Encyclopedia of Private International Law
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Encyclopedia of Private International Law

Edited by Jürgen Basedow, Giesela Rühl, Franco Ferrari and Pedro de Miguel Asensio

The role and character of Private International Law has changed tremendously over the past decades. With the steady increase of global and regional inter-connectedness the practical significance of the discipline has grown. Equally, so has the number of legislative activities on the national, international and, most importantly, the European level. With a world-class editor team, 500 content items and authorship from almost 200 of the world’s foremost scholars, the Encyclopedia of Private International Law is the definitive reference work in the field. 57 different countries are represented by authors who shed light on the current state of Private International Law around the globe, providing unique insights into the discipline and how it is affected by globalization and increased regional integration. The Encyclopedia consists of three inter-linked pillars, enhanced by sophisticated search and cross-linking functionality. The first pillar consists of A-Z coverage of the scope and substance of Private International Law in the form of 247 entries. The second pillar comprises detailed overviews of the Private International Law regimes of 80 countries. The third pillar presents valuable, and often unique, English language translations of the national codifications and Private International Law provisions of those countries. This invaluable combination represents a powerful research tool and an indispensable reference resource.
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List of Entries

  • Absence (disappearance, presumed death)

  • Pedro de Miguel Asensio

  • Adjustment/Adaptation (Anpassung)

  • Gerhard Dannemann

  • Adoption

  • Patricia Orejudo Prieto de los Mozos

  • Adults, protection of

  • Jan von Hein

  • Agency and authority of agents

  • Jens Kleinschmidt

  • Air law (uniform law)

  • Alexander von Ziegler and Giovanna Montanaro

  • Aldricus

  • Pietro Franzina

  • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht)

  • Jürgen Basedow

  • Alternative dispute resolution

  • Horst Eidenmüller and Helge Großerichter

  • (American) Conflict of laws revolution

  • Linda Silberman

  • Antidiscrimination

  • Jan D Lüttringhaus

  • Anti-suit injunctions

  • Richard Fentiman

  • Arbitration, international commercial

  • Luca G Radicati di Brozolo

  • Arbitration, investment

  • Jan Asmus Bischoff

  • Arbitration, maritime

  • Andrea La Mattina

  • Arbitration, recognition of awards

  • Richard Kreindler and Kristina von der Linden

  • Arbitration, (UNCITRAL) Model Law

  • Gilles Cuniberti

  • Arrest of vessels

  • Chiara E Tuo

  • Assignability/Assignment of claims

  • Marta Requejo Isidro

  • Bartin, Étienne

  • Samuel Fulli-Lemaire

  • Bartolus

  • Pietro Franzina

  • Batiffol, Henri

  • Horatia Muir Watt

  • Behavioural economics and private international law

  • Horst Eidenmüller and Johanna Stark

  • Better law approach

  • Mathias W Reimann

  • Bill of exchange

  • Matthias Lehmann

  • Bill of lading

  • Francesco Munari

  • Bioethics and private international law

  • Mathias Audit

  • Blocking statutes

  • Jürgen Basedow

  • Bonds and loans

  • Matthias Lehmann

  • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation)

  • Burkhard Hess and Vincent Richard

  • Brussels IIa Regulation

  • Cristina González Beilfuss

  • Burden of proof

  • Maximilian Seibl

  • Bustamante, Antonio Sánchez de

  • Jürgen Samtleben

  • Capacity and emancipation

  • Benedetta Ubertazzi

  • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways

  • Monica Brignardello

  • Carriage of goods by sea

  • Paola Ivaldi

  • Carriage of passengers

  • Marco Lopez de Gonzalo

  • CESL

  • Matteo Fornasier

  • Cessio legis

  • Marta Requejo Isidro

  • Cheques

  • Matthias Lehmann

  • p. xxiChild abduction

  • Cristina González Beilfuss

  • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction

  • Adrian Briggs

  • Choice of law

  • Jürgen Basedow

  • CIDIP

  • Cecilia Fresnedo de Aguirre

  • CIEC/ICCS (International Commission on Civil Status)

  • Walter Pintens

  • CISG

  • Franco Ferrari

  • Civil and commercial matters

  • Burkhard Hess and Cristian Oro Martinez

  • Classification (characterization)

  • Stefania Bariatti

  • CLIP

  • Pedro de Miguel Asensio

  • Collective redress

  • Horatia Muir Watt

  • Comity

  • Tim W Dornis

  • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts

  • Jürgen Basedow

  • Commonwealth of Independent States and private international law

  • Eugenia Kurzynsky-Singer

  • Companies

  • Marc-Philippe Weller and Chris Thomale

  • Companies, transnational groups of

  • Moritz Renner

  • Comparative law and private international law

  • Ralf Michaels

  • Competition law (antitrust)

  • Jürgen Basedow

  • Competition, unfair

  • Tim W Dornis

  • Connecting factor

  • Heinz-Peter Mansel

  • Constitutional law and private international law

  • Alex Mills

  • Construction contracts

  • Wolfgang Wurmnest

  • Consumer contracts

  • Michael Wilderspin

  • Contractual obligations

  • Michael Wilderspin

  • Country of origin rule

  • Chris Thomale and Marc-Philippe Weller

  • Court of Justice of the European Union

  • Hannes Rösler

  • Culpa in contrahendo

  • Dário Moura Vicente

  • Cultural objects, protection of

  • Matthias Weller

  • Currie, Brainerd

  • Linda Silberman

  • Damages

  • Jan von Hein

  • Debt recovery, cross-border

  • Tanja Domej

  • Dépeçage

  • Peter Mankowski

  • Dicey, Albert Venn

  • Lawrence Collins (Lord Collins of Mapesbury)

  • Direct action

  • Louise Merrett

  • Director’s liability

  • Chris Thomale and Marc-Philippe Weller

  • Divorce and personal separation

  • Dagmar Coester-Waltjen

  • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment

  • Anatol Dutta

  • Donation

  • Anatol Dutta

  • Double taxation treaties

  • Markus Heintzen

  • Economic analysis and private international law

  • Giesela Rühl

  • Ehrenzweig, Albert A

  • Kurt Siehr

  • Electronic commerce

  • Dan Jerker B Svantesson

  • p. xxiiEmbargo

  • Francisco Garcimartín Alférez

  • Employment, collective bargaining

  • Ulla Liukkunen

  • Employment contracts, applicable law

  • Matteo Fornasier

  • Employment contracts, jurisdiction

  • Matteo Fornasier

  • Employment, industrial disputes

  • Ulla Liukkunen

  • Employment, maritime

  • Laura Carballo Piñeiro

  • Employment, posting of workers

  • Matteo Fornasier

  • Environmental liability

  • Katia Fach Gómez

  • Escape clauses

  • Jürgen Basedow

  • Estoppel

  • Bénédicte Fauvarque-Cosson

  • European Account Preservation Order Regulation

  • Jan von Hein

  • European Union and private international law

  • Jan-Jaap Kuipers

  • Evasion of laws (fraus legis)

  • Kurt Siehr

  • Evidence, procurement of

  • Maximilian Seibl

  • Expert liability

  • Wolfgang Wurmnest

  • Expropriation

  • Eva-Maria Kieninger

  • Factoring (uniform law)

  • Franco Ferrari

  • Financial instruments

  • Matthias Lehmann

  • Financial leasing (uniform law)

  • Franco Ferrari

  • Flag

  • Duygu Damar

  • Floating choice of law

  • Adrian Briggs

  • Foreign law, application and ascertainment

  • Carlos Esplugues and Guillermo Palao

  • Foreign law, judicial review

  • Carlos Esplugues and Guillermo Palao

  • Formal requirements and validity

  • Helmut Heiss and Sascha Drobnjak

  • Forum (and law) shopping

  • Franco Ferrari

  • Forum non conveniens

  • Richard Fentiman

  • Freedom of establishment/persons (European Union) and private international law

  • Chris Thomale and Marc-Philippe Weller

  • Freezing injunctions and search orders

  • Alexander Layton and Albert Dinelli

  • Freight forwarding contracts

  • Johannes Schilling

  • Full Faith and Credit clause

  • Symeon C Symeonides

  • Game theory and private international law

  • Michael E Solimine

  • GEDIP

  • Kurt Siehr

  • Globalization and private international law

  • Horatia Muir Watt

  • Goldschmidt, Werner

  • Mario JA Oyarzábal

  • Guarantees

  • Matthias Lehmann

  • Guardianship, custody and parental responsibility

  • Cristina González Beilfuss

  • Hague Conference on Private International Law

  • Marta Pertegás

  • Huber, Ulrik

  • Mathijs ten Wolde

  • Human rights and private international law

  • Patrick Kinsch

  • ICAO

  • Alexander von Ziegler and Judith Baumann

  • Immovable property

  • Eva-Maria Kieninger

  • Immunity

  • Ilaria Queirolo

  • p. xxiiiIMO

  • Laura Carballo Piñeiro

  • Incidental (preliminary) question

  • Andrea Bonomi

  • Injunction

  • Richard Fentiman

  • Insolvency, applicable law

  • Antonio Leandro

  • Insolvency, cooperation and recognition

  • Antonio Leandro

  • Insolvency, jurisdiction and vis attractiva

  • Antonio Leandro

  • Insurance contracts

  • Helmut Heiss

  • Intellectual property, applicable law

  • Dário Moura Vicente

  • Intellectual property, jurisdiction

  • Benedetta Ubertazzi

  • Interest and policy analysis in private international law

  • Mathias W Reimann

  • Internet, jurisdiction

  • Pedro de Miguel Asensio

  • Internet, liability

  • Pedro de Miguel Asensio

  • Interpretation, autonomous

  • Hannes Rösler

  • Interregional/Interstate law

  • Cristina González Beilfuss

  • Interreligious law

  • Imen Gallala-Arndt

  • Ius gentium

  • Laurens Winkel

  • Jurisdiction, contracts and torts

  • Pietro Franzina

  • Jurisdiction, foundations

  • Ralf Michaels

  • Jurisdiction, limits under international law

  • Donald Earl Childress III

  • Kahn, Franz

  • Kurt Siehr

  • Kegel, Gerhard

  • Heinz-Peter Mansel

  • Kinship and legitimation

  • Yuko Nishitani

  • Lease contracts and tenancies

  • Christoph U Schmid, Jason R Dinse and Tsubasa Wakabayashi

  • Legal aid

  • Xandra Kramer

  • Legalization of public documents

  • Christian Hertel

  • Lex fori

  • Marta Requejo Isidro

  • Lex maritima

  • Andreas Maurer

  • Lex mercatoria

  • Gralf-Peter Calliess

  • Liability, capital market

  • Herbert Kronke

  • Liability, limitation of maritime

  • Bevan Marten

  • Licence contracts

  • Axel Metzger

  • Life insurance contracts

  • Jan D Lüttringhaus

  • Lis alibi pendens

  • Linda Silberman

  • Local data

  • Tim W Dornis

  • Lugano Convention

  • Sandrine Giroud

  • Maintenance obligations

  • Michael Hellner

  • Mancini, Pasquale Stanislao

  • Yuko Nishitani

  • Marine insurance

  • Pierangelo Celle

  • Maritime law (uniform law)

  • Bevan Marten

  • Maritime torts

  • Lorenzo Schiano di Pepe

  • Marriage

  • Dagmar Coester-Waltjen

  • Matrimonial property

  • Walter Pintens and Jens M Scherpe

  • Mediation

  • Carlos Esplugues

  • p. xxivMoney and currency

  • Caroline Kleiner

  • Multimodal carriage contracts

  • Sergio M Carbone

  • Multiple defendants and joint liability

  • Christian Heinze

  • Names of individuals

  • Kathrin Kroll-Ludwigs

  • Nationality

  • Heinz-Peter Mansel

  • Negotiorum gestio

  • Peter Mankowski

  • Nuclear liability

  • Wolfgang Wurmnest

  • Online dispute resolution

  • Gralf-Peter Calliess and Simon Johannes Heetkamp

  • Optional (facultative) choice of law

  • Axel Flessner

  • Overriding mandatory provisions

  • Michael Wilderspin

  • Party autonomy

  • Horatia Muir Watt

  • Payment Order Regulation

  • Wolfgang Hau

  • Personal status

  • Anatol Dutta

  • Personality rights

  • Jan-Jaap Kuipers

  • Place of performance

  • Pietro Franzina

  • Prescription

  • Heinz-Peter Mansel

  • Private international law, foundations

  • Giesela Rühl

  • Private international law, history of

  • Kurt Siehr

  • Private international law, methods of

  • Jürgen Basedow

  • Proceedings, law governing

  • Wolfgang Hau

  • Products liability

  • Thomas Kadner Graziano

  • Proper law (doctrine)

  • Alexander Layton and Albert Dinelli

  • Property and proprietary rights

  • Louis d’Avout

  • Property and proprietary rights in vessels

  • Maria Elena De Maestri

  • Provisional measures

  • Wolfgang Hau

  • Public international law and private international law

  • Alex Mills

  • Public policy (ordre public)

  • Ioanna Thoma

  • Rabel, Ernst

  • Jürgen Basedow

  • Reciprocity

  • Anatol Dutta

  • Recognition and enforcement of judgments (civil law)

  • Tanja Domej

  • Recognition and enforcement of judgments (common law)

  • Adrian Briggs

  • Recognition of administrative acts

  • Dirk Wiegandt

  • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents

  • Dagmar Coester-Waltjen

  • Registered partnerships

  • Patrick Wautelet

  • Regulatory competition

  • Giesela Rühl

  • Reinsurance contracts

  • Jan D Lüttringhaus

  • Remedies

  • Richard Garnett

  • Renvoi

  • Michael Sonnentag

  • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws

  • Symeon C Symeonides

  • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations)

  • Francisco Garcimartín Alférez

  • p. xxvRome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations)

  • Andrew Dickinson

  • Rome III Regulation (divorce)

  • Patricia Orejudo Prieto de los Mozos

  • Rome IV Regulation (succession)

  • Mathijs ten Wolde

  • Sale contracts and sale of goods

  • Franco Ferrari

  • Salvage

  • Laura Carpaneto

  • Same-sex marriages

  • Walter Pintens and Jens M Scherpe

  • Savigny, Friedrich Carl von

  • Michael Sonnentag

  • Sea waybills and other transport documents

  • Giorgia M Boi

  • Security interests in mobile equipment (uniform law)

  • Eva-Maria Kieninger

  • Service of documents

  • Wolfgang Hau

  • Set-off

  • Michael Hellner

  • Small Claims Regulation

  • Kathrin Kroll-Ludwigs

  • Social protection and private international law

  • Eberhard Eichenhofer

  • States, failed and non-recognized

  • Alex Mills

  • Story, Joseph

  • Ralf Michaels

  • Substance and procedure

  • Richard Garnett

  • Substitution

  • Jan D Lüttringhaus

  • Succession

  • Andrea Bonomi

  • Surrogacy

  • Patricia Orejudo Prieto de los Mozos

  • Taxation, international

  • Markus Heintzen

  • Territoriality

  • Toshiyuki Kono

  • Torts

  • Thomas Kadner Graziano

  • Traffic accidents

  • Thomas Kadner Graziano

  • Transport law (uniform law)

  • Duygu Damar

  • Transsexual and transgender persons

  • Jens M Scherpe

  • Treaties in private international law

  • Marta Pertegás

  • TRIPS

  • Axel Metzger

  • Trust

  • Anatol Dutta

  • UNCITRAL

  • Franco Ferrari

  • UNIDROIT

  • Herbert Kronke

  • Uniform substantive law and private international law

  • Franco Ferrari

  • Unilateralism

  • Stéphanie Francq

  • Unitary intellectual property rights and jurisdiction

  • Christian Heinze

  • Unitary intellectual property rights and private international law

  • Christian Heinze

  • Unjust enrichment (restitution)

  • Peter Mankowski

  • Vested rights theory

  • Jürgen Basedow

  • Voet, Paulus and Johannes

  • Mathijs ten Wolde

  • Wächter, Carl Georg von

  • Ralf Michaels

  • West Balkan Convention

  • Christa Jessel-Holst

  • WIPO and private international law

  • Johannes Christian Wichard

  • WTO and private international law

  • Tim W Dornis