • Regulatory competition

  • Jürgen Samtleben, Former Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), samtleben@mpipriv.de

  • Bustamante, Antonio Sánchez de

  • Jens M Scherpe, Senior Lecturer at the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom), jms233@cam.ac.uk

  • Matrimonial property (together with Walter Pintens)

  • Same-sex marriages (together with Walter Pintens)

  • Transsexual and transgender persons

  • Lorenzo Schiano di Pepe, Professor at the University of Genoa (Italy), Lorenzo.SchianoDiPepe@unige.it

  • Maritime torts

  • Johannes Schilling, Associate at Dabelstein & Passehl, Hamburg (Germany) and former Junior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), jo.hannes.schilling@gmx.de

  • Freight forwarding contracts

  • Christoph U Schmid, Professor at the University of Bremen (Germany), schmid@zerp.uni-bremen.de

  • Lease contracts and tenancies (together with Jason R Dinse and Tsubasa Wakabayashi)

  • p. xviiElsabe Schoeman, Professor, University of Pretoria (South Africa); formerly, Associate Professor, University of Auckland (New Zealand), elsabe.schoeman@gmail.com

  • New Zealand

  • South Africa

  • Maximilian Seibl, Senior Research Fellow at Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (Germany), maximilian.seibl@jura.uni-goettingen.de

  • Burden of proof

  • Evidence, procurement of

  • Kurt Siehr, Professor Emeritus at the University of Zurich (Switzerland) and former Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), siehr@mpipriv.de

  • Ehrenzweig, Albert A

  • Evasion of laws (fraus legis)

  • GEDIP

  • Kahn, Franz

  • Private international law, history of

  • Linda Silberman, Martin Lipton Professor of Law at New York University School of Law, New York/NY (USA), linda.silberman@nyu.edu

  • (American) Conflict of laws revolution

  • Currie, Brainerd

  • Lis alibi pendens

  • USA

  • Michael E Solimine, Professor at the University of Cincinnati (USA), Solimime@ucmail.uc.edu

  • Game theory and private international law

  • Michael Sonnentag, Professor at the University of Würzburg (Germany), Sonnentag@jura.uni-wuerzburg.de

  • Renvoi

  • Savigny, Friedrich Carl von

  • Vessela Stancheva-Mincheva, Partner at Djingov, Gouginski, Kyutchukov & Velichkov, Sofia (Bulgaria), vessela.stancheva@dgkv.com

  • Bulgaria (together with Yordanka Zidarova)

  • Johanna Stark, Senior Research Fellow at Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (Germany), johanna.stark@jura.uni-muenchen.de

  • Behavioural economics and private international law (together with Horst Eidenmüller)

  • Natalia Stefankova, Lecturer at the Bank Institute College, Prague (Czech Republic), n.stefankova@gmail.com

  • Slovakia

  • Kwang Hyun Suk, Professor at Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea), khsuk@snu.ac.kr

  • Korea

  • Dan Jerker B Svantesson, Professor at Bond University, Robina/QLD (Australia), dasvante@bond.edu.au

  • Electronic commerce

  • Symeon C Symeonides, Professor at Willamette University, Salem/OR (USA), symeon@willamette.edu

  • Full Faith and Credit clause

  • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws

  • Ioanna Thoma, Consultat at the European Space Agency, Paris (France), ioanna.thoma@gmail.com

  • Public policy (ordre public)

  • Greece

  • Chris Thomale, Senior Research Fellow at the University of Heidelberg (Germany), chris.thomale@googlemail.com

  • Companies (together with Marc-Philippe Weller)

  • Country of origin rule (together with Marc-Philippe Weller)

  • Director’s liability (together with Marc-Philippe Weller)

  • Freedom of establishment/persons (European Union) and private international law (together with Marc-Philippe Weller)

  • Eiríkur Elís Thorláksson, Assistant Professor at Reykjavík University (Iceland), eirikureth@hr.is

  • Iceland

  • Guangjian Tu, Associate Professor at the University of Macau, Taipa (Macao), gjtu@umac.mo

  • Macau, SAR of China

  • Chiara E Tuo, Professor at the University of Genoa (Italy), chiara.tuo@unige.it

  • Arrest of vessels

  • p. xviiiBenedetta Ubertazzi, Aggregate Professor at the University of Milan-Bicocca (Italy), benedetta.ubertazzi@ubertazzi.it

  • Capacity and emancipation

  • Intellectual property, jurisdiction

  • George Vashakidze, Associate Professor at Illia State University, Tbilisi (Georgia), giovashakidze@hotmail.com

  • Georgia

  • Lajos Vékás, Professor at Eötvös Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary), vekas@ajk.elte.hu

  • Hungary

  • Dário Moura Vicente, Professor at the University of Lisbon (Portugal), dmouravicente@fd.ul.pt

  • Culpa in contrahendo

  • Intellectual property, applicable law

  • Angola

  • Mozambique

  • Portugal

  • Tsubasa Wakabayashi, Senior Research Fellow at the University of Bremen (Germany), wakabayashi@mail.de

  • Lease contracts and tenancies (together with Christoph U Schmid, Jason R Dinse)

  • Patrick Wautelet, Professor at the University of Liège (Belgium), Patrick.Wautelet@ulg.ac.be

  • Registered partnerships

  • Marc-Philippe Weller, Professor at the University of Heidelberg (Germany), marc.weller@ipr.uni-heidelberg.de

  • Companies (together with Chris Thomale)

  • Country of origin rule (together with Chris Thomale)

  • Director’s liability (together with Chris Thomale)

  • Freedom of establishment/persons (European Union) and private international law (together with Chris Thomale)

  • Matthias Weller, Professor at EBS Law School, Wiesbaden (Germany), Matthias.weller@ebs.edu

  • Cultural objects, protection of

  • Johannes Christian Wichard, Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, Berlin (Germany), wichard-jo@bmjv.bund.de

  • WIPO and private international law

  • Dirk Wiegandt, Junior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), wiegandt@mpipriv.de

  • Recognition of administrative acts

  • Michael Wilderspin, European Commission, Brussels (Belgium), michael.wilderspin@ec.europa.eu

  • Consumer contracts

  • Contractual obligations

  • Overriding mandatory provisions

  • Laurens Winkel, Professor Emeritus at Erasmus University, Rotterdam (The Netherlands), winkel@law.eur.nl

  • Ius gentium

  • Mathijs ten Wolde, Professor at the University of Groningen (The Netherlands), m.h.ten.wolde@rug.nl

  • Huber, Ulrik

  • Rome IV Regulation (succession)

  • Voet, Paulus und Johannes

  • Netherlands

  • Lutz-Christian Wolff, Professor of Law of The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China), wolff@cuhk.edu.hk

  • Hong Kong, SAR of China

  • Wolfgang Wurmnest, Professor at the University of Augsburg (Germany), wolfgang.wurmnest@jura.uni-augsburg.de

  • Construction contracts

  • Expert liability

  • Nuclear liability

  • Nadjma Yassari, Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg (Germany), yassari@mpipriv.de

  • Egypt

  • Iran

  • Tiong Min Yeo, Professor at the Singapore Management University (Singapore), tmyeo@smu.edu.sg

  • Singapore

  • Adriana Zapata Giraldo, Professor at the Externado University of Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia), adriana.zapata@uexternado.edu.co, adrianazapata@cavelier.com

  • Colombia

  • p. xixYordanka Zidarova, Professor at Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Sofia (Bulgaria)

  • Bulgaria (together with Vessela Stancheva-Mincheva)

  • Alexander von Ziegler, Partner at Schellenberg Wittmer, Zurich (Switzerland), alexander.vonziegler@swlegal.ch

  • Air law (uniform law) (together with Giovanna Montanaro)

  • ICAO (together with Judith Baumann)