Encyclopedia of Private International Law
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Encyclopedia of Private International Law

Edited by Jürgen Basedow, Giesela Rühl, Franco Ferrari and Pedro de Miguel Asensio

The role and character of Private International Law has changed tremendously over the past decades. With the steady increase of global and regional inter-connectedness the practical significance of the discipline has grown. Equally, so has the number of legislative activities on the national, international and, most importantly, the European level. With a world-class editor team, 500 content items and authorship from almost 200 of the world’s foremost scholars, the Encyclopedia of Private International Law is the definitive reference work in the field. 57 different countries are represented by authors who shed light on the current state of Private International Law around the globe, providing unique insights into the discipline and how it is affected by globalization and increased regional integration. The Encyclopedia consists of three inter-linked pillars, enhanced by sophisticated search and cross-linking functionality. The first pillar consists of A-Z coverage of the scope and substance of Private International Law in the form of 247 entries. The second pillar comprises detailed overviews of the Private International Law regimes of 80 countries. The third pillar presents valuable, and often unique, English language translations of the national codifications and Private International Law provisions of those countries. This invaluable combination represents a powerful research tool and an indispensable reference resource.
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Index

  • 1923 Geneva Protocol on Arbitration Clauses, 120

  • 1952 Arrest Convention, 134, 135

    • EU rules, 141

    • Exclusions, 136

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, 139

    • Scope of application, 135

    • Substantive rules, 136

  • 1993 Maritime Liens and Mortgages Convention, 134

  • 1999 Arrest Convention, 134

    • EU rules, 140

    • Exclusions, 136

    • Flag, 136

    • Jurisdiction, foundations, 139

    • Liability of owner, 137

    • Party autonomy, 139

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, 139

    • Scope of application, 135

    • Substantive rules, 136

  • Absence

    • Absence (disappearance, presumed death) 1, 2, 3, 4

    • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation), 4

    • China, 3

    • Concept, 1

    • Connecting factor, 4

    • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment, 3, 5

    • Function, 1

    • Germany, 2

    • Greece, 4

    • Israel, 3

    • Italy, 3

    • Nationality, 4

    • Netherlands, 4

    • Pakistan, 3

    • Personal status, 6

    • Peru, 2415

    • Portugal, 4

    • Spain, 4

    • Turkey, 4

  • Absence of choice of law

    • Matrimonial property, 1242

  • Abuse of law

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 705, 706

  • Acceleration clauses

    • Bonds and loans, 215

  • Acceptance of documents

    • Personal status, 1350

  • Access to justice

    • Anti-suit injunctions, 83, 84, 85

    • Forum non conveniens, 798, 800, 802, 803, 804, 805

    • Injunction, 928

    • Legal aid, 1088

    • Mediation, 1250

    • Online dispute resolution, 1314

    • Public international law and private international law, 1451

    • Service of documents, 1628

  • Accessory connecting factors, 34, 448

    • Culpa in contrahendo, 495

    • Renvoi, 1544

  • Accessory connection

    • Connecting factor, 448

    • Negotiorum gestio, 1303

    • Prescription, 1371

    • Torts, 1712, 1714

    • Unjust enrichment (restitution), 1811

  • Accident

    • Carriage of passengers, 271, 274, 275, 276

  • Accident compensation

    • New Zealand, 2374

  • Accidents at sea

    • Maritime torts, 1220

  • Account-payee-only cheques, 296

  • Accursius

    • Bartolus, 158

    • Private international law, history of, 1391

  • Acquisition by prescription

    • Prescription, 1368

  • Acquisition citizenship ius sanguinis

    • Nationality, 1291

  • Acquisition citizenship ius soli

    • Nationality, 1291

  • Act of state doctrine

    • Bonds and loans, 217

  • Acta iure gestionis

    • Civil and commercial matters, 351, 356

  • Acta iure imperii

    • Civil and commercial matters, 347, 351, 354, 356

  • Acte clair doctrine

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 489

  • Actio iniuriarum

    • Personality rights, 1351

  • Actio pauliana

    • Donation, 565

  • Act-of-state doctrine

    • Comity, 385

    • Recognition of administrative acts, 1488

  • Acts in law

    • Poland, 2429

  • Adaption

    • Capacity and emancipation, 251, 253

    • Comparative law and private international law, 422

    • Connecting factor, 448

    • Social protection and private international law, 1650

  • Adjudication

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 60

    • Place of performance, 1364

  • Adjustment

    • Adjustment/Adaption (Anpassung), 8

    • Connecting factor, 448

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 9

  • Adjustment/adaption (anpassung)

    • Classification (characterization), 9

    • Connecting factors, 36

    • Germany, 11

  • Adoption, 13

    • Albania, 14

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 51

    • Argentina, 14

    • Australia, 14

    • Austria, 18, 19

    • Belgium, 14, 18

    • Bolivia, 14

    • Brazil, 14

    • Canada, 18

    • Capacity and emancipation, 18

    • Chile, 14

    • Choice of law, 19

    • CIDIP, 328

    • Colombia, 14

    • Congo, 14

    • Cooperation, 20

    • Denmark, 14, 19

    • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment, 15, 17

    • Finland, 19

    • Foreign law, application and ascertainment, 18

    • France, 14, 17, 18

    • Germany, 14, 17, 18

    • Haiti, 14

    • Iceland, 19

    • Italy, 14, 18

    • Japan, 14, 18

    • Lex fori, 18, 19

    • Madagascar, 14

    • Maintenance obligations, 14

    • Mali, 14

    • Mexico, 14

    • Nationality, 15, 17

    • Netherlands, 14

    • Niger, 14

    • Norway, 14, 19

    • Paraguay, 14

    • Portugal, 14, 18

    • Private international law, methods of, 18

    • Public policy (ordre public), 18

    • Public policy, 21

    • Recognition, 21

    • Same-sex marriages, 16, 19

    • Spain, 14, 17, 18

    • Succession, 13, 14

    • Sweden, 19

    • Switzerland, 18, 19

    • Thailand, 14

    • Unification of law, 19

    • Uniform substantive law and private international law, 19

    • United Kingdom, 14, 18, 19

    • USA, 14

  • Administration of private international law

    • Albania, 1858

    • Angola, 1865

    • Argentina, 1872

    • Austria, 1890

    • Belarus, 1899

    • Belgium, 1912

    • Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1923

    • Brazil, 1932

    • Bulgaria, 1944

    • Canada, 1952

    • China, 1975

    • Colombia, 1983

    • Croatia, 1994

    • Czech Republic, 2011

    • Denmark, 2024

    • Egypt, 2056

    • Estonia, 2065

    • Finland, 2075

    • France, 2083

    • Georgia, 2093

    • Germany, 2104

    • Ghana, 2114

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 2131

    • Hungary, 2141

    • Iceland, 2150

    • India, 2158

    • Indonesia, 2169

    • Iran, 2176

    • Ireland, 2185

    • Israel, 2195

    • Japan, 2221

    • Kazakhstan, 2236

    • Korea, 2244

    • Latvia, 2257

    • Lebanon, 2266

    • Liechtenstein, 2280

    • Lithuania, 2289

    • Luxembourg, 2299

    • Macau, SAR of China, 2308

    • Macedonia, FYR, 2318

    • Mexico, 2338

    • Montenegro, 2348

    • Mozambique, 2354

    • Netherlands, 2360

    • New Zealand, 2370

    • Nigeria, 2379

    • Norway, 2393

    • Paraguay, 2401

    • Poland, 2425

    • Portugal, 2435

    • Romania, 2445

    • Serbia, 2473

    • Singapore, 2484

    • Slovakia, 2496

    • Slovenia, 2505

    • South Africa, 2517

    • Spain, 2528

    • Sweden, 2538

    • Switzerland, 2551

    • Taiwan, 2560

    • Tunisia, 2584

    • Turkey, 2594

    • Ukraine, 2606

    • United Kingdom, 2615

    • Uruguay, 2630

    • USA, 2640

    • Venezuela, 2650

    • Vietnam, 2661

  • Administration of the estate

    • Succession, 1683, 1684, 1687

  • Administrative cooperation

    • Maintenance obligations, 1185, 1193

  • Administrative decisions

    • Divorce and personal separation, 543

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1501

  • Admiralty

    • Currie, Brainerd, 508

  • Admiralty law (common law)

    • Arrest of vessels, 132, 133

  • Admissibility

    • Arbitration, investment, 103

  • Admonitory tort rules

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 587

  • Adoption

    • Czech Republic, 2013, 2017

    • Ecuador, 2049

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 700

    • France, 2087

    • Hague Adoption Convention, 868

    • Human rights and private international law, 882

    • Ireland, 2190

    • Italy, 2214

    • Netherlands, 2366

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1329, 1330

    • Peru, 2417

    • Slovakia, 2498, 2501

    • Slovenia. 178

    • Substitution, 1679

    • Sweden, 2542, 2545, 2547

    • United Kingdom, 2624

  • Adoption, intercountry, 15

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 55

    • China, 15

    • Citizenship, 15

    • Growth, 15

    • Jurisdiction, foundations, 18

    • Rules, 15

  • ADR (see Alternative Dispute Resolution)

    • Alternative dispute resolution

    • Mediation, 1246, 1247

  • ADR Directive

    • Online dispute resolution, 1320

  • Adults, protection of, 21

    • Applicable law, 26

    • Capacity and emancipation, 22

    • Property and proprietary rights, 25

  • Adverse possession

    • Prescription, 1368

  • AFNOR conditions

    • Construction contracts, 459

  • Agency

    • Agency and authority of agents, 29, 30

    • Bulgaria, 1946

    • China, 30

    • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts, 392, 395

    • Connecting factors, 30, 35

    • Netherlands, 2361

    • Place of business, 37

    • States, failed and non-recognized, 1655

    • Taiwan, 2564

  • Agency and authority of agents

    • Austria, 32

    • Belgium, 32

    • Bulgaria, 32

    • Canada, 32

    • China, 32

    • Czech Republic, 32

    • Estonia, 32

    • Germany, 32

    • Italy, 32

    • Japan, 32

    • Korea, 32

    • Liechtenstein, 32

    • Lithuania, 32

    • Poland, 32

    • Russian Federation, 32

    • Spain, 32

    • Switzerland, 32

    • Taiwan, 32

    • Turkey, 32

    • United Kingdom, 32

  • Agency by estoppel

    • Estoppel, 678

  • Agents

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 257, 258, 260

    • Carriage of passengers, 272, 275

  • Agreement to mediate

    • Contract, as, 1252

    • Mediation, 1249, 1252

  • Agreements as to succession

    • Rome IV Regulation (succession), 4, 1585

    • Succession, 1682, 1687, 1688

  • Air law (uniform law)

    • Maritime law (uniform law), 1218

  • Air traffic control

    • Air law (uniform law), 47

  • Air traffic, contractual liability

    • Air law (uniform law), 47

  • Air transport

    • Air law (uniform law), 43, 45

    • Carriage of passengers, 270, 275

  • Air transportation, crew

    • Air law (uniform law), 44, 47

  • Air transportation, goods

    • Air law (uniform law), 44

  • Air transportation, passenger

    • Air law (uniform law), 41, 44

  • Air transportation, persons

    • Air law (uniform law), 40

  • Air transportation, product liability

    • Air law (uniform law), 47

  • Air transportation, third-party liability

    • Air law (uniform law), 43

  • Aircraft

    • Property and proprietary rights, 1432

  • Aircraft collision

    • Air law (uniform law), 44

  • Aircraft operator

    • Air law (uniform law), 43

  • Aircraft Protocol

    • Security interests in mobile equipment (uniform law), 1623, 1624, 1626

  • Aircraft, rights in

    • Register, 1626

    • Security interests in mobile equipment (uniform law), 1622, 1623

  • Air-service, non-scheduled

    • ICAO, 887

  • Air-service, scheduled

    • ICAO, 887

  • Akerlof, George

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 171, 177

  • Akzessorische Anknüpfung

    • Liability, capital market, 1136

  • Albania, 1855

    • Administration of private international law, 1858

    • Adoption, 1862

    • Application and enforcement of foreign law, 1858

    • Arbitration, 1863

    • Bilateral agreements, 1856

    • Case-law, 1857

    • Children, 1862

    • Choice of law, 1859

    • Civil Procedure Code, 1855

    • Corporations, 1862

    • Divorce, 1861

    • Doctrinal writings, 1857

    • European Conventions, 1856

    • Family matters, 1860

    • Guardianship, 1862

    • Habitual residence, 1861

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1855

    • Hague Conventions, 1855

    • History and development of private international law, 1857

    • Intellectual property, 1860

    • International conventions, 1855

    • Jurisdiction, 1858

    • Main sources of law, 1867

    • Maintenance obligations, 1861

    • Major legislation, 1855

    • Marriage, 1861

    • Matrimonial property, 1861

    • Nationality, 1860

    • Obligations, 1859

    • PILA, 1855

    • Property rights, 1860

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 1863

    • Significance of EU private international law, 1856

    • Sources of private international law, 1855

    • Special courts, 1858

    • Succession, 1862

    • United Nations Conventions, 1856

    • West Balkan Convention, 1832, 1833

  • Aldricus

    • Conflict of laws, 49

    • Life and work, 48

    • More effective law, 48

    • More useful law, 48

    • Private international law, 48

    • Rediscovery in 20th century, 50

    • Result selectivism, 50

  • ALI Intellectual Property Principles

    • CLIP Principles, and, 370

    • CLIP, 369

    • Coordination of proceedings, 370

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 966, 968

    • Intellectual property, jurisdiction, 971, 978, 979

    • Internet, liability, 1004, 1005

    • Lex originis, 370

    • Scope, 368

    • Territoriality, 1707

  • Alien Tort Statute

    • Comity, 387

    • Territoriality, 1703

  • Aliens

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 51

  • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht)

    • Brazil, 56

    • China, 55

    • Historical development, 51

    • Hungary, 57

    • India, 55

    • Iran, 55

    • Japan, 57

    • Nationality, 53

    • Property and proprietary rights, 52, 54

    • Thailand, 55

    • Reciprocity, 52, 56, 1469

  • Alternative Anknüpfung

    • Connecting factor, 446

  • Alternative connecting factor

    • Connecting factor, 445

    • Kinship and legitimation, 1072, 1073, 1074

    • Renvoi, 1543

  • Alternative dispute resolution

    • Arbitration, maritime, 113, 115, 116

    • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 64

    • Choice of law, 62, 63, 64

    • Classification (characterization), 62

    • Court-annexed, 60

    • Cross-border, 61

    • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment, 60

    • Enforcement of settlement, 64

    • Formal requirements and validity, 64

    • Hybrid procedures, 60

    • Maintenance obligations, 65

    • Private international law, 60

    • Rise of, 58

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 63

    • Settlement, 64

    • Substantive law, 64

  • Alternative dispute resolution, electronic

    • Online dispute resolution, 59, 1314, 1319

  • Alternative dispute resolution, online

    • Online dispute resolution, 59, 1314, 1318, 1319

    • Promotion, 1319

  • Alternative reference

    • Better law approach, 184, 185

  • Alternative risk transfer

    • Reinsurance contracts, 1531

  • Altruism

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 174

  • American Conflicts Revolution

    • Choice of law, 66, 68, 69

    • Connecting factor, 451

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 584

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 980

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 1068

    • Lex fori, 1107

    • Private international law, foundations, 1388

    • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws, 1546, 1548, 1552

  • American Institute of International Law

    • Bustamante, Antonio Sánchez de, 245

  • American Law Institute

    • CLIP, 366

    • Collective redress, 380

    • Game theory and private international law, 831

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 966

    • Intellectual property, jurisdiction, 971

    • Lis alibi pendens, 1163, 1165

    • Provisional measures, 1442

    • Rabel, Ernst, 1461

    • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws, 1545

  • American legal realism

    • Better law approach, 181

    • Party autonomy, 1338

  • Andean Community

    • Ecuador, 2044

  • Angola, 1864

    • Administration of private international law, 1865

    • Arbitration, 1866

    • Bilateral treaties, 1864

    • Capacity, 1865

    • Choice of court, 1866

    • Contractual obligations, 1865

    • Corporations, 1866

    • General part, 1865

    • International civil procedure, 1866

    • International conventions, 1864

    • Major legislation, 1864

    • Marriage, 1866

    • Non-contractual liability, 1865

    • Personal law, 1865

    • Portugal, 1864, 1865

    • Private international law, basic principles, 1865

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 1866

    • Sources of private international law, 1864

    • Special part, 1865

    • Succession, 1866

  • Anknüfungsbegriff

    • Connecting factor, 441

  • Anknüpfungsgegenstand

    • Prescription, 1371, 1375

  • Anknüpfungsgrund

    • Connecting factor, 441

  • Anknüpfungsmerkmal

    • Connecting factor, 441

  • Anknüpfungsmoment

    • Connecting factor, 441

  • Anknüpfungspunk

    • Connecting factor, 441

  • Anküpfungsgegenstan

    • Connecting factor, 441

  • Anküpfungsgegenstand

    • Burden of proof, 240

    • Connecting factor, 240

  • Annexation

    • Nationality, 1300

  • Annulment

    • Brussels IIa Regulation, 229, 230, 231, 233

  • Anpassung

    • Connecting factor, 448

  • Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement

    • Internet, liability, 1003

  • Antidiscrimination, 70

    • Classification (characterization), 360

    • Cross-law conflicts, 78

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 74, 621

    • EU Directives, beyond, 77

    • EU States, failing to comply, 76

    • France, 71, 75

    • Germany, 71

    • Human rights and private international law, 70

    • Intra-EU conflicts, 77

    • Lease contracts and tenancies, 1080

    • Netherlands, 71, 75

    • Norway, 71, 75

    • Overriding mandatory nature, 75

    • Private international law, 71

    • Public policy (ordre public), 76

    • Safeguarding EU standards, 76

    • Social protection and private international law, 1652

    • Spain, 71

    • United Kingdom, 71

    • USA, 71

  • Antidiscrimination model

    • WTO and private international law, 1845

  • Anti-suit injunctions, 79

    • Arbitration, 89

    • Australia, 81, 1881, 1882

    • Brussels I Regulation (recast), 227

    • Canada, 81, 84

    • Challenging power, 84

    • Comity, 80, 81, 84, 385

    • Court’s power, nature, 80

    • Cross-border cases, 79

    • Damages, 82

    • Discretion, 84

    • Enforcement, 81, 925

    • EU law, 85

    • France, 80

    • Germany, 80

    • Grounds for relief, 82

    • Injunction, 79, 82, 924, 925, 929

    • Jurisdiction, 82

    • Limitations, 84

    • Lis alibi pendens, 1159, 1161, 1163, 1165

    • Public policy, 80, 84

    • Reciprocity, 1469

    • Remedies, 82, 84, 1532, 1533

    • Requirements, 82

    • Singapore, 2486

    • United Kingdom, 80, 81, 82, 84, 2617

    • USA, 80, 84

  • Antitrust

    • Competition law (antitrust), 425

    • Competition, unfair, 436

  • Antitrust regulation

    • Comity, 385, 387

  • Anton Piller order

    • Freezing injunctions and search orders, 812, 815

  • Apostille

    • CIEC/ICCS (International Commission on Civil Status), 333, 337

    • e-Apostille, 1100

    • Effect, 1099, 1103

    • Legalization of public documents, 1099, 1103

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1495

  • Apostille Convention

    • Contracting states, 1099

    • Legalization of public documents, 1099

    • Scope, 1099

    • Substitution, 1677

  • Apparent authority

    • Agency and authority of agents, 31, 38

    • Estoppel, 678

  • Appeal(s)

    • Austria, 781

    • England and Wales, 781

    • Foreign law, judicial review, 778, 779, 780, 782

    • Forum non conveniens, 806

    • Germany, 781

    • Possibility of, 782

    • Romania, 782

  • Applicable law

    • Adoption, 18, 19

    • Adults, protection of, 26

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 62

    • Antidiscrimination, 72, 74

    • Assignability/Assignment of claims, 143, 144

    • Austria, 1891

    • Bill of exchange, 190

    • Bulgaria, 1944

    • Cessio legis, 288, 289, 292, 293, 295

    • Cheques, 296

    • Classification (characterization), 364

    • CLIP, 365, 370

    • Colombia, 1986

    • Companies, 416

    • Contractual obligations, 62

    • Culpa in contrahendo, 496, 497

    • Damage(s), 518

    • Direct action, 535, 960

    • Divorce and personal separation, 543, 548

    • Dominican Republic, 2041

    • Ecuador, 2048

    • Foundation, 365

    • Guardianship, custody and parental responsibility, 864, 865, 866, 868, 869

    • Independent determination, 34

    • Insurance contracts, 954, 956

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 961

    • Internet, liability, 1003

    • Kazakhstan, 2230, 2231, 2239

    • Latvia, 2260

    • Liechtenstein, 2281

    • Life insurance contracts, 1152, 1154, 1155, 1156

    • Malta, 2329

    • Maritime torts, 1223

    • Marriage, 1228, 1230, 1231

    • Matrimonial property, 1239

    • Mediation, 1252

    • Nuclear liability, 1312

    • Proceedings, law governing, 1409, 1412

    • Proper law (doctrine), 1423

    • Reinsurance contracts, 1525, 1527, 1531

    • Remedies, 1532

    • Same-sex marriages, 1607

    • Saudi Arabia, 2462

    • Social protection and private international law, 1649, 1650, 1651

  • Application and ascertainment of foreign law, 769

    • China, 1975

    • GEDIP, 844

    • Georgia, 2093

  • Application (and enforcement) of foreign law

    • Albania, 1858

    • Argentina, 1872

    • Belarus, 1899

    • Belgium, 1912

    • Bilateral/multilateral conventions, 775

    • Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1923

    • Brazil, 1932

    • Bulgaria, 1942, 1945

    • Canada, 1952

    • Chile, 1962, 1967

    • Colombia, 1983

    • Conflict of law, 769

    • Croatia, 1995

    • Cuba, 2006

    • Czech Republic, 2011

    • Denmark, 2025

    • Dominican Republic, 2042

    • Egypt, 2057

    • Estonia, 2066

    • Factors, 772

    • Finland, 2075

    • Foreign law, application and ascertainment, 6, 18

    • Foreign law, judicial review, 778, 779, 780, 781, 782

    • France, 2083

    • Georgia, 2093

    • Germany, 2104

    • Ghana, 2114

    • Goldschmidt, Werner, 854, 855, 856, 857, 860

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 2132

    • Human rights and private international law, 884

    • Hungary, 2141

    • Iceland, 2150

    • India, 2158

    • Indonesia, 2170

    • Iran, 2177

    • Ireland, 2185

    • Israel, 2195

    • Iura novit curia, 772

    • Judicial application, 776

    • Kazakhstan, 2237

    • Korea, 2244

    • Latvia, 2258

    • Lebanon, 2267

    • Lex fori, 776

    • Lithuania, 2290

    • Macedonia, FYR, 2318

    • Malta, 2331

    • Mexico, 2338

    • Montenegro, 2348

    • Netherlands, 2360

    • New Zealand, 2371

    • Nigeria, 2380

    • Non-judicial authorities, 777

    • Norway, 2393

    • Paraguay, 2401

    • Poland, 2425

    • Portugal, 2435, 2436

    • Public policy (ordre public), 777

    • Refusal, 777

    • Romania, 2445

    • Russian Federation, 2456

    • Serbia, 2474

    • Singapore, 2485

    • Slovakia, 2496

    • Slovenia, 2506

    • South Africa, 2517

    • Spain, 2528

    • Sweden, 2538

    • Switzerland, 2552

    • Taiwan, 2561

    • Tunisia, 2584

    • Turkey, 2594

    • Ukraine, 2606

    • United Kingdom, 2615

    • Uruguay, 2630

    • USA, 2640

    • Venezuela, 2650

    • Vietnam, 2661

  • Application controls

    • Foreign law, judicial review, 778

  • Application of private international law

    • Chile, 1959

  • Appointment of public officials

    • Recognition of administrative acts, 1488

  • Appropriate forum

    • Forum non conveniens, 798, 799, 801, 802, 805

  • Arbitrability, 131

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 93

  • Arbitration, international commercial

    • Party autonomy, 113

  • Arbitral awards

    • Arbitration, (UNCITRAL) Model Law, 86, 128

    • CIDIP, 326

    • Estoppel, 678

    • Institutions, 1128

    • Voluntary compliance, 1128

  • Arbitration

    • Air law (uniform law), 42

    • Albania, 1863

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 58, 86

    • Angola, 1866

    • Arbitration, (UNCITRAL) Model Law, 86, 126

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 86, 102

    • Arbitration, investment, 97, 102, 103, 105

    • Arbitration, maritime, 106

    • Argentina, 1878

    • Austria, 1886, 1887, 1893

    • Belarus, 1898, 1906

    • Belgium, 1918

    • Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1928

    • Brazil, 1938

    • Brussels I Regulation (recast), 227

    • Brussels I Regulation, 228

    • Bulgaria, 1949

    • Canada, 1958

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 258

    • China, 1980

    • Colombia, 1989

    • Confidentiality/privacy, 795

    • Croatia, 2001

    • Cuba, 2003, 2004, 2007

    • Czech Republic, 2018

    • Denmark, 2030, 2035

    • Dominican Republic, 2040

    • Ecuador, 2045, 2052

    • Egypt, 2060

    • Estonia, 2070

    • Estoppel, 677

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 704

    • Evidence, procurement of, 89

    • Finland, 2079

    • Floating choice of law, 767

    • Forum (and law) shopping, 795

    • France, 89, 2089

    • Georgia, 2100

    • Germany, 2111

    • Ghana, 2115, 2118

    • Greece, 2128

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 2138

    • Hungary, 2146

    • Hybrid procedures, 60

    • Iceland, 2155

    • India, 89, 2161

    • Indonesia, 2173

    • Iran, 2182

    • Ireland, 2192

    • Israel, 2194, 2206

    • Italy, 2218

    • Japan, 2227

    • Kazakhstan, 2242

    • Korea, 2252

    • Latvia, 2263

    • Lebanon, 2275

    • Lex maritima, 1116

    • Liechtenstein, 2285

    • Lithuania, 2296

    • Litigation, alternative, 86

    • Lugano Convention, 1178

    • Luxembourg, 2304

    • Macau, SAR of China, 2314

    • Macedonia, FYR, 2325

    • Malta, 2329, 2333

    • Mediation, 1250, 1251, 1252

    • Mexico, 2344

    • Montenegro, 2353

    • Mozambique, 2356

    • National rules, 127

    • Netherlands, 2368

    • New Zealand, 2377

    • Nigeria, 2384

    • Norway, 2396

    • Online dispute resolution, 1314, 1318, 1321, 1322

    • Paraguay, 2409

    • Party autonomy, 86, 87, 90, 92, 96

    • Poland, 2432

    • Portugal, 2441

    • Proceedings, law governing, 1412

    • Public international law and private international law, 129

    • Reinsurance contracts, 956, 1529

    • Romania, 2451

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 88

    • Russian Federation, 2461

    • Saudi Arabia, 2463

    • Sea waybills and other transport documents, 1619, 1620

    • Serbia, 2482

    • Singapore, 2492

    • Slovakia, 2502

    • South Africa, 2523

    • Spain, 2535

    • Sweden, 2547

    • Switzerland, 2557

    • Taiwan, 2567

    • Thailand, 2580

    • Tunisia, 2589

    • Turkey, 2601

    • Ukraine, 2611

    • UNICITRAL, 1762

    • United Kingdom, 2626

    • Uruguay, 2636

    • USA, 89, 2646

    • Venezuela, 2657

    • Vietnam, 2666

  • Arbitration agreement, 109

    • Anti-suit injunctions, 79, 85, 930

    • Arbitration, (UNCITRAL) Model Law, 128

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 93, 129

    • Arbitration, investment, 102

    • Assignability/Assignment of claims, 94

    • Capacity and emancipation, 94, 96

    • Direct action, 534

    • Injunction, 929

    • Insurance contracts, 955

    • Overarching goal, 117

    • Proper law (doctrine), 1424

    • Reinsurance contracts, 1524, 1526

  • Arbitration clauses

    • Arbitration, maritime, 107

    • Bill of lading, 199, 200

    • Estoppel, 677

    • Form, 108

    • Reinsurance contracts, 1526

  • Arbitration, international commercial, 58, 61, 65, 97

    • Arbitration, maritime, 107, 111

    • Choice of law, 86, 87, 91, 96

    • CIDIP, 326

    • Jurisdiction, foundations, 86, 87, 93

    • Jurisdiction, limits under international law, 87, 93

    • Lex mercatoria, 1119, 1125

  • Arbitration, investment

    • Canada, 97

    • Context, 97

    • Costs, 105

    • Germany, 98

    • Historical development, 97

    • International investment treaties (IITs), 97

    • International state responsibility, 105

    • Mexico, 97

    • Pakistan, 98

    • Private international law, 101

    • Property and proprietary rights, 101

    • Public policy, 97

    • Remedies, 98, 103

    • Stabilization clauses, 102

    • Substantive principles, 104

    • USA, 97

  • Arbitration, maritime, 106

    • Applicable law, 111

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 107

    • Arrest of vessels, 140

    • Choice, 108

    • Definition and concept, 106

    • Dispute resolution, 113

    • Form of arbitration clause, 108

    • Formal requirements and validity, 110

    • Germany, 112

    • Institutions, 113

    • Italy, 109

    • Liner transport, 115

    • Party autonomy, 108

    • Procedural rules, 113

    • Procedure, 107, 113

    • Role and importance, 1116

    • Salvage, 1117, 1596

    • Special procedure, 115

    • Transnational, 106

    • Uniform substantive law and private international law, 116

    • United Kingdom, 109, 111, 116

    • USA, 110, 116

  • Arbitration, recognition of awards, 59, 61, 65

    • Arbitration, maritime, 109

    • Awards set aside abroad, 122

    • Developments, 121

    • Enforcement, 118

    • European Union and private international law, 125

    • France, 119

    • Germany, 118

    • Grounds for refusing recognition and enforcement, 120

    • Historical requirements for recognition and enforcement, 120

    • International commercial arbitration, 88, 89, 92, 93

    • Jurisdiction, foundations, 119

    • Lex fori, 121

    • New York Convention, 120

    • Notion, 117

    • Online dispute resolution, 1319

    • Parallel entitlement, 118

    • Public international law and private international law, 123

    • Public policy (ordre public), 1453, 1457, 1458

    • Public policy, 121, 123

    • Recognition of administrative acts, 1486

    • Recognition, 118

    • Stand-alone, 118

    • Standardized procedure, 119

    • Ukraine, 123

    • United Kingdom, 124

    • USA, 119, 122

  • Arbitration rules

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 88, 90, 92

  • Arbitration, (UNCITRAL) Model Law, 86, 87, 95, 105, 109, 126

    • Amendments, 127

    • Bulgaria, 130

    • EU law, 131

    • Freedom, 127

    • Germany, 129, 130

    • Interpretations, 131

    • Japan, 130

    • Limitations in scope, 130

    • Other legal instruments, 131

    • Overview, 127

    • Private international law, express reference, 128

    • Procedure, 128

    • Public policy (ordre public), 1456

    • Scope, 127

    • Spain, 130

    • Territorial scope, 128

    • Tunisia, 130

    • Turkey, 130

    • Variations in enacting, 131

  • Architect’s contract

    • Construction contracts, 461, 463

  • Area of freedom, security and justice

    • European Union and private international law, 690

    • Human rights and private international law, 886

  • Argentina, 1867

    • Administration of private international law, 1872

    • Adoption, 1878

    • Application of foreign law, 1872

    • Arbitration, 1878

    • Bilateral agreements, 1869

    • Bilateral and multilateral treaties, 1868

    • Capacity, 1877

    • Case-law, 1870

    • Children, 1874, 1878

    • Choice of law, 1875

    • CIDIP, 1869

    • Civil and Commercial Code, 1867

    • Corporations, 1873, 1876

    • Courts, 1872

    • Custom and usage, 1871

    • Divorce and personal separation, 1874, 1877

    • Family matters, 1874, 1877

    • General structure, 1872

    • Goldschmidt, Werner, 852, 853, 859, 1871

    • Hague Conference on Private international law, 1868

    • Hague Conventions, 1868

    • History and development of private international law, 1871

    • Integration process, 1870

    • Intellectual property, 1876

    • International conventions, 1868

    • Jurisdiction, 1872

    • Maintenance obligations, 1874, 1877

    • Marriage, 1874, 1877

    • Non-contractual obligations, 1876

    • Obligations, 1873, 1875

    • Parent-child relationship, 1874, 1877

    • Property rights, 1873, 1876

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 1878

    • Scholarly writing, 1871

    • Sources of private international law, 1867

    • Succession, 1875, 1878

    • Traditional system, 1867

    • Treaties of Montevideo, 1869

  • Argentré, Bertrand de

    • Private international law, history of, 1393

  • Arkansas

    • Better law approach, 180

  • Arrest of Vessels, 132

    • 1952 Arrest Convention, 134, 135, 136

    • 1952 Substantive rules, 136

    • 1993 Maritime Liens and Mortgages Convention, 134

    • 1999 Arrest Convention, 134, 135, 136

    • Albania, 134

    • Arbitration, 140

    • Belgium, 139

    • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation), 140

    • Bulgaria, 134

    • Common features, 133

    • Concept, 132

    • Conflict, possible, 136

    • Connecting factor, 139

    • Demised chartership, 138

    • Dispute of ownership, 137

    • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment, 135

    • Ecuador, 134

    • Estonia, 134

    • Exceptions, 138

    • Flag, 135

    • Forum arresti, 133

    • France, 132, 136, 139

    • Function, 133

    • Harmonizing definition, 135

    • Insolvency of owner, 133

    • International arrest conventions, 134

    • Italy, 132, 135, 136, 139

    • Judicial sale (ship), 133

    • Jurisdiction, 133, 139, 140

    • Latvia, 134

    • Lex fori, 135

    • Liability of companies, 133

    • Liability of non-owner, 137

    • Liability of owner, 137, 138

    • Netherlands, 139

    • Normal conditions, 136

    • Notion, 132

    • Procedural matters, 135

    • Property and proprietary rights, 133, 136

    • Provisional measures, 136

    • Public policy, 140

    • Purpose, 133

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, 139

    • Romans, 132

    • Security, 133, 134

    • Sister ship rule, 136, 138

    • Spain, 132, 134

    • The Rules of Oléron, 132

    • Uniformity, 135

    • United Kingdom, 132, 139

    • USA, 132, 139

  • Aruba

    • Netherlands, 2358

  • Ascertainment of foreign law

    • Burden of proof, 237, 243, 771, 773, 774, 775, 776

    • Content of foreign law, 774

    • Factual-legal consideration, 769

    • Foreign law, judicial review, 778, 779

    • Not ascertained, 776

    • Parties, role of, 773, 774

    • Russian Federation, 2456

    • Sufficiently, 776

  • ASEAN

    • Vietnam, 2659

  • Asser, Tobias Michael Carel

    • Mancini, Pasquale Stanislao, 1196

    • Private international law, history of, 1395, 1396, 1397

  • Assessment of damages

    • Damages, 512, 513, 514, 515, 517, 518

    • Substance and procedure, 1674

  • Asset

    • Arbitration, investment, 98, 99, 100, 101

    • Freezing injunctions, 812

  • Assignability/Assignment of claims, 141

    • Applicable law, 143, 144, 148, 149

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 94

    • Article 14 Rome I Regulation, 150

    • Assignability, 145

    • Austria, 146

    • Choice of laws rules, 147

    • Claimant, 147

    • Conditions, 146

    • Costs, 145, 149

    • Credit, 142

    • Debtor’s domicile, 147

    • Debtor, 144, 146

    • Domicile, habitual residence and entitlement, 147

    • Due diligence, 149

    • Effectiveness, 144, 147, 149

    • France, 146, 147

    • Germany, 149

    • Harmonization, 142

    • Insolvency, 148

    • Italy, 146

    • Lex situs of claim, 148

    • Location, 143, 147, 148

    • Netherlands, 146

    • Party autonomy, 150

    • Priority, 147, 150

    • Property and proprietary rights, 146

    • Regulatory framework, 144

    • Relationship between assignee and debtor, 146

    • Relationship between assignor and assignee, 143, 149

    • Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 144

    • Situs of assignor, 148

    • Spain, 146

    • Subrogation, 146

    • Substantive regulation, 142

    • Third parties, 146

    • Uniform rules, 147

    • Voluntary, 141

  • Assignment of credit

    • Property and proprietary rights, 146

  • Assignment of debt

    • Property and proprietary rights, 1433

  • Assignment of receivables, 142

    • Factoring (uniform law), 142, 147, 732, 733, 737, 738

  • Assistance, administrative

    • Double taxation treaties, 570, 573

  • Assisted negotiations

    • Online dispute resolution, 1314, 1315, 1316, 1323

  • Assisted reproduction

    • Access, 205

    • Bioethics and private international law, 203, 204, 208

    • European Court of Human Rights, 205

    • Italy, 205

    • Recognition of parentage, 205

    • United Kingdom, 205

  • Assisted suicide

    • Belgium, 208

    • Bioethics and private international law, 203, 207

    • Netherlands, 208

  • Association of Maritime Arbitrators of Canada (AMAC), 114

  • Astana Treaty

    • Kazakhstan, 2235

  • Asylum seekers

    • Nationality, 1300

  • Athens Convention

    • Carriage of passengers, 272, 273

    • Transport law (uniform law), 1728, 1729, 1731, 1737

  • Athens Convention 1974, 140

  • Attachment

    • Injunction, 924, 926, 928, 930

  • Attachment of bank accounts, 682

    • European Account Preservation Order Regulation, 681

  • Ausschlussfristen

    • Prescription, 1369

  • Australia, 1879

    • Anti-suit injunctions, 1881, 1882

    • British territories, 1879

    • Choice of law, 1882

    • Constitutional law and private international law, 452, 453, 454

    • Constitutional law and private international law, 1883, 1885

    • Cross-vesting, 1881, 1885

    • Domicile, 1882

    • Double actionability, 1883

    • Electronic commerce, 595

    • Federal system, 1879, 1882, 1885

    • Forum non conveniens, 1881, 1884

    • Full faith and credit, 1883, 1884

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1885

    • Historical background, 1879

    • Independent common law, 1880

    • Jurisdiction, 1880

    • Mutual trust and cooperation, 1882

    • New Zealand, 1884

    • Other international relations, 1885

    • Proof of foreign law, 1884

    • Property, 1882

    • Prospects for private international law, 1885

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 1884

    • Renvoi, 1883

    • Service of proceedings, 1880

    • Tort, 1882

    • Trans-Tasman proceedings, 1884

  • Austria, 1886

    • Academic commentary, 1890

    • Administration of private international law, 1890

    • Applicable law, 1891

    • Arbitration, 1886, 1887, 1893

    • Bilateral conventions, 1887

    • Case-law, 1890

    • Companies and other legal entities, 1892

    • Contentious matters, jurisdiction in, 1890

    • Conventions and domestic legislation, 1886

    • Conventions on private international law, 1886

    • Divorce and personal separation, 1892

    • Domestic legislation, 1886

    • EU private international law, 1888

    • Family matters, 1892

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1886

    • Intellectual property, 1892

    • Jurisdiction, 1890

    • Marriage, 1892

    • Multilateral conventions, 1886

    • Nationality, 1892

    • Non-contentious matters, jurisdiction in, 1891

    • Obligations, 1891

    • Private international law, history of, 1394

    • Property, 1892

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, 1893

    • Sources of private international law, 1886

    • Succession, 1893

    • UNCITRAL, 1886, 1893

    • UNIDROIT, 1886

    • Uniform law, 1888

  • Authentic act

    • Legalization of public documents, 1095, 1096, 1098

  • Authentic instruments

    • Brussels Convention, 1097

    • Characteristics, 1095

    • Civil law systems, 1095

    • Enforceability, 1103

    • European Enforcement Order Regulation, 1097

    • European sources, 1097

    • Evidential value, 1103

    • Formal requirements, 1104

    • International instruments, 1097

    • Legalization of public documents, 1094, 1095

    • Lugano Convention, 1182

    • Maintenance obligations, 1192

    • Personal status, 1347

    • Proof, 1095

    • Public documents, 1095

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1495, 1500

    • Rome IV Regulation (succession), 1586

    • Succession Regulation, 1097

    • Succession, 1683, 1690

    • Unibank, 1097

  • Authentication

    • Legalization of public documents, 1095, 1104

  • Authenticity

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1496

  • Authority

    • Agency and authority of agents, 29, 30, 35

    • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts, 391

    • Connecting factors, 30

    • Germany, 36

    • Grant of, 30, 31, 37

    • Power of attorneys, 31

    • Proof of, 38

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1495, 1496

  • Authority beyond the state

    • Globalization and private international law, 846, 847

  • Automated negotiations

    • Online dispute resolution, 1315, 1316

  • Automatic recognition

    • Belgium, 1913

  • Autonomous rules

    • Sweden, 2546

  • Autonomy of conflict of laws

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 1066

  • Availability bias

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 172

  • Aviation law

    • Netherlands, 2367

  • Avoidance of service of process abroad

    • Service of documents, 1632

  • Awards set aside abroad

    • Arbitration, recognition of awards, 92, 96, 122

  • B2b contracts

    • CESL, 278, 281, 282, 283

    • Electronic commerce, 592

    • Online dispute resolution, 1318, 1320, 1321

  • B2c contracts

    • CESL, 278, 280, 281, 283

    • Competition, unfair, 433

    • Electronic commerce, 592

    • Online dispute resolution, 1318, 1320, 1321

  • Back-to-back cover principle

    • Reinsurance contracts, 1525, 1526, 1527

  • Balancing approach

    • Competition law (antitrust), 429

  • Balancing of interests

    • Renvoi, 1540

  • Baldus

    • Private international law, history of, 1391

  • Bank

    • Cheques, 295

  • Bank accounts

    • Brussels I Regulation (recast), 682

    • European Account Preservation Order Regulation, 681

    • Property and proprietary rights, 1434

  • Bankruptcy

    • Iceland, 2154

  • Bar of recognition

    • Service of documents, 1632

  • Bar, Carl Ludwig von

    • Kahn, Franz, 1058, 1059

    • Mancini, Pasquale Stanislao, 1198

  • Bareboat charter

    • Flag, 758

  • Barrier crossing

    • Party autonomy, 1339, 1341

  • Barriers to trade

    • WTO and private international law, 1844, 1845, 1848

  • Bartin, Étienne, 8, 151

    • Algeria, 152

    • Aubry, Charles, 152

    • Batiffol, Henry, 169

    • Case-law, 153

    • Characterization (see also Classification), 155

    • Conflict of laws, 154

    • Conflit mobile, 155

    • Connecting factors, 155

    • Dreyfus affair, 153

    • Foreign judgments, 152, 156

    • Influence on private international law, 156

    • International jurisdiction, 156

    • Kahn, Franz, 154, 155, 156, 1060

    • Lex fori, 155

    • Life and work, 151

    • Overriding mandatory rules, 155

    • Paris, 152

    • Particularism, 154

    • Party autonomy, 156

    • Pillet, Antoine, 154

    • Politics, 153

    • Practical experimentation, 153

    • Private international law, history of, 151, 153

    • Rau, Charles-Frédéric, 152

    • Savigny, Friedrich Carl von, 154

    • Son’s death, 153

    • Studies, 152

    • Traditionalist, 153

    • Universalism, 154

    • Work, 44

    • Bartolus of Sassoferrato, 157

    • Accursius, 158

    • Cinus, 158

    • Conflict of laws, 158, 161

    • Contracts, 159

    • Custom, 160

    • Delicts, 159

    • Effect of judgments, 161

    • Extraterritorial, extraterritoriality, 160

    • Influence on private international law, 161

    • Language, 162

    • Legacy, 162

    • Life and work, 158

    • Private international law, history of, 157, 162, 1391, 1392, 1395

    • Real property, 159

    • School of Orléans, 158

    • Secular statutes and customs, 159

    • Succession, 160

    • Testaments, 159

    • Theory of statutes, 158, 159, 161

    • Unilateralism, 1780

  • Base erosion and profit shifting

    • Double taxation treaties, 572

  • Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 2129

  • Basic rule

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 585

  • Batiffol, Henri, 163

    • Academic beginnings, 164

    • Architecture of method, 168

    • Bartin, Étienne, 169

    • Biography, 163

    • Career, 164

    • Commitments, 167

    • Companies, 405

    • Contracts, 167

    • Coordination of legal systems, 163, 169

    • Disciples, 165

    • Discord, 165

    • Doctrine, 168

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 167

    • Enlightened liberalism, 165

    • Gothot, Pierre, 166, 168

    • Judicial positivism, 166

    • Legacy, 165

    • Les amis d’Henri Batiffol, 165

    • Life, 163

    • Localization, 169

    • Mancini, Pasquale Stanislao, 168

    • Person, 163

    • Post-scriptum, 170

    • Pragmatism, 164, 168, 170

    • Rabel, Ernst, 167

    • Renvoi, 169

    • Savignism, 168

    • Savigny, Friedrich Carl von, 164, 166, 168

    • Spirit of synthesis, 168

    • Tradition, 166

  • Baxter, William

    • (American) Conflict of laws revolution, 67

    • Currie, Brainerd, 510

    • Game theory and private international law, 831

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 984

    • Unilateralism, 1783, 1785

  • Beale, Joseph

    • Bartolus, 158

    • Better law approach, 180

    • Comity, 384

    • Dicey, Albert Venn, 530

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 587

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 980

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1497

    • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws, 66, 1546

    • USA, 2639, 2640

    • Vested rights theory, 66, 1814

  • Becker, Gary S

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 575

  • Behavioural economics, 175

    • Behavioural law and economics, 174

    • Behavioural psychology, 171

    • Bounded rationality, 172

    • Bounded self-interest, 174

    • Choice of law by rationally disinterested agents, 176, 177

    • Choice of law with negative effects on third parties, 176

    • Economics of information, 171

    • Instrumental innovation, 174

    • Nudging, 175

    • Positive limitations, 174

    • Preference inconsistency, 172

    • Preference instability, 173

    • Private international law, 170, 171, 174, 175

    • Processing information, 172

    • Rational choice, 171

  • Behavioural law and economics

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 174

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 575

    • Positive limitations, 174

  • Belarus, 1894

    • Administration of private international law, 1899

    • Application of foreign law, 1899

    • Arbitration, 1898, 1906

    • Capacity, 1905

    • Case-law, 1898

    • Children, 1904

    • Contracts, 1901

    • Corporations, 1900, 1905

    • Courts and non-judicial authorities, 1899

    • Divorce, 1903

    • Doctrinal writings, 1898

    • Family matters, 1901, 1903

    • Hague Conference on Private International law, 1897

    • Hague Conventions, 1897

    • History and development of private international law, 1899

    • Inheritance matters, 1905

    • Intellectual property, 1898, 1901, 1903

    • International and national law, 1895

    • International conventions, 1895

    • Jurisdiction, 1900

    • Major legislation, 1894

    • Marriage, 1903

    • Non-contractual obligations, 1902

    • Obligations, 1900, 1901

    • Property, 1900, 1902

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 1905

    • Road transport, 1897

    • Sources of private international law, 1894

    • Succession, 1901

    • Treaties on private international law, 1896

    • UNCITRAL, 1897

    • UNIDROIT, 1897

    • Unjust enrichment, 1902

    • Wills, 1905

  • Belgium, 1906

    • Administration of private international law, 1912

    • Adoption, 1916

    • Application of foreign law, 1912

    • Arbitration, 1918

    • Automatic recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, 1913

    • Bilateral conventions, 1909

    • Case-law, 1911

    • Choice of law, 1913

    • Contractual obligations, 1914

    • Corporations, 1917

    • Doctrinal writing, 1911

    • EU private international law, 1910

    • Family matters, 1916

    • Federal state, 1907

    • General rules and principles, 1912

    • Goods in transit, 1915

    • Guiding principles and structure, 1912

    • Habitual residence, 1916

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1908

    • Hague Conventions, 1908

    • Historical developments of sources, 1911

    • History and evolution of private international law, 1911

    • Inheritance, 1917

    • Insolvency, 1917

    • Intellectual property, 1915

    • International conventions, 1908

    • Jurisdiction, 1913

    • Kegel’s ladder, 1916

    • Major legislation, 1906

    • Marriage, 1916

    • Matrimonial property, 1917

    • Multilateral instruments, 1908

    • Nationality, 1907, 1916

    • Non-contractual obligations, 1914

    • Non-judicial authorities, 1912

    • Obligations, 1914

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1325

    • Overriding mandatory provisions, 1907, 1914

    • Party autonomy, 1916, 1917

    • Property and goods, 1915

    • Public policy, 1914, 1916, 1917

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, 1913

    • Registered partnerships, 1916

    • Same-sex relationships, 1917

    • Sources of private international law, 1906

    • Special courts, 1912

    • Succession, 1917

    • Surrogacy, 1917

    • Trusts, 1915

  • Beneficiary

    • Financial instruments, 740

  • Benelux

    • Luxembourg, 2297

  • Benevolent intervention in another’s affairs

    • Negotiorum gestio, 1302

  • Berne Convention

    • TRIPS, 1748, 1749, 1751

    • WIPO and private international law, 1836, 1838, 1839

  • Bernstein, Herbert

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 585

  • Best interests of the child, 16, 21

  • Better law

    • (American) Conflict of laws revolution, 67

    • Comparative law and private international law, 417, 421

    • Currie, Brainerd, 510

    • USA, 180, 2639, 2644

  • Better law approach, 179

    • Choice of law, beyond, 185

    • Choice of law, 316

    • Content consideration, 179

    • Criterion or approach, 181

    • Critiques, 182

    • Descriptive or normative, 181

    • Efficiency, 183

    • Forum law preference, 182

    • Inherent indeterminacy, 182

    • Judicial authority, lack of, 183

    • Legislative selectivism, 183

    • Origins and development, 179

    • Private international law, methods of, 179, 1402

    • Reception by the courts, 180

    • Reliable standards, lack of, 182

    • Result-selective statutory rules, 183

    • Sovereign equality, violation of, 183

    • Statutory selectivism, 184

    • Substantivism, 185

  • BGB

    • Kahn, Franz, 1057

  • Biases

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 172, 174

  • Bigamy

    • Marriage, 1227

  • Bilateral act

    • Competition, unfair, 440

  • Bilateral conflict rules

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 616, 617, 622

    • Employment, posting of workers, 656

  • Bilateral conventions

    • Argentina, 1869

    • Austria, 1887

    • Belgium, 1909

    • Liechtenstein, 2278

    • Service of documents, 1629

  • Bilateral investment treaty (BITs)

    • Arbitration, investment, 97

    • Germany-Pakistan, 98

    • Indonesia-Netherlands, 98

  • Bilateral legal assistance treaties

    • Croatia, 1992, 1995

  • Bill of exchange, 187

    • Acceptance, 192

    • Bulgaria, 189

    • Capacity, 191

    • Cheques, 188, 295, 296, 297

    • Choice of law, method, 190

    • CIDIP, 327

    • Codification, 189

    • Commercial practice, 188

    • Connecting factors, 192

    • Customs and usage, 188

    • Denmark, 189

    • Drawee’s creditworthiness, 188

    • Formal requirements, 191

    • Fragmentation of law, 192

    • France, 189

    • Geneva Conventions, 189

    • Germany, 189

    • Harmonization, 189, 192

    • Hungary, 189

    • Indorsement, 192

    • International harmonization, 189

    • Interpretation, 191

    • Italy, 188, 189

    • Japan, 189

    • Latin America, 190

    • League of Nations, 189

    • Legal rules, 188

    • Lex mercatoria, 188

    • Merchant innovation, 188

    • National and regional harmonization, 189

    • Nationality, 191

    • Norway, 189

    • Notion, 187

    • Obligations, 191

    • Parties to the original bill, 187

    • Payment, 192

    • Payments under, 188

    • Peru, 189

    • Portugal, 189

    • Practical importance, 188

    • Private international law, sources, 190

    • Protest, 192

    • Russian Federation, 189

    • Sweden, 189

    • Switzerland, 189

    • Territoriality, 191

    • Time limit, 192

    • Transfer to other parties, 188

    • UNCITRAL, 190

    • UNIDROIT, 1766

    • United Kingdom, 190

    • USA, 189, 190

    • Validity, 191

  • Bill of lading, 193

    • Arbitration, maritime, 107, 109, 110, 116, 200

    • Books of lading, 195

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 260

    • Carriage of goods by sea, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 261, 262, 263, 264, 266

    • China, 197, 199

    • Consignment note, 194

    • Contract, 201

    • Copies, 194

    • Delivery of goods, 194

    • European Court of Justice case-law, 200

    • European rules, 198, 200

    • Forum (and law) shopping, 199

    • France, 197

    • Freedom of contract, 198

    • Functions, 193

    • Germany, 197

    • Historical development, 195

    • Hong Kong, 197

    • International regime, 196

    • Italy, 197

    • Jurisdiction, 199, 200

    • Legal sources, 196

    • Letter of lading, 195

    • Maritime law (uniform law), 197, 1215, 1216

    • Minimum content, 196

    • Multimodal carriage contracts, 193, 197, 1263, 1265

    • National legislation, 197

    • Nationality of vessel or contracting parties, 196

    • Notion, 193

    • Order, 1615

    • Private international law, 198

    • Reasonableness test, 199

    • Rotterdam Rules, 201

    • Sea waybills and other transport documents, 194, 1615, 1617, 1618

    • Standard features, 194

    • Straight, 1616

    • Thailand, 2577

    • Third party rights over choice of forum, 201

    • To bearer, 193

    • To order, 193

    • Trade usages, 197, 198, 200

    • Transfer ownership, 193

    • Uniform law, 196

    • United Kingdom, 197

    • Universal use, 195

    • USA, 197

  • Bioethics and private international law, 202

    • Assisted reproduction techniques, 204

    • Assisted suicide, 207

    • Belgium, 205

    • Bioethics and the law, 202

    • Bioethics, 202

    • Challenges, 204

    • Death tourism, 203, 208

    • Euthanasia, 207

    • Informed consent, 202, 203

    • Living wills, 207

    • Medical professionals, 204

    • Succession, 207

    • Surrogacy, 205

    • Theoretical background, 202

    • Transsexuality, 207

    • Travel between states, 203

    • United Kingdom, 205

  • Black letter rules

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 586

  • Block reference

    • Israel, 2198

  • Blocking statutes, 209

    • Abstract, 211

    • Applicable law, 212

    • British Protection of Trading Interests Act, 211

    • Canada, 212

    • Clawback, 212

    • Competition law (antitrust), 214, 428

    • Concept, 209

    • Cuba, 211

    • Damages, 212

    • Economic warfare, 210

    • Embargo, 603, 605

    • European reactions to US pipeline embargo, 210

    • Evidence, procurement if, 212

    • Foreign law, application and ascertainment, 212

    • Function, 209

    • Historical development, 210

    • Mandatory rules (overriding), 213

    • Money, 212

    • Political instrument, 213

    • Private international law, 209

    • Prohibited disclosure of information, 212

    • Public international law, 209

    • Public policy, 212

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments (civil law), 212

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments (common law), 212

    • Regulation of content, 211

    • Survey, 210, 211

    • United Kingdom, 211, 212

    • US pipeline embargo, 210

    • USA, 213

  • Bonaire

    • Netherlands, 2358

  • Bonds

    • Choice of law, 217

    • Financial instruments, 739, 741, 742, 744

    • Foreign currency, 216

    • History, 216

    • State, 216

  • Bonds and loans, 214

    • Applicable law, 216, 218

    • Belgium, 217

    • Capacity, 219

    • Choice of jurisdiction, 216

    • Choice of law, 216

    • Conflict of laws, 218

    • Consumer protection, 218

    • Content, 214

    • Contracts, 217

    • Currency, 217, 218

    • Definition, 214

    • History, 215

    • Insolvency, applicable law, 218

    • Intermediaries, 218

    • International mandatory rules, 217

    • Legal nature, 214

    • Legal personality, 219

    • Market law, 216

    • Parties, 214

    • Party autonomy, 216

    • Private international law, 216

    • Public interference, 217

    • Security, 218

    • Standard terms, 215

    • Structure, 215

    • United Kingdom, 216

    • USA, 216, 217

  • Bonos mores

    • Formal requirements and validity, 784

  • Book 10 Dutch New Civil Code

    • General provisions, 2362

    • Netherlands, 2362

  • Borrowing statutes

    • Forum (and law) shopping, 789

    • Prescription, 1373

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1919

    • Administration of private international law, 1923

    • Adoption, 1926

    • Application and enforcement of foreign law, 1923

    • Arbitration, 1928

    • Bilateral treaties, 1922

    • Case-law, 1922

    • Child-parent relationship, 1927

    • Choice of law, 1925

    • Constitution, 1919

    • Corporations, 1925, 1927

    • Divorce, 1926

    • Doctrinal writing, 1923

    • EU private international law, 1922

    • Family matters, 1924, 1926

    • Federal act, 1921

    • General jurisdiction, 1924

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1921

    • History of private international law, 1923

    • Inheritance, 1925, 1927

    • Intellectual property, 1924, 1926

    • International conventions, 1921

    • Jurisdiction, 1923

    • Major legislation, 1919

    • Marriage, 1926

    • Matrimonial property, 1926

    • Obligations, 1924, 1925

    • Property, 1924, 1926

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 1927

    • Sources of private international law, 1919

    • Special courts, 1923

    • United Nations conventions, 1922

    • West Balkan Convention, 1832, 1833

    • ZRSZ, 1919

  • Bounded rationality

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 172

  • Bounded self-interest

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 174

  • Brazil

    • Administration of private international law, 1932

    • Adoption, 1936

    • Annulment, 1937

    • Application and enforcement of foreign law, 1932

    • Arbitral awards, 1939

    • Arbitration, 1938

    • Bustamante Code, 1929

    • Case-law, 1931

    • Children, 1934

    • Choice of forum, 1933

    • Choice of law, 1935

    • CIDIP Conventions, 1929

    • Civil Code, 1931

    • Commercial Code, 1931

    • Concurrent jurisdiction, 1932

    • Constitution, 1928

    • Corporations, 1934, 1937

    • Divorce, 1936

    • Doctrinal writing, 1931

    • Family matters, 1934, 1936

    • Federal system, 1928

    • Goods in transit, 1935

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1930

    • History of private international law, 1931

    • Intellectual property, 1934, 1936

    • International contracts, 1935

    • International conventions, 1929

    • Jurisdiction, 1932

    • LINDB, 1929

    • Maintenance obligations, 1937

    • Major legislation, 1928

    • Marriage, 1934, 1936

    • Matrimonial property, 1936

    • MERCOSUR, 1930

    • Obligations, 1933, 1935

    • Pledge, 1935

    • Property, 1934, 1935

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, 1938

    • Scope of jurisdiction, 1933

    • Sources of private international law, 1928

    • Special courts, 1932

    • Succession, 1934, 1937

    • UNCITRAL, 1930

    • UNIDROIT, 1930

  • Brussels Civil Liability Convention

    • Nuclear liability, 1308

  • Brussels Convention

    • Attachment of bank accounts, 681

    • Austria, 223

    • Bill of lading, 198, 200

    • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation), 220

    • Brussels I system, 219

    • Brussels IIa Regulation, 233

    • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 305

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 221

    • Denmark, 220, 222

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 619

    • Employment contracts, jurisdiction, 625, 627, 630

    • Employment, posting of workers, 656

    • Evolution, 222

    • Finland, 223

    • Freight forwarding contracts, 822

    • GEDIP, 837

    • Greece, 223

    • Intellectual property, jurisdiction, 972

    • Interpretation, autonomous, 1008

    • Ireland, 222

    • Jenard Report, 223

    • Lis alibi pendens, 1158, 1160, 1161, 1164, 1165

    • Lugano Convention, 1176

    • Pendency, 221

    • Portugal, 223

    • Recognition and enforcement, 222

    • Regulation, to, 224

    • Schlosser Report, 223

    • Spain, 223

    • Sweden, 223

    • Treaties in private international law, 1745

    • United Kingdom, 222

  • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation), 4

    • Antidiscrimination, 77

    • Anti-suit injunctions, 81, 85

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 89

    • Carriage of goods by sea, 268

    • Civil and commercial matters, 219, 220, 221

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 486, 487, 488

    • Rule of law, 483

  • Brussels I Regulation (see also Brussels I Regulation (recast))

    • Amendments, 223

    • Arbitration, 228

    • Bill of lading, 200, 202

    • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 305, 306, 307, 309, 310, 311

    • Civil and commercial matters, 348, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356

    • CLIP, and, 370

    • Consumer contracts, 223

    • Contractual matters, 223

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 221

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 619

    • Employment contracts, jurisdiction, 625, 627, 630

    • Employment, posting of workers, 656

    • European Union and private international law, 691, 694

    • Evolution, 222

    • Exclusive competences, 223

    • Features, 220

    • Freight forwarding contracts, 822

    • GEDIP, 837

    • Heads of jurisdiction, 223

    • Insurance contracts, 223

    • Intellectual property, jurisdiction, 972

    • Interpretation, autonomous, 1007

    • Lis alibi pendens, 224, 1158, 1161, 1164, 1165

    • Lugano Convention, 1176, 1177, 1178, 1182, 1183

    • Place of performances, 223

    • Preliminary reference to CJEU, 221

    • Public policy (ordre public), 1455

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments (common law), 1482

    • Recognition of judgments, 223

    • Territoriality, 369

    • Torts, 224

    • West Balkan Convention, 1833

  • Brussels I Regulation (recast) (see also Brussels I Regulation), 226

    • Arbitration, 227

    • Article 15, circumstances of application, 466

    • Article 15, material scope, 466

    • Article 15, 464

    • Article 16, 468

    • Article 17, 468

    • Assessment, 228

    • Bill of lading, 200

    • Choice of court agreements, 227

    • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 305, 306, 308, 309, 310

    • Civil and commercial matters, 348, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356

    • CMR, 258

    • Consumer contracts, 464

    • Consumer’s country, 467

    • Contract requirement, 465

    • Cross-border enforcement, 226

    • Cultural objects, protection of, 498, 503

    • Damages, 512, 514, 517, 518

    • Direct action, 533

    • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment, 227

    • Donation, 561

    • Employment contracts, jurisdiction, 624, 625, 626, 627, 628, 629, 630

    • Exequatur, 226

    • Flag, 760

    • GEDIP, 838

    • Intellectual property, jurisdiction, 972

    • Internet, jurisdiction, 992

    • Joint Statement, 466

    • Jurisdiction, contracts and torts, 1032, 1036

    • Jurisdiction, limits under international law, 1053, 1055

    • Lis alibi pendens, 1158, 1161, 1164

    • Lugano Convention, 1178, 1182, 1184

    • Pendency, 227

    • Personal scope, 465

    • Progress, 228

    • Small Claims Regulation, 1643, 1644, 1646

    • Third states, 227

  • Brussels IIa Convention

    • Treaties in private international law, 1746

  • Brussels IIa Regulation, 229

    • Abolition of exequatur, 234, 235

    • Appeal, 234

    • Background, 229

    • Brussels Convention, 233

    • Certificate, 302

    • Child abduction, 233

    • Child’s habitual residence, 232, 233

    • Civil and commercial matters, 681, 682, 683

    • Common nationality, 231

    • Context, 229

    • Cooperation of central authorities, 235

    • Decisions on matrimonial matters, 233

    • Decisions on parental responsibility, 233

    • Divorce and personal separation, 546, 547, 551

    • Enforceable judgment, 682

    • European Account Preservation Order (EAPO), and, 683, 685

    • European Court of Justice, 229

    • Exclusions, 549

    • First instance decision, 234

    • Forum (and law) shopping, 790

    • GEDIP, 841

    • Guardianship, custody and parental responsibility, 869

    • Habitual residence, 231, 232

    • Hague Child Abduction Convention, and, 301

    • Ireland, 231

    • Jurisdiction, 231, 232

    • Jurisdictional rules, 548, 549

    • Marriage, 230

    • Non-return order, after, 302

    • Non-return order, 233

    • Parental responsibility, 232

    • Private international law practice, 236

    • Private international law theory, 235

    • Public policy (ordre public), 1455

    • Public policy, 234

    • Recognition and enforcement of decisions, 233

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments and awards, 234

    • Recognition, 552

    • Registered partnerships, 553

    • Rome III Regulation (divorce), and, 1574, 1575, 1578

    • Same-sex marriages, 548, 1606

    • Scope, 230

    • Significance, 235

    • Structure, 230

    • United Kingdom, 231

  • Bucheffekten

    • Financial instruments, 740

  • Build and design contract

    • Construction contracts, 459, 460, 461, 463

  • Building agreements

    • Construction contracts, 463

  • Building contracts

    • Construction contracts, 460

  • Bulgaria, 1939

    • Administration of private international law, 1944

    • Adoption, 1944, 1948

    • Agency, 1946

    • Applicable law, 1944

    • Application and enforcement of foreign law, 1942, 1945

    • Application of PILA, 1940

    • Arbitration, 1949

    • Bilateral treaties, 1941

    • Capacity, 1945

    • Closest connection and other principles, 1940

    • Codification, 1939, 1940

    • Consular conventions, 1941

    • Corporations, 1946

    • Divorce, 1947

    • Extinctive prescription, 1946

    • Family matters, 1943, 1947

    • Forms of transactions, 1946

    • Guardianship, 1948

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1941

    • Hague Conventions, 1941

    • History of private international law, 1939

    • Intellectual property, 1944, 1946

    • International conventions, 1941

    • International usage, 1942

    • Jurisdiction, 1942

    • Kinship and legitimation, 1947

    • Lugano Convention, 1941

    • Maintenance, 1948

    • Marriage, 1947

    • Name of individuals, 1946

    • Obligations, 1944, 1948

    • Personal rights, 1943

    • Physical persons, 1945

    • PILA, 1940

    • Property, 1944, 1946

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 1949

    • Rights in rem, 1947

    • Savigny, Friedrich Carl von, 1940

    • Sources of private international law, 1941

    • State, 1946

    • Succession, 1944, 1948

    • Supranational EU law, 1942

    • Unincorporated entities, 1946

  • Bundling of issues

    • Choice of law, 314

  • Burden of proof, 236

    • Adjustment/Adaption (Anpassung), 11

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 52

    • Applicability of certain private international provision, 240

    • Applicable law, 237

    • Brussels I Regulation (recast), 239

    • Brussels I Regulation, 239

    • Burden of producing evidence, 237, 238

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 257, 259

    • Classification, 237

    • Concept, 236

    • Connecting factor, 240

    • Foreign law, 243

    • France, 238

    • Germany, 243

    • International jurisdiction, on, 239

    • Italy, 238, 243

    • Lex fori, 238, 241

    • Non liquet, 240, 241

    • Parties, 242

    • Private international law, 236, 237, 239

    • Risk allocation, 236

    • Situations, 241

    • Solution of private international problems, 237

    • Spain, 238

    • Structural characteristics, 239

    • Substance and procedure, 1671

    • Sweden, 238

    • United Kingdom, 238

    • Weaker party, 240

  • Bürgschaft

    • Guarantees, 862

  • Business transactions

    • Capacity and emancipation, 252, 253, 254, 683

  • Businesses

    • Regulatory competition, 1515, 1516

    • Responsiveness, 1516

  • Bustamante, Antonio Sánchez de

    • Bustamante Code, 247

    • Classification of laws, 246

    • Havana School of Private International Law, 245

    • Influence, 249

    • Life and work, 244

    • Private international law, contribution to, 245

  • Bustamante Code

    • Argentina, 245

    • Brazil, 244, 250, 1929

    • Bustamante, Antonio Sánchez de, 245, 247

    • Chile, 245, 248, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969

    • Colombia, 245

    • Cuba, 248, 249, 2003, 2006, 2007

    • Dominican Republic, 2038

    • Ecuador, 2043

    • Influence on legal practice, 249

    • Mexico, 245

    • Paraguay, 245, 2399

    • Personal laws, 247

    • Private order laws, 248

    • Territorial laws, 248

    • Treaty, as, 250

    • Uruguay, 245

    • USA, 245

    • Venezuela, 2648

    • Voluntary laws, 248

  • C2b contracts

    • Online dispute resolution, 1321

  • C2c contracts

    • Online dispute resolution, 1318, 1320, 1321

  • Calabresi, Guido

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 575

  • Calvo doctrine

    • Ecuador, 2046

  • Canada, 1950

    • Administration of private international law, 1952

    • Adoption, 1955

    • Application and enforcement of foreign law, 1952

    • Arbitration, 1958

    • Case-law, 1950

    • Choice of law, 1955

    • Common law, 1951

    • Constitutional law and private international law, 452, 453, 454, 1951

    • Corporations, 1955, 1957

    • Custody, 1955

    • Divorce, 1954, 1957

    • Doctrinal writing, 1951

    • Family matters, 1954, 1956

    • Forum non conveniens, 1953

    • Forum selection clause, 1953

    • General jurisdiction, 1952

    • Guardianship, 1954

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1950

    • History of private international law, 1951

    • Inheritance, 1955, 1957

    • Intellectual property, 1956

    • International conventions, 1950

    • Jurisdiction, 1952

    • Maintenance obligations, 1957

    • Major legislation, 1950

    • Marriage, 1954, 1956

    • Matrimonial property, 1954, 1957

    • New York Convention, 1950

    • Obligations, 1953, 1955

    • Patrimonial claims, 1954

    • Proper law (doctrine), 1955

    • Property, 1954, 1956

    • Québec’s codification of private international law, 1950

    • Québec, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1958

    • Real and substantial connection, 1952

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 1958

    • Same-sex marriage, 1954, 1957

    • Sources of private international law, 1950

    • Special courts, 1952

    • Specific jurisdiction, 1953

    • Torts, 1953, 1956

  • Capacity

    • CIEC/ICCS (International Commission on Civil Status), 333

    • Cuba, 2005

    • Immovable property, 892

    • Personal status, 1346, 1347, 1349

  • Capacity and emancipation, 251, 683

    • Adults, protection of, 22

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 51

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 94

    • Business transactions, 252

    • Comparative perspectives, 251

    • Conflit mobile, 252

    • Connecting factor, 253

    • Dépeçage, 251

    • Legal capacity, 251, 252

    • Legal personality, 251, 252

    • Lex patriae, 251

    • Lex substantiae actus, 251

    • Mandatory norms, 255

    • Natural person(s), 251, 252

    • Peru, 2415

    • Principle of non-discrimination, 252

    • Public policy, 255

    • Reciprocity, 255

    • Tempus regit actum principle, 252

    • Validity rules, 252

  • Cape Town Convention

    • Assignment, 1627

    • Creation mechanisms, 1625

    • Default remedies, 1626

    • Entry into force, 1623

    • In insolvency, 1626

    • International interest, 1625

    • Membership, 1623

    • Mobile equipment, 1621

    • Outside insolvency, 1626

    • Perfection, 1625

    • Priority, 1625

    • Scope of application, 1624

    • Security interests in mobile equipment (uniform law), 1621, 1623, 1624

    • Substantive application, 1624

    • Territorial application, 1624

    • Two-instruments structure, 1624

    • UNIDROIT, 1621

  • Capital control

    • Bonds and loans, 217

  • Cargo

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 257, 258

    • Sea waybills and other transport documents, 1616, 1618

  • Carpzov, Benedict

    • Private international law, history of, 1394

  • Carriage by air

    • Transport law (uniform law), 1730, 1732

  • Carriage by inland waterways

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 260

    • CMNI, 260

    • Transport law (uniform law), 1734

  • Carriage by rail

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 259

    • Transport law (uniform law), 1732, 1733

  • Carriage by road

    • Acts and omissions of carrier and other persons, 257

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 257

    • Damage, 257

    • Exonerating circumstances, 257

    • Liability of carrier, 257

    • Limit of liability, 257

    • Period of liability, 257

    • Transport law (uniform law), 1732, 1733

  • Carriage by sea

    • Arbitration, maritime, 116

    • Sea waybills and other transport documents, 1615, 1616

    • Transport law (uniform law), 1731, 1733

  • Carriage of baggage

    • Air law (uniform law), 40, 41

  • Carriage of cargo

    • Air law (uniform law), 40, 41

    • Liability, limitation of maritime, 1143

  • Carriage of goods

    • Freight forwarding contracts, 818, 819, 820, 821

    • International conventions, 1737

    • Liability, limitation of maritime, 1140, 1143

    • Maritime law (uniform law), 1210, 1212, 1215

    • Multimodal carriage contracts, 1262, 1269

    • Thailand, 2577

    • Transport law (uniform law), 1732

  • Carriage of goods by air

    • Bill of lading, 194

  • Carriage of goods by road

    • CIDIP, 327

  • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 255

    • Arbitration, 258

    • Carriage by inland waterways, 260

    • Carriage by rail, 259

    • Conventions, 255

    • Freight forwarding contracts, 817

    • Jurisdiction, 258

    • Liability of road carrier, 257

    • Limitation of actions, 259

    • Multimodal carriage contracts, 1265, 1267, 1269

  • Carriage of goods by sea, 261

    • Arbitration, maritime, 116

    • Autonomous interpretation, 265

    • Background, 261

    • Bill of lading, 193, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 261, 262, 263, 264, 266

    • Carrier’s habitual residence, 267

    • Conflict of conventions, 263

    • Escape clause, 264, 268

    • Freight forwarding contracts, 265, 817

    • Habitual residence, 265, 267

    • Maritime law (uniform law), 1215

    • Multimodal carriage contracts, 1262

    • Objective connecting factor, 267

    • Objectives of conventions, 262

    • Party autonomy, 262, 263, 265

    • Relevant rules and their structure, 264

    • Sea waybills and other transport documents, 1615, 1616

    • Special notions, 265

    • Uniform choice of law rules, 264

    • Uniform law conventions, 262

    • Uniform law, purpose, 261

  • Carriage of passengers, 269

    • Air law (uniform law), 40

    • Carriage by air, 275

    • Carriage by rail, 277

    • Carriage by sea, 272, 276

    • Choice of law, 269

    • Connecting factor, 269, 272

    • European law, 275

    • Liability, limitation of maritime, 1140, 1143, 1144

    • Liability, 271

    • Maritime law (uniform law), 1210, 1212, 1215

    • Overview, 269

    • Passenger Rights Regulation, 275

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 269

    • Transport law (uniform law), 1730

  • Carrier

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 258, 261

    • Carriage of goods by sea, 262, 265, 267, 268

    • Carriage of passengers, 272, 274, 275, 276, 277

    • Economic risk, 818, 822

    • Freight forwarding contracts, 819, 820

  • Cartels

    • Competition law (antitrust), 426

  • Cartesio

    • Freedom of establishment/persons (European Union) and private international law, 810

  • Cascade connections

    • Choice of law, 318

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 1066, 1070

  • Cascade of connecting factors

    • Choice of law, 318

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 1066, 1070

  • Case-law

    • Albania, 1857

    • Argentina, 1870

    • Belarus, 1898

    • Belgium, 1911

    • Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1922

    • Brazil, 1931

    • Canada, 1950

    • China, 1973

    • Colombia, 1982

    • Croatia, 1993

    • Czech Republic, 2010

    • Denmark, 2023

    • Dominican Republic, 2038

    • Ecuador, 2044, 2046

    • Egypt, 2055

    • Estonia, 2064

    • Finland, 2073

    • France, 2082

    • Georgia, 2092

    • Germany, 2102

    • Ghana, 2113

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 2131

    • Hungary, 2140

    • Iceland, 2149

    • India, 2157

    • Indonesia, 2164

    • Iran, 2176

    • Ireland, 2184

    • Israel, 2194

    • Japan, 2220

    • Kazakhstan, 2235

    • Korea, 2243

    • Latvia, 2256

    • Lebanon, 2265

    • Liechtenstein, 2280

    • Lithuania, 2288

    • Macau, SAR of China, 2307

    • Macedonia, FYR, 2318

    • Malta, 2327

    • Mexico, 2337

    • Montenegro, 2347

    • Netherlands, 2358

    • New Zealand, 2369

    • Nigeria, 2379

    • Norway, 2389

    • Paraguay, 2400

    • Peru, 2410

    • Poland, 2424

    • Portugal, 2434

    • Public policy (ordre public), 10

    • Romania, 2444

    • Russian Federation, 2455

    • Saudi Arabia, 2465

    • Serbia, 2472

    • Singapore, 2483

    • Slovakia, 2495

    • Slovenia, 2504

    • South Africa, 2516

    • Spain, 2527

    • Sweden, 2537

    • Switzerland, 2550

    • Taiwan, 2560

    • Tunisia, 2583

    • Turkey, 2593

    • Ukraine, 2605

    • Uniform substantive law and private international law, 1773, 1774

    • United Kingdom, 2614

    • Uruguay, 2629

    • USA, 2639

    • Venezuela, 2649

    • Vietnam, 2660

  • Cassation appeal

    • Foreign law, judicial review, 782

  • Cassis de Dijon

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 485

    • WTO and private international law, 1847

  • Casualty insurance

    • Insurance contracts, 959

  • Caution

    • Guarantees, 862

  • Cavers, David, 50

    • (American) Conflict of laws revolution, 66, 67

    • Currie, Brainerd, 66, 507, 510

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 587

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 66, 980, 984, 985, 987

    • Unilateralism, 1783

    • USA, 2639, 2642

  • CEFTA

    • West Balkan Convention, 1833

  • Celebration

    • Marriage, 1229, 1230, 1232

  • Central administration

    • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment, 555, 560

  • Central Authorities

    • Maintenance obligations, 1185, 1187, 1192, 1193

    • Service of documents, 1630

  • Central counterparties

    • Financial instruments, 740

  • Central Europe

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1326

  • Central People’s Government of the PRC

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 2129, 2130, 2137

  • Central Securities Depositories (CSDs)

    • Financial instruments, 739, 744

  • Centralization

    • Financial instruments, 739, 741, 743

  • Centre of gravity

    • Escape clause, 669

  • Centre of interests

    • Personality rights, 1353

  • Centre of main interest

    • Aspects, 540

    • Director’s liability, 540

    • Head office approach, 540

  • Centre of main interests

    • Ascertainable by third parties, 949

    • Group of companies, 949

    • Insolvency, applicable law, 934

    • Insolvency, jurisdiction and vis attractiva, 948

    • Location, 949

    • Notion, 948

    • Practical problems, 950

    • Transfer, 949, 950

  • Centros

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 485

    • Freedom of establishment/persons (European Union) and private international law, 809, 811

  • Certificate of succession

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1329, 1330

    • Rome IV Regulation (succession), 1586

    • Succession, 1683

  • Certificate of succession

    • Succession, 1690

  • Certificates of service of process

    • Service of documents, 1631

  • CESL, 280

    • 1st regime model, 285

    • 28th (29th) regime model, 283

    • 2nd regime model, 282

    • B2b contracts, 278

    • B2c contracts, 278

    • Background, 278

    • CESL-D, 279

    • CISG, 282, 285, 286, 287

    • Content, 279

    • Contracts between traders and consumers, 281

    • Contracts between traders, 281

    • Digital content, 280

    • Gap filling, 286

    • GEDIP, 839

    • General aspects, 278

    • General contract law, 280

    • Goods, 280

    • Hague Sales Convention, 286

    • Harmonization, 279

    • History, 278

    • Installation, maintenance or repair, 280

    • International conventions, 286

    • Justification for unification of European contract law, 281

    • Proposal, 278, 279

    • Regulatory approach, assessment, 283

    • Regulatory approach, 282

    • Relationships to private international law, 282

    • Remedies, 281

    • Sale contracts and sale of goods, 280

    • Structure, 279

    • Test case, as, 279

  • Cessio legis, 287

    • Applicable law, 289, 292, 293

    • Assessment of solution, 292

    • Connecting factors, 290

    • Connecting points, 289

    • Delimitation, 290

    • General regime, 288

    • Insurance against civil liability, motor vehicles, 295

    • Maintenance obligations, 293

    • Material scope, 291

    • Meaning, 287

    • Social protection and private international law, 1648, 1650, 1651

    • Social security within the EU, 294

    • Special rules, 293

    • Subsidiarity, 288

    • Third party payer, 288

  • Champagne fairs

    • Lex mercatoria, 1120, 1123

  • Changing choice of law

    • Floating choice of law, 767, 768

  • Characteristic obligation

    • Switzerland, 2553

  • Characteristic performance

    • Austria, 1891

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 581

    • Liechtenstein, 2281

  • Characterization (see also Classification)

    • Antidiscrimination, 72, 78, 360

    • Bartin, Étienne, 8, 155

    • Characterization, meaning, 359

    • Choice of law, 359

    • Competition, unfair, 435

    • Connecting factor, 360

    • Connecting factors, 36

    • Damages, 364, 512, 513, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519

    • Definitional differences, 360

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 586, 588

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 621

    • EU private international law, 359

    • Family matters, 359

    • Goldschmidt, Werner, 852, 853, 855, 856, 857

    • Immovable property, 893

    • Kahn, Franz, 155, 1059

    • Lebanon, 2268

    • Liability, capital market, 1130, 1133, 1134, 1136, 1138

    • Property and proprietary rights, 1429

    • Rabel, Ernst, 358, 1464

    • Russian Federation, 2458

    • Serbia, 2475

    • Uniform substantive law, 359

    • Unjust enrichment (restitution), 1809

  • Charter party

    • Bill of lading, 194, 196

    • Carriage of goods by sea, 262, 266

    • Single voyage, 265

  • Checks

    • CIDIP, 327

  • Cheques, 295

    • Applicable law, 296

    • Bills of exchange, 296, 297

    • Capacity, 297

    • Common law states, 296

    • Content, 296

    • Conventions, 296

    • Definition and Concept, 295

    • History, 296

    • Latin America, 296

    • Notion, 295

    • Private international law rules, 296

    • Sources of law, 296

  • Chernobyl incident

    • Nuclear liability, 1305, 1307

  • Chicago Convention

    • ICAO, 887, 889, 890

  • Child

    • Surrogacy, 1691, 1692, 1693, 1694, 1695, 1696

  • Child abduction, 297

    • Bilateral conventions, 301

    • Brussels IIa Regulation, 230, 233, 234, 301

    • Child’s wellbeing, 297

    • CIDIP, 300, 328

    • Concept, 297

    • Divorce and separation rates, 298

    • Domestic violence, 303

    • European Child Custody Convention, 867

    • European legal sources, 301

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 701

    • Forum (and law) shopping, 790

    • Guardianship, custody and parental responsibility, 297, 298, 301, 302

    • Habitual residence, 297, 300

    • Hague Child Abduction Convention, 867

    • Harmonization, 304

    • Historical development, 298

    • International legal sources, 299

    • Legal sources, 298

    • Modern trends, 302

    • National legal sources, 298

    • Notion, 297

    • Operational problems, 302

    • Parental responsibility, 297, 298

    • Practical problems, 303

    • Principle of non-discrimination, 298

    • Private international law, 297

    • Purpose and function of law, 297

    • Rights of access, 302, 303

    • Rights of custody, 299, 300

    • Switzerland, 303

    • USA, 298

    • Visitation rights, 297

  • Child marriage

    • Marriage, 1227

  • Child protection

    • Guardianship, custody and parental responsibility, 13, 864, 865, 868, 869

    • Hague Child Protection Convention, 868

  • Child support

    • Maintenance obligations, 1185, 1189

  • Children

    • New Zealand, 2376

  • Chile, 1959

    • Annulment, 1965, 1968

    • Applicable law, 1962

    • Application of foreign law, 1962

    • Application of private international law, 1959

    • Bustamante Code, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969

    • Capacity, 1964

    • Choice-of-law agreement, 1961

    • Civil procedure, 1969

    • Concept, 1959

    • Conventional law, 1960

    • Corporations, 1966

    • Customary law, 1960

    • Divorce, 1965, 1968

    • Evidence, 1962, 1969

    • Exceptions of an international character, 1969

    • Exequatur, 1967

    • Extradition, 1968

    • Foreign arbitral awards, 1968

    • Foreign judgments on divorce, 1968

    • Form in acts and contracts, 1963

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1960

    • Industrial property, 1967

    • Intellectual property, 1967

    • International commercial arbitration, 1963

    • International contracts, 1963

    • International cooperation, 1968

    • Jurisdiction, 1961

    • Letters rogatory, 1959, 1960, 1968

    • Maintenance obligations, 1965

    • Marriage, 1964

    • MERCOSUR, 1960

    • National law, 1959

    • Personal status, 1964

    • Personal statute, 1964

    • Principle of territoriality, 1962

    • Proof of foreign law, 1962

    • Property, 1963

    • Recognition of judgments, 1967

    • Right to appeal at trial, 1969

    • Sources of private international law, 1959

    • Succession, 1966

    • United Nations Conventions, 1960

  • China, 1970

    • Administration of private international law, 1975

    • Adoption, 1978

    • Agency and authority of agents, 30

    • Application of foreign law, 1975

    • Arbitration, 1980

    • Bilateral conventions, 1972

    • Case-law, 1973

    • Choice of law, 1976

    • Contractual disputes, 1976

    • Courts and non-judicial authorities, 1975

    • Cultural Revolution, 1974

    • Divorce, 1978

    • Doctrinal writings, 1973

    • Electronic commerce, 599

    • Family matters, 1978

    • Guardianship, custody and parental responsibility, 1978

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1971

    • Hague Conventions, 1971

    • History and development of private international law, 1973

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 1971

    • Intellectual property, 1978

    • International conventions, 1971

    • Jurisdiction, 1975

    • Legal persons, 1978

    • Macau, SAR of China, 1971, 2305

    • Major legislation, 1970

    • Marriage, 1978

    • Moveable property, 1977

    • Non-contractual disputes, 1976

    • Obligations, 1977

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1326, 1327

    • People’s Republic of China, 1970

    • Property rights and interests, disputes, 1976

    • Property rights, 1977

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 1979

    • Sources of private international law, 1970

    • Succession, 1979

    • Supreme People’s Court, 1973

    • Territorial jurisdiction, 1976

    • Torts, 1977

    • United Nations conventions, 1972

    • Warsaw Convention, 1972

  • China Maritime Arbitration Commission (CMAC), 114

  • Chinese customary law

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 2131

  • Choice-influencing considerations

    • Better law approach, 180

  • Choice-of-court agreement

    • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 310

    • Employment contracts, jurisdiction, 631

    • Express agreements, 1188

    • Habitual residence, 1186

    • Italy, 2210

    • Maintenance obligations, 1185, 1188

    • Substantial validity, 1186

    • Tacit prorogation, 1188

    • Weaker parties, 1186

  • Choice of forum

    • Canada, 1953

    • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 304

    • Electronic commerce, 594

    • Party autonomy, 1339, 1341

  • Choice-of-forum agreements

    • Party autonomy, 1340

    • Vietnam, 2662

  • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 304

    • Agreements on jurisdiction, 307

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 64

    • Antidiscrimination, 78

    • Choice of forum, 304

    • Choice, agreement or submission, by, 305

    • Common law jurisdictions, 308

    • Contractual obligations, 472

    • Contractual relationships, 306

    • Derogation by choice or agreement, 306

    • Discretion, 307

    • Effect of parties’ agreement, 305, 310

    • Enforceable obligations, 305, 310

    • Existence or exercise, issues ancillary to, 310

    • Existence or exercise, issues subordinate to, 307

    • Judicial jurisdiction, 304

    • Jurisdiction, 304

    • Procedural laws, and, 308

    • Proceedings, law governing, 1408

    • Submission to jurisdiction, 311

    • Thailand, 2579

    • Voluntary appearance, 305

  • Choice of forum clause

    • Lis alibi pendens, 1164

    • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws, 1549

  • Choice of international custom

    • Vietnam, 2660, 2664

  • Choice of jurisdiction

    • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws, 1546, 1547, 1549, 1550

    • Switzerland, 2551

  • Choice of law, 311

    • Accumulating different laws, 315

    • Adults, protection of, 27

    • Agency and authority of agents, 29, 35, 37

    • Albania, 1859

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 62, 63, 64

    • (American) Conflict of laws revolution, 66, 68, 69

    • Antidiscrimination, 72, 74

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 86, 87, 91, 96

    • Arbitration, maritime, 111, 112

    • Arbitration, (UNCITRAL) Model Law, 129

    • Argentina, 1875

    • Assignability/Assignment of claims, 147

    • Australia, 1882

    • Austria, 1886, 1891

    • Bartin, Étienne, 169

    • Batiffol, Henry, 166, 167, 169, 170

    • Belarus, 1901, 1902

    • Belgium, 1913

    • Better law approach, 316

    • Bill of lading, 198

    • Bioethics and private international law, 203, 206

    • Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1925

    • Brazil, 1935

    • Bundling, 315

    • Canada, 1955

    • Capacity and emancipation, 684

    • Carriage of goods by sea, 264

    • Carriage of passengers, 269

    • China, 1976

    • CIEC/ICCS (International Commission on Civil Status), 335

    • Classical school, 1387

    • Classification (characterization), 359

    • Collective redress, 378

    • Colombia, 1986

    • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts, 394, 396

    • Concept, 1383

    • Conflict rules, 687

    • Connecting factor, 318

    • Connecting technique, 318

    • Consequences, 313

    • Content consideration, 179

    • ‘Copernican turn’, 312

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 485

    • Criteria, 316

    • Croatia, 1990, 1998

    • Cuba, 2004

    • Czech Republic, 2014

    • Denmark, 2030

    • Divorce and personal separation, 543, 546, 549

    • Dominican Republic, 2037, 2042

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 577, 580, 581, 583

    • Ecuador, 2045

    • Electronic commerce, 594

    • Employment contracts, 74

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 616, 618, 620, 622

    • Employment, collective bargaining, 607, 608, 610, 612

    • Employment, industrial disputes, 635, 638, 639, 640

    • Environmental liability, 664, 665

    • Estonia, 2068

    • Estoppel, 678

    • European Account Preservation Order Regulation, 687

    • Expert liability, 721

    • Federal structure, 317

    • Finland, 2076

    • Floating choice of law, 766

    • Foreign law, application of, 312

    • Foreign law, 312, 317

    • France, 2086

    • Freedom of establishment/persons (European Union) and private international law, 810

    • Game theory and private international law, 831

    • Georgia, 2096

    • Ghana, 2115

    • Government interest analysis, 316

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 2135

    • Huber, Ulrik, 876

    • Human rights and private international law, 883

    • Hungary, 2143

    • Iceland, 2153

    • Immovable property, 891

    • Implications, 315

    • India, 2159

    • Indonesia, 2170

    • Insurance contracts, 958, 959, 960

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 66

    • Interregional/Interstate law, 317, 1015, 1016

    • Iran, 2177

    • Ireland, 2184

    • Israel, 2198

    • Italy, 2211

    • Japan, 2223

    • Jurisdiction selecting method, 179

    • Kazakhstan, 2238

    • Korea, 2247

    • Latvia, 2260

    • Law selecting method, 179

    • Lease contracts and tenancies, 1082

    • Lebanon, 2269

    • Lex fori, 6

    • Liechtenstein, 2277

    • Limited, 445, 446

    • Lithuania, 2290

    • Luxembourg, 2301

    • Macau, SAR of China, 2310

    • Macedonia, FYR, 2321

    • Marriage, 1227, 1230

    • Matrimonial property, 1239

    • Mexico, 2342

    • Middle East, 317

    • Modern trends, 1389

    • Modern, shift to, 830

    • Modern, 831

    • Montenegro, 2348

    • Mozambique, 2354

    • Multiple connections, 319

    • Names of individuals, 1283, 1289

    • Nationalization, 316

    • Netherlands, 2362

    • Nigeria, 2381

    • Norway, 2395

    • Object of referral, 314

    • Operation of referral, 316

    • Paraguay, 2403

    • Party autonomy, 1336, 1338, 1340, 1341

    • Peru, 2414

    • Place of performance, 1360

    • Poland, 2426

    • Political school, 1388

    • Portugal, 2436

    • Preliminary question, 315

    • Prescription, 315

    • Private international law, foundations, 1383

    • Proceedings, law governing, 1407

    • Proximity, 316

    • Public policy (ordre public), 313

    • Purpose, 1387

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1499, 1502, 1503

    • Regulatory competition, 1516, 1517, 1518, 1520, 1521

    • Renvoi, 317

    • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws, 67, 1546, 1549, 1550

    • Romania, 2449

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 1556

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 69, 1572

    • Russian Federation, 2458

    • Sale contracts and sale of goods, 74

    • Saudi Arabia, 2462

    • Scope of referral, 317

    • Serbia, 2474

    • Singapore, 2488

    • Slovakia, 2499

    • Slovenia, 2510

    • Sources of uniformity, 834

    • South Africa, 2519

    • Spain, 2531

    • Structure of conflict rule, 313

    • Succession, 1686, 1688

    • Survey, 313

    • Sweden, 2542

    • Switzerland, 2553, 2554, 2555, 2556

    • Taiwan, 2562

    • Thailand, 2572

    • Tunisia, 2587

    • Turkey, 2595

    • Ukraine, 2606

    • United Kingdom, 2618

    • Uruguay, 2631

    • USA, 2642

    • Venezuela, 2653

    • Vietnam, 2663

    • Westphalian model, 312

  • Choice-of-law agreements (see also Choice-of-law clauses)

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 617, 623

    • Formal requirements and validity, 783

    • Formalities, 1187, 1190

    • Law, choice of, 1186

    • Maintenance obligations, 1186

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1328

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 1556

    • Substantive validity, 1187

    • Weaker parties, 1186

  • Choice-of-law clause(s)

    • Game theory and private international law, 833

    • Regulatory competition, 1519, 1520

    • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws, 1550

  • Choice of law, contract

    • Proper law (doctrine), 1423, 1425

    • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws, 1548, 1550, 1551, 1552

  • Choice of law of incorporation

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 176

    • Regulatory competition, 1517

  • Choice of law of negative externalities

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 176

  • Choice-of-law principles

    • Insurance contracts, 956, 959

  • Choice-of-law process

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 980, 987

  • Choice-of-law rule(s)

    • Egypt, 2057

    • Iran, 2173, 2174, 2176

    • Israel, 2199

    • Italy, 2211, 2213

    • Tunisia, 2582, 2584

  • Chrematist courts

    • Private international law, history of, 1390

  • CIDIP

    • Adoption, 328

    • Arbitral awards, 326

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 326

    • Background, 320

    • Bills of exchange, 327

    • Brazil, 1929

    • Canada, 320

    • Carriage of goods by road, 327

    • Checks, 327

    • Child abduction, 328

    • Codification of private international law, 320, 321, 329

    • Colombia, 1981

    • Commercial companies, 327

    • Cuba, 2004

    • Domicile, 328

    • Dominican Republic, 2039

    • Execution of preventative measures, 326

    • Extraterritorial validity of foreign judgments, 326

    • Fifth, 322

    • First, 321

    • Foreign judgements, 326

    • Foreign law, 323

    • Foundations, 320

    • Fourth, 322

    • General rules of private international law, 323

    • Goldschmidt, Werner, 859

    • Inter-American Codification, 322, 329

    • International contracts, 327

    • Invoices, 327

    • Judicial cooperation, 325

    • Legal capacity, 328

    • Legal personality, 328

    • Letters rogatory, 324

    • Mexico, 2337

    • Minors, 329

    • Paraguay, 2398

    • Peru, 2411

    • Powers of attorney, 328

    • Promissory notes, 327

    • Public policy, 323, 324, 325

    • Second, 321

    • Sixth, 322

    • Support obligations, 328

    • Taking of evidence abroad, 325

    • Third, 322

    • Uruguay, 2627

    • USA, 320

    • Vested rights, 324

    • Work, 321

  • CIEC/ICCS (International Commission on Civil Status), 3, 330

    • Austria, 331, 334, 336

    • Austria, 1887

    • Belgium, 330, 331, 334

    • Bureau, 332

    • Choice of law, 335

    • Civil status documents, 333

    • Competences, 331

    • Convention 14, 336

    • Convention no 17, 333

    • Convention no 33, 333

    • Convention no 4, 335

    • Convention no 9, 334

    • Conventions nos 16 and 34, 333

    • Conventions nos 19, 21 and 31, 335

    • Conventions nos 3 and 8, 334

    • Conventions, 332

    • Cooperation between authorities, 334

    • Foundation, 330

    • France, 330, 331

    • Function, 331

    • Future developments, 336

    • General Assembly, 332

    • Germany, 330, 331, 336

    • Greece, 334, 336

    • Harmonization, 335

    • Historical background, 330

    • Italy, 330, 331, 334, 336

    • Kinship and legitimation, 1072

    • Language, 331

    • Legal nature, 330

    • Legal sources, 331

    • Luxembourg, 330, 331, 334, 336

    • Member States, 331

    • Names of individuals, 1284

    • Netherlands, 330, 331, 334, 336

    • Organization, 331

    • Organs, 331

    • Portugal, 331, 334

    • Presidency, 332

    • Private international law, and, 333

    • Recommendations, 333

    • Seat, 331

    • Secretary General, 332

    • Switzerland, 330, 331

    • Switzerland, 2550

    • Turkey, 331, 336, 2591

    • Working methods, 332

  • Cinus

    • Bartolus, 158

  • CIS

    • Belarus, 398, 399

    • Commonwealth of Independent States and private international law, 397

    • Conventions/agreements, 398

    • Georgia, 398, 399, 2091, 2092

    • Harmonization, 403

    • Impact on practice, 402

    • International cooperation, 398

    • Kazakhstan, 2233

    • Russian Federation, 398, 399, 402, 403, 2454

    • Russian Ukraine, 398

  • CISG, 337

    • Acceptance, 339

    • Background, 337

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 177

    • Buyer, 340, 343

    • CESL, 282, 285, 286, 287

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 488, 490

    • Culpa in contrahendo, 493

    • Damages, 340

    • Declaration, 343

    • Estoppel, 678

    • EU law, and, 345

    • Express reference to private international law, 342

    • Factoring (uniform law), 731, 732, 733, 736

    • Financial instruments, 741

    • Financial leasing (uniform law), 749, 752

    • Formation of contracts, 338

    • Forum (and law) shopping, 790

    • Freedom from form requirements, 338, 344

    • Fundamental breach of contract, 340

    • Gap-filling, 342

    • General rules, 338

    • Georgia, 2091

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 2130

    • Interest, 341

    • Internationality requirement, 342

    • Interpretation, autonomous, 1006, 1007, 1011

    • Limitations, 342, 344

    • Offer, 339

    • Other instruments, and, 345

    • Parties’ rights and obligations, 339

    • Party autonomy, 344

    • Private international law, and, 341

    • Rabel, Ernst, 1461, 1463

    • Remedies, 340

    • Remedies, 1535

    • Reservations, 343

    • Sale contracts and sale of goods, 337, 1589, 1593

    • Scope of application, 344

    • Seller, 339, 343

    • Set-off, 345

    • Slovakia, 2499

    • Sphere of application, 342

    • Standard contract terms, 339

    • Tangible, moveable goods, 343

    • Territorial units, 343

    • Thailand, 2577

    • UNCITRAL, 341, 1760, 1762, 1764, 1765

    • UNIDROIT, 1770, 1771

    • Unification, justification for, 337

    • Uniform substantive law and private international law, 31, 1775, 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779

    • Uniform substantive law, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345

  • Ciskei

    • States, failed and non-recognized, 1655

  • Citizen litigation

    • Collective redress, 373, 374

  • Citizenship

    • Adoption, intercountry, 15

    • Loss, 1292

    • Nationality, 1289

  • Citizenship of the (European) Union

    • Nationality, 1298

  • Civil (registered) partnership

    • Hungary, 2143, 2146

  • Civil and commercial matters, 346

    • Acta iure gestionis, 356

    • Application to controversial, 355

    • Basic structures, 347

    • Bilateral conventions, 355

    • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation), 220, 348, 351, 352, 681, 682, 683

    • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 305

    • Claim’s legal basis, 353

    • Classification (characterization), 361

    • Collective redress, 376

    • Concept and function, 346

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 352, 353

    • Criminal law, 355

    • EC Denmark Agreement, 354

    • European Account Preservation Order Regulation, 348

    • EU law, 351

    • Exclusive reference, 347

    • Factual basis of claim, 354

    • Hague Convention, 349

    • Historical background, 347

    • Insolvency Regulation, 349

    • Instrument’s objectives, 352

    • Interpretation method and principles, 352

    • Interpretation, 346, 347

    • Legal Sources, 349

    • Lugano Convention, 348, 354

    • Maintenance, 349

    • Material scope, 348

    • Member State as party, 353

    • Nature of court, 353

    • No express reference, 349

    • Payment Order Regulation, 348

    • Private antitrust enforcement, 356

    • Public authority as party, 353

    • Public authority, 354

    • Punitive damages, 355

    • Recurring concept, 351

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 29, 348, 351, 476, 1554

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 348, 351, 352

    • Small Claims Regulation, 348, 1641, 1644

    • Specific concept, 348

    • Specific matter but no express reference, 349

    • Substantive provisions giving rise to claim, 353

    • Tax law, 356

  • Civil aviation

    • Air law (uniform law), 40

  • Civil law

    • Arrest of vessels, 133, 135, 139

    • Trust, 1752, 1756

  • Civil law approach

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1326

  • Civil partnership

    • Greece, 2122

    • Registered partnerships, 1505

    • Same-sex marriages, 1604

  • Civil procedure

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 56

    • Chile, 1969

    • UNIDROIT, 1770

  • Civil register

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 699

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1329

  • Civil solidarity pact

    • Registered partnerships, 1505

  • Civil status

    • CIEC/ICCS (International Commission on Civil Status), 333, 334, 336

    • Cuba, 2005

    • Personal status, 1348

  • Civil status documents

    • Personal status, 1346, 1350

  • Civil status officer

    • Personal status, 1348, 1350

  • Civil status registry

    • Personal status, 1346, 1348

  • CJEU. See Court of Justice of the European Union

  • Claim

    • Arrest of vessels, 132, 133, 135, 136

    • Assignability/Assignment of claims, 142, 143

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 258, 259

    • Cessio legis, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293

    • Lex situs, 148

  • Claim for restitution

    • Cultural objects, protection of, 501, 502, 503

  • Claim for return

    • Cultural objects, protection of, 501, 502, 503

  • Claimant

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 257, 258, 261

  • Claims for damages in air traffic, arbitration proceedings

    • Air law (uniform law), 42

  • Claims for damages in air traffic, court fees

    • Air law (uniform law), 42

  • Claims for damages in air traffic, jurisdiction

    • Air law (uniform law), 42

  • Claims for damages, non-contractual

    • Air law (uniform law), 43

  • Classical legal thought

    • Story, Joseph, 1661

  • Classification (see also Characterization), 357

    • Adjustment/Adaption (Anpassung), 8, 9, 10, 12

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 62

    • Assimilation clauses, 363

    • Burden of proof, 237, 240, 364

    • Choice of law, 315

    • Claim, 358

    • Companies, 361, 406

    • Comparative law and private international law, 420, 423

    • Connecting factor, 358, 360, 441, 448

    • Consistency, 358, 362

    • Culpa in contrahendo, 364, 494

    • Directly classified, 358

    • Director’s liability, 541

    • Domestic law, reference to, 362

    • Exclusion clauses, 363

    • International conventions, 359

    • Interpretation of legal terms, 360

    • Legislature, determined by, 364

    • Lex causae, 358

    • Lex fori, 357, 363

    • Limitation, 358, 364

    • Method of interpretation, 362

    • National law interpretation, 362

    • National legal systems, in, 357

    • Notion, 357

    • Prescription, 364, 1375

    • Principles of interpretation, 360

    • Problem, 357

    • Scope established, 363

    • Solution, 357

    • Sweden, 2542

    • Thailand, 2570

    • Turkey, 2595

  • Clawback

    • Blocking statutes, 210, 212

    • Donation, 564, 565

  • CLC

    • Liability, limitation of maritime, 1144, 1146

    • Maritime torts, 1220

  • Clearing

    • Financial instruments, 739

  • Clearing and settlement

    • Liability, capital market, 1131

  • Clientele

    • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts, 393

  • CLIP

    • Applicable law, 370

    • Background and context, 365

    • EU, 366

    • Future developments, 372

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 365, 966

    • Intellectual property, jurisdiction, 365, 368, 971

    • Japan, 366

    • Korea, 366

    • Private international law, contribution to, 366

    • USA, 366

  • CLIP Principles

    • ALI Principles, and, 370

    • Background and context, 366

    • Brussels I Regulation, and, 370

    • CLIP, 366, 367

    • Closest connection, 371

    • Contracts, 369, 370

    • Coordination of proceedings, 370

    • Draft, 366

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 371

    • Enforcement, 372

    • Exclusive jurisdiction, 368

    • Infringement, 371

    • Initial ownership, 370

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 966, 967, 968

    • Intellectual property, infringements, 369

    • Intellectual property, jurisdiction, 978, 979

    • Interpretation, 371

    • Internet, liability, 369, 371, 1005

    • Jurisdiction, 368

    • Lex originis, 370

    • Multiple defendants and joint liability, 369, 1278

    • Prorogation, 368

    • Provisional measures, 370

    • Purpose, 367

    • Recognition, 372

    • Scope, 367

    • Secondary liability, 372

    • Security rights, 372

    • Special jurisdiction, 369

    • Structure, 367

    • Territoriality, 369, 370, 372, 1707

    • Ubiquitous infringement, 372

  • Cloning

    • Bioethics and private international law, 202, 203

  • Closeness

    • Private international law, methods of, 1404

  • Closest connection

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 63

    • Choice of law, 88

    • Collective agreement, 609

    • Connecting factors, 94, 95

    • Escape clause, 669, 672

    • Israel, 2203

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 1066, 1067, 1069

    • Renvoi, 1544

  • CMI

    • Maritime law (uniform law), 1212

    • UNCITRAL, 1759

  • CMNI

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 255, 260, 261

  • CMR

    • Brussels I Regulation (recast), 258

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 255, 256, 260

    • CIM, 259

    • Conflicting stipulations, 258

    • Defence, 257

    • Forum (and law) shopping, 791

    • Georgia, 2091

    • Liability of road carrier, 257

    • Limit of liability, 257

    • Limitation, 259

    • Period of liability, 257

    • Scope, 256

    • Types of damage, 257

    • Uniform substantive law and private international law, 1776

  • Coase Theorem

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 172, 173, 176, 177

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 578

    • Market failure, 579

    • Transaction costs, 578

  • Coase, Ronald H

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 172

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 575, 578

  • Co-determination

    • Companies, 406

  • Codex Theodosianus

    • Private international law, history of, 1391

  • Codification

    • Bulgaria, 1939, 1940

    • CIDIP, 320, 322, 329

    • Cuba, 2003

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 871

    • Portugal, 2433

    • Story, Joseph, 1661

    • Treaties in private international law, 1743

  • Codification of private international law

    • Agency and authority of agents, 32

    • Bustamante, Antonio Sánchez de, 244, 245, 250

    • CIDIP, 320, 321, 329

    • Connecting factor, 442, 451

    • Goldschmidt, Werner, 858

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 871

  • Código Bustamante

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 53

    • Bustamante, Antonio Sánchez de, 245

    • Private international law, history of, 1397

  • Cognitive dissonance

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 172

  • Cognitive psychology

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 172

    • Preference inconsistency, 172

    • Preference instability, 173

    • Processing information, 172

  • Collective action

    • Employment, industrial disputes, 632

    • Fundamental right, as, 634, 637

    • Overriding mandatory provisions, 638

    • Proportionality, 637

    • Restriction’s approach, 638

    • Territoriality, 635

  • Collective action clauses (CACs)

    • Bonds and loans, 215

  • Collective agreement

    • Characterization (classification), 609

    • Closest connection, 609

    • Competition law, 607

    • Effect, 606

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 609, 610

    • Employment contracts, jurisdiction, 610

    • Employment, collective bargaining, 606

    • Employment, maritime, 648

    • Employment, posting of workers, 611

    • Europe, 606

    • Individual contracts, and, 609

    • Mandatory provisions, 610

    • Role, 606

    • Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 609

    • Strike, 633

    • United Kingdom, 606

  • Collective bargaining

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 614, 615, 621, 622

    • Employment contracts, jurisdiction, 614

    • Employment, collective bargaining, 606

    • Employment, maritime, 648

    • Employment, posting of workers, 608, 611, 656

  • Collective redress, 373

    • Aggregate claims, 375

    • American exceptionalism, 373

    • Anticipated recognition, 380

    • Anti-suit injunction, 381

    • Background, 373

    • Bricolage of existing instruments, 377

    • Change, reasons for, 373

    • Choice of law, 378

    • Compensation, 374, 379

    • Consumer protection, 373, 374, 376, 379, 381

    • Cross-border specific risks, 377

    • Damages, 379

    • Deal-busting procedures, 377

    • Dispute resolution, 376, 377

    • Employment claims, 376, 379

    • Environmental claims, 374, 375, 376, 379

    • European legal culture, 374

    • Financial services, 379

    • Globalization, 377

    • Human rights claims, 373, 374, 375, 379

    • Injunction, 374, 375

    • Jurisdiction, 376, 377

    • Market regulation, 374, 376, 379

    • Mass arbitration claims, 376

    • Netherlands, 380

    • New cultural divide, 375

    • Obsolescent models, 375

    • Policy proposals, 378

    • Preclusion, 381

    • Private international law, 375

    • Procedural law of forum, 375

    • Products liability, 373, 374, 379

    • Prorogation, 377

    • Public/Private claims distinction, 379

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 376

    • Regulatory misfit, 377

    • Settlements, 380

    • Traditional heads of jurisdiction, 379

  • Collectivization of litigation

    • Collective redress, 380

  • Collision

    • Applicable law, 762

    • Flag, 761, 762

    • Maritime torts, 1219

  • Colombia, 1981

    • Absence (disappearance, presumed death), 1985

    • Administration of private international law, 1983

    • Adoption, 1988

    • Application of foreign law, 1983

    • Arbitration, 1989

    • Bilateral instruments, 1983

    • Capacity, 1988

    • Case-law, 1982

    • Choice of forum, 1985

    • Choice of law, 1986

    • CIDIP, 1981

    • Civil Code, 1981

    • Commercial contracts, 1986

    • Company, 1985

    • Corporations, 1985, 1987

    • Courts and non-judicial authorities, 1983

    • Divorce and personal separation, 1986, 1988

    • Doctrinal writings, 1982

    • Ecuador, 1985

    • Family matters, 1985, 1988

    • Guardianship, custody and parental responsibility, 1986

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1981

    • Hague Conventions, 1981

    • History and development of private international law, 1982

    • Intellectual property, 1987

    • Inter-American conventions, 1982

    • International conventions, 1981

    • Jurisdiction, 1984

    • Major legislation, 1981

    • Marriage, 1988

    • Obligations, 1984, 1986

    • Personal actions, 1985

    • Preventive measures, 1984

    • Proof of foreign commercial practice, 1984

    • Proof of foreign law, 1984

    • Property rights, 1985, 1987

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 1989

    • Sources of private international law, 1981

    • Succession, 1986, 1988

  • Combined connection

    • Connecting factor, 448

  • Comfort letter

    • Guarantees, 861

  • COMI

    • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment, 560

  • COMI shift

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 176

  • Comitas

    • Voet, Paulus and Johannes, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1824

  • Comitas gentium

    • Private international law, history of, 1393

  • Comité Maritime International (CMI), 134

  • Comity, 66, 382

    • Abstention, 389

    • Anti-suit injunctions, 80, 81, 84, 85, 385

    • Background, 382

    • Beale, Joseph, 384

    • Choice of law, 312, 313

    • Content, 386, 387

    • Context, 382

    • Convenience, 387

    • Decision making, 390

    • Forum non conveniens, 385, 798, 801, 805

    • Game theory and private international law, 831, 832

    • History, 382

    • Huber, Ulrik, 383, 385, 386, 387, 389, 876, 877, 879, 880

    • Injunction, 926, 928

    • Judicial pragmatism, 387

    • Lis alibi pendens, 1159, 1160, 1163

    • Nature, 386

    • Netherlands, 383

    • Privatization of conflict of laws, 388

    • Public international law and private international law, 1448

    • Public policy (ordre public), 1453, 1458

    • Public/private international law, 386, 389

    • Reciprocity, 387

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1497

    • Reinterpretation, 389

    • Savigny, Friedrich Carl von, 384

    • Self-restraint, 389

    • Story, Joseph, 383, 387, 389, 1662

    • Types, 385

    • USA, 384, 386, 2640

    • Utility, 387

    • Vested rights theory, 66, 384, 386, 1813

    • Voet, Paulus and Johannes, 383, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1824

  • Comity, adjudicatory, 385

  • Comity, executive (comity of the courts), 385

  • Comity of nations

    • Private international law, history of, 382, 1393, 1395

    • Story, Joseph, 1662

  • Comity, prescriptive, 385

  • Commercial agency, 391

    • Agency and authority of agents, 29, 391, 395

    • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts, 391

    • Commercial background, 392

    • Concepts, 391

    • Historical development of law, 393

  • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts, 391

    • Commercial background, 391

    • Concepts, 391

    • Conflict rules, 394

  • Commercial companies

    • CIDIP, 322, 327

  • Commercial custom

    • Lex mercatoria, 1123, 1125, 1126, 1127

  • Commercial law

    • Economic modernization, 1124

    • Evolution, 1120

    • Fragmentation, 1124

    • History, 1119

    • Lex mercatoria, 1119, 1123, 1125, 1129

  • Commercial practice

    • Competition, unfair, 433

    • Meaning, 435

  • Commercial register

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1329

  • Commission de transport

    • Freight forwarding contracts, 816, 819

  • Commission international de l’état civil

    • Luxembourg, 2299

  • Common domicile

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 981, 982, 983, 984, 986, 988

  • Common European Sales Law. See CESL

    • Country of origin rule, 482

    • Culpa in contrahendo, 494

    • Estoppel, 680

  • Common foreign and security policy

    • European Union and private international law, 688

  • Common law

    • France, 2088

    • Trust, 1752, 1756

  • Common law approach

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1326

  • Common law jurisdictions

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1325, 1326, 1330

    • Proper law (doctrine), 1424

  • Common law marriage

    • Marriage, 1230

  • Common practice

    • Kazakhstan, 2235

  • Commonwealth of Independent States. See CIS

  • Commorientes

    • Adjustment/Adaption (Anpassung), 9

  • Communications Decency Act

    • Internet, liability, 1000

  • Communitarization of the conflict of laws

    • Croatia, 1991, 1993

  • Community

    • Globalization and private international law, 849, 850, 851

  • Community design

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 964

    • Intellectual property, jurisdiction, 978

    • Unitary intellectual property rights and jurisdiction, 1792

    • Unitary intellectual property rights and private international law, 1801

  • Community interest

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 1067

  • Community of laws, 169

  • Community of Nations, 154

  • Community Plant Variety Right

    • Unitary intellectual property rights and jurisdiction, 1792

    • Unitary intellectual property rights and private international law, 1801

  • Community rights

    • Unitary intellectual property rights and jurisdiction, 1792

    • Unitary intellectual property rights and private international law, 1801

  • Community Trade Marks

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 964

    • Unitary intellectual property rights and jurisdiction, 1792

    • Unitary intellectual property rights and private international law, 1801

  • Companies, 404

    • Agency and authority of agents, 30

    • Antidiscrimination, 72, 75, 78

    • Arrest of vessels, 133

    • Company law, 406

    • Company, 404

    • Director’s liability, 404, 409

    • Double taxation treaties, 570

    • Liechtenstein, 2282

    • Netherlands, 2361

    • New Zealand, 2377

    • South Africa, 2522

  • Companies and consumers

    • Creditors, as, 682

  • Companies, transnational groups of, 411

    • Applicable law, 414, 416

    • Company law, 417

    • Concept and notion, 411

    • Control, 412, 414

    • Creditors, 414

    • Current regulation, 413

    • Dissolution, 416

    • European regulation, 414

    • Formation, 412, 414

    • Freedom of choice, 415

    • Germany, 416

    • Historical development, 411

    • Informal arrangements, 416

    • Legal sources, 413

    • Liquidation, 413

    • Minority shareholders, 411, 414, 415, 416

    • Modern trends, 416

    • National rules, 416

    • On-going business, 412, 414

    • Portugal, 413

    • Purpose, 411

    • Structure, 415

  • Company

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 55

    • Austria, 1892

    • China, 1971

    • Director’s liability, 540

    • Greece, 2121, 2128

  • Company (establishment)

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 703

  • Company law

    • Antidiscrimination, 71, 75

    • Classification (characterization), 406

    • Companies, transnational groups of, 417

    • Companies, 404

    • Conflict of laws, 409

  • Connecting factors, 405

    • Conventions, 408

    • European Court of Justice case-law, 409

    • European international, 408

    • European Union, competence, 408

    • Germany, 407

    • Hidden conflict rule, 410

    • Inbound situations, 409

    • Incorporation theory, 405, 408, 409

    • Interest-theory, 404

    • Liability, capital market, 1135, 1138

    • Outbound situations, 410

    • Party autonomy, 405

    • Real seat theory, 405, 407

    • Regulation competition, 405

    • Sources, international, 407

    • Substitution, 1679

    • Third party protection, 405

    • Third state companies, 410

    • Transfer of real seat, 408

    • Transfer of seat, 410

  • Company organs

    • Agency and authority of agents, 30

  • Comparative impairment

    • (American) Conflict of laws revolution, 67

    • Comparative law and private international law, 421

    • Currie, Brainerd, 510

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 984

    • USA, 2639

  • Comparative law, 417

    • Adaption, 422

    • Application of private international law, 419

    • Applied, private international law as, 424

    • Bartin, Étienne, 152, 153, 156

    • Better law, 421

    • Classification/characterization, 420

    • Comparative impairment, 421

    • Comparative law and private international law, 417

    • Consequences, 424

    • Domestic law, 419

    • European legislature, 419

    • False conflicts, 421

    • Foreign law content, determination, 420

    • Forum non conveniens, 423

    • Individual legal phenomena, 417

    • Judges, 419

    • Kahn, Franz, 423, 1060

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 1063, 1064

    • Lease contracts and tenancies, 1081

    • Legal transplants, 417

    • Ordre public, 422

    • Private international law, as basis, 423

    • Private parties, 419

    • Rabel, Ernst, 32, 418, 420, 423, 1460, 1461, 1462, 1465

    • Renvoi, 420

    • Scholarship, 418

    • Substantive rules in private international law, 422

    • Substitution, 422, 1677

    • Succession, 1683

    • Third school, 423

    • Transposition, 422

  • Compensation

    • Marine pollution, 1220

    • Maritime torts, 1221

  • Compensation for damage

    • Environmental liability, 661, 663, 664, 667, 909

  • Compensatory tort rules

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 587

  • Competence

    • Ecuador, 2045

  • Competencia desleal

    • Competition, unfair, 433

  • Competition

    • Public policy (ordre public), 1459

    • Thailand, 2577

  • Competition, jurisdictional

    • Regulatory competition, 1515

  • Competition law (antitrust), 425

    • Bilateral approaches, 430

    • Compromise solutions, 428

    • Concept, 425

    • Contractual disputes, 430

    • Effects principle, 427

    • European Union, 428, 431

    • Features, 425

    • Germany, 428

    • Historical development, 426

    • Jurisdiction, 426

    • Outlook, 432

    • Public international law, 429

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 431, 1569

    • Strict territoriality, 427

    • Substantive law, 430

    • Switzerland, 431

    • Tort liability for infringement, 430

    • Unilateral approaches, 427

    • United Kingdom, 429

    • USA, 425, 426, 427, 429, 430

  • Competition law, findings of foreign competition authorities

    • Recognition of administrative acts, 1494

  • Competition, restriction of

    • Competition law (antitrust), 425, 426, 428, 431

  • Competition, unfair, 432

    • Antitrust, 432, 436

    • Application, 434

    • Background, 432

    • Bilateral acts, 440

    • Civil law jurisdiction, 433, 434

    • Classification (characterization), 435

    • Common law jurisdiction, 433, 434

    • Conflict of laws, 434

    • Connecting factor, 449

    • Country of origin principle, 438

    • De minimis limitations, 439

    • Europe, 432, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438

    • Intellectual property rights, 436

    • Market effects principle, exceptions, 440

    • Market effects principle, 437, 438

    • Market regulation, 433

    • Modern law, 434

    • Mosaic approach, 439

    • Private international law, 434

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 440

    • Rules of conflicts attachment, 437

    • Structure, general, 434

    • Tort law paradigm, 433

    • Torts, 1715, 1716

    • Typology of conflicts, 439

    • Unlauterer Wettbewerb, 433

    • USA, 434, 435, 436, 437

  • Complex torts

    • Products liability, 1413

    • Torts, 1714

  • Composite legal systems

    • Nationality, 1299

  • Compulsory insurance

    • Direct Action, 532

    • EU, 959

    • Insurance contracts, 955, 959

    • Marine insurance, 1208

    • Traffic accidents, 1725

    • Transport law (uniform law), 1731

    • USA, 960

  • Compulsory license

    • TRIPS, 1750, 1752

  • Concession de vente

    • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts, 391, 392, 396

  • Conciliation

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 59

    • Online dispute resolution, 1314, 1318, 1321

    • UNCITRAL Model Law, 60, 61

  • Concubinage

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 2137

  • Concurrence déloyale

    • Competition, unfair, 433

  • Condictio indebiti

    • Unjust enrichment (restitution), 1810

  • Condition des étrangers

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 51

  • Conduct regulation

    • Local data, 1171

  • Conferment of nationality

    • Nationality, 1291, 1298, 1299

    • Recognition of administrative acts, 1487, 1488, 1489

  • Confiscation

    • Expropriation, 726, 728, 729, 730

  • Conflict of conventions

    • CISG, 345

  • Conflict of laws, 66

    • Aldricus, 49

    • Arbitration, (UNCITRAL) Model Law, 130

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 87, 96

    • Bartin, Étienne, 154

    • Bartolus, 161

    • Batiffol, Henry, 166

    • Bulgaria, 1939

    • Colombia, 1981, 1982, 1986

    • Constitutional law and private international law, 453

    • Currie, Brainerd, 66, 506, 507, 508

    • Employment, maritime, 644, 647

    • Foreign law, application and ascertainment, 769

    • Formal requirements and validity, 783

    • Georgia, 2092

    • Huber, Ulrik, 876

    • Insurance contracts, 958, 959, 960

    • Intra-national, 823

    • Kazakhstan, 2236

    • Lebanon, 2268

    • Malta, 2330

    • Mancini, Pasquale Stanislao, 1196

    • Marine insurance, 1202, 1203

    • Names of individuals, 1283

    • Private international law, foundations, 1381

    • Rome III Regulation (divorce), 549, 550, 553, 1574, 1576

    • Turkey, 2595

  • Conflict of Laws in Intellectual Property. See CLIP

  • Conflict of systems

    • Unilateralism, 1790

  • Conflict rules

    • Connecting factor, and, 441

    • Latvia, 2257

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1496, 1501, 1503

  • Conflict rules, bilateral

    • Choice of law, 314

  • Conflict rules, structure

    • Choice of law, 313

  • Conflict rules, unilateral

    • Choice of law, 314

    • Unilateralism, 1787

  • Conflicting judgments

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments (civil law), 1477

  • Conflicts justice

    • Dépeçage, 526

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 987

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 1067

    • Private international law, foundations, 1387, 1389

  • Conflicts revolution

    • (American) Conflict of laws revolution, 67, 69

    • Currie, Brainerd, 66, 506

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 980, 987

  • Conflit mobile

    • Bartin, Étienne, 155

    • Capacity and emancipation, 252

    • Connecting factor, 450

    • Immovable property, 893

    • Lebanon, 2268

    • Prescription, 1368

    • Property and proprietary rights, 1431

    • Security interests in mobile equipment (uniform law), 1622

  • Connecting factor, 441

    • Accessory, 448

    • Adjustment/Adaption (Anpassung), 36

    • Adults, protection of, 22, 25

    • Agency and authority of agents, 30, 35

    • Agent’s place of business, 37

    • Alternative, 445

    • Apparent authority, 38

    • Arbitration, international commercial, 89, 95

    • Arbitration, (UNCITRAL) Model Law, 128

    • Capacity and emancipation, 252

    • Carriage of goods by sea, 263, 266, 267

    • Carriage of passengers, 269, 272

    • Cessio legis, 290

    • Characterization (see also Classification), 36

    • Choice of law, 318

    • CIEC/ICCS (International Commission on Civil Status), 335

    • Classification/Characterization, 441, 448

    • Combined, 448

    • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts, 396

    • Companies, 405, 407

    • Comprehensive assessment, 442

    • Concept and notion, 441

    • Conflict rule, and, 441

    • Cumulative, 447

    • Damages, 512, 513, 515, 516, 517

    • Direct connection, 445

    • Director’s liability, 539, 541

    • Distributive, 448

    • Domicile, 555

    • Donation, 563

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 617

    • Escape clause, 442

    • Floating choice of law, 767

    • Function, 442

    • Goldschmidt, Werner, 853, 855, 857, 858, 860

    • Historical development, 451

    • Indirect connection, 445

    • Interregional/Interstate law, 1016, 1017, 1018, 1019

    • Jurisdiction, contracts and torts, 1038

    • Jurisdiction, 450

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 443, 447, 1066, 1069

    • Legal certainty, 442

    • Liability, capital market, 1133

    • Limited choice of law, 445, 446

    • Marriage, 1231, 1233

    • Modern trends, 451

    • Most favourable clauses, 446

    • Multiplicity of, 445

    • Names of individuals, 1283

    • Nationality, 6

    • Nationality, 1290, 1292, 1296, 1297, 1298, 1299

    • Objective connection, 444

    • Overall assessment, 443

    • Party autonomy, 36

    • Personal, 449

    • Poland, 2424, 2427

    • Prescription, 1369, 1371, 1372, 1375, 1378

    • Private international law, methods of, 442

    • Purpose, 442

    • Separate, 442

    • Social protection and private international law, 1649

    • Subjective choice, 446

    • Subjective connection, 444

    • Subsidiary, 443, 446

    • Substantive law, 445

    • Time, 450

    • Typical, 449

  • Connecting factor, change over time

    • Connecting factor, 450

  • Connecting factor, proof of

    • Burden of proof, 240, 241, 242

  • Connections, alternative

    • Choice of law, 319

    • Connecting factor, 445

    • Private international law, methods of, 1405

  • Connections, cumulative

    • Choice of law, 319

    • Connecting factor, 447

  • Connections, multiple

    • Connecting factor, 445

    • Private international law, methods of, 1405

  • Connections, residual or subsidiary

    • Choice of law, 318, 319

    • Connecting factor, 443, 446

    • Private international law, methods of, 1405

  • Consignment note

    • Bill of lading, 194

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 256, 258, 259

  • Consignor

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 257, 258

    • Carriage of goods by sea, 264, 265, 267

  • Consitutio Antoniniana

    • Private international law, history of, 1391

  • Consolat de Mar

    • Lex maritima, 1113, 1114

  • Consolidation

    • Freight forwarding contracts, 821

  • Constitution

    • Australia, 1879, 1883, 1885

  • Constitutional Court

    • Colombia, 1982

    • Slovenia, 2504

  • Constitutional law

    • Constitutional law and private international law, 12, 452, 453, 456

    • Human rights and private international law, 12, 880, 883, 884

    • Jurisdiction, foundations, 1044

  • Constitutional law and private international law, 452

    • Australia, 452

    • Canada, 452

    • Legally pluralist states, 452

    • Rights protection, 454

    • Separation of powers, 452

    • Structure, 452

    • USA, 452

  • Constitutionalization

    • Adjustment/Adaption (Anpassung), 12

  • Constitutionalization of private law

    • Personality rights, 1351, 1352, 1359

  • Construction contracts, 457

    • Absence of choice of law by parties, 460

    • Architects, with, 461

    • Building contracts, 460

    • Choice of law, 459

    • Consumer protection, 462

    • Definition, 457

    • Engineers, with, 461

    • Harmonization of choice of law, 458

    • Historical development, 457

    • Overriding mandatory provisions/rules, 463

    • Pre-harmonization period, 457

    • Proper law, 459

    • Standard contracts, 459

    • Subcontracts, 462

    • Turnkey contracts, 461

  • Constructive trust

    • Remedies, 1534

  • Constructive trusts

    • Trust, 1753, 1757

  • Consular authorities

    • Legalization of public documents, 1095, 1098, 1101

  • Consular or diplomatic authorities

    • Service of documents, 1630

  • Consumer contracts, 464

    • Antidiscrimination, 78

    • Article 6, circumstances of application, 470

    • Article 6, material scope, 468

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 177

    • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 306

    • Choice of law, 468

    • Circumstances article 15 applies, 466

    • Collective redress, 374

    • Consumer protection, 464

    • Consumer, 465

    • Contract requirement, 465

    • Contracts relating to immovable property, 469

    • Contracts relating to package travel, 469

    • Definition, 1558

    • Donation, 563

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 583

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 702

    • Excluded contracts, 469

    • Exclusions, 1559

    • Financial services, 470

    • Insurance contracts, 954, 955, 958

    • Internet, jurisdiction, 994

    • Jurisdiction, 464, 468

    • Life insurance contracts, 1155, 1156

    • Material scope of art 15, 466

    • Netherlands, 2361

    • Party, other, 465

    • Passive or sedentary consumers, 1558

    • Personal scope, 465, 468

    • Principle of most favourable law, 1558

    • Provisions that cannot be derogated from by contract, 470

    • Public policy (ordre public), 1459

    • Regulatory competition, 1518, 1521

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 1558

    • Sale contracts and sale of goods, 74, 1590

    • Service contracts, 469

    • Targeted activity criterion, 1559

    • Timeshare contracts, 470

  • Consumer Credit Directive

    • European Union and private international law, 692

  • Consumer groups

    • Collective redress, 374, 378

  • Consumer protection

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 177

    • Carriage of passengers, 275

    • CESL, 279, 281, 283

    • Construction contracts, 462

    • Consumer contracts, 63, 464, 469, 470

    • Directives, 471

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 583

    • Formal requirements and validity, 785

    • Guarantees, 863

    • Online dispute resolution, 1317, 1322, 1323

    • Rationale for, 464

    • Unfair terms, 471

  • Consumers

    • Austria, 1889

    • Competition, unfair, 433, 434, 435, 437, 439

    • Consumer contracts, 465

    • Internet, jurisdiction, 989, 990

    • Liechtenstein, 2279

    • Regulatory competition, 1515, 1516

    • Responsiveness, 1516

    • Social protection and private international law, 1649

  • Consumer Sales Directive

    • CESL, 281

  • Contentious matters

    • Liechtenstein, 2280

  • Contract

    • Bartolus, 159

    • Batiffol, Henry, 167

    • Canada, 1953, 1955

    • Capacity and emancipation, 252, 253, 254

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 258, 259

    • Cessio legis, 290

    • Cuba, 2006

    • Culpa in contrahendo, 72, 73

    • Damage(s), 512, 513, 516, 518, 519

    • Floating choice of law, 767

    • Internet, jurisdiction, 993

    • Israel, 2199

    • Italy, 2216

    • Jurisdiction, contracts and torts, 1033, 1035, 1036

    • New Zealand, 2373

    • Place of performance, 1360, 1361, 1362, 1366, 1367

    • Proper law (doctrine), 1423

    • South Africa, 2519

    • Sweden, 2539, 2543

    • Switzerland, 2553

    • Taiwan, 2566

    • Ukraine, 2608

    • Vietnam, 2663

  • Contract law

    • Antidiscrimination, 71, 74

    • GEDIP, 839

    • Liability, capital market, 1130

    • Regulatory competition, 1515, 1517, 1519, 1521

  • Contract of carriage

    • Carriage of goods by sea, 265

    • Carriage of passengers, 270, 271, 272, 276

    • European Court of Justice, 821

    • Freight forwarding contracts, 817, 820, 821, 822

    • Hague-Visby Rules, 1617

    • Sea waybills and other transport documents, 1615, 1617

  • Contract without law

    • Floating choice of law, 766

    • Party autonomy, 1336

  • Contracting state

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 870

  • Contracts

    • Culpa in contrahendo, 490

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 702

    • Greece, 2121

    • Macau, SAR of China, 2310

  • Contractual liability

    • Culpa in contrahendo, 490, 491

    • Expert liability, 721

  • Contractual obligations, 61, 472

    • Adults, protection of, 22

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 63

    • Antidiscrimination, 70

    • Brussels I Regulation (recast), 475

    • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 305, 307, 310

    • Conclusions, 477

    • Culpa in contrahendo, 495

    • Definition, 1555

    • Discrimination, 73

    • Donation, 561

    • Employment, industrial disputes, 477, 478, 635, 636, 640, 641

    • Exemption clauses as defence to liability in tort, 478

    • Floating choice of law, 766, 767, 768

    • Greece, 2121

    • Jurisdiction, contracts and torts, 1032, 1034, 1035, 1036

    • Lease contracts and tenancies, 1083

    • Liability, 475

    • Malta, 2328

    • Mediation, 62

    • Netherlands, 2360, 2367

    • Place of performance, 1360, 1361, 1364, 1365

    • Principles of European Contract Law, 473

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 472, 474, 477, 1555

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 474, 1562, 1564, 1571

    • Sale contracts and sale of goods, 74

    • Savigny, Friedrich Carl von, 1612

    • Social protection and private international law, 1649

    • United Kingdom, 2619

  • Contrat sans loi

    • Party autonomy, 1337, 1339

  • Contribution

    • Burden of compensation, 1277

    • Forms, 1279

    • Instruments, 1277

    • Multiple defendants and joint liability, 1277, 1279, 1280

    • Privileges of single debtor, 1281

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 1279, 1280

    • US law, 1281

  • Control

    • Companies, transnational groups of, 412, 414, 415

  • Convention

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 870, 871, 872, 873

    • Treaties in private international law, 1744

    • Uniform substantive law and private international law, 1773

  • Cook, Walter Wheeler

    • (American) Conflict of laws revolution, 67

    • Currie, Brainerd, 508

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 980

    • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws, 1547

  • Cooperation

    • Adoption, 17

  • Cooperation of authorities

    • Brussels IIa Regulation, 229, 235

    • Child abduction, 298

    • Guardianship, custody and parental responsibility, 867, 868, 869

  • Cooperative internationalism

    • Batiffol, Henry, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167

  • Coordination

    • Private international law, methods of, 1401, 1402, 1405

  • Coordination of legal systems

    • Batiffol, Henry, 163, 169

  • ‘Copernican turn’

    • Choice of law, 312

    • Savigny, Friedrich Carl von, 1610

  • Copyright

    • CLIP, 367, 370

    • European Court of Justice, 968

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 961, 969

    • Intellectual property, common law applicable law, 963

    • Intellectual property, European applicable law, 964

    • Intellectual property, international applicable law, 963

    • Intellectual property, jurisdiction, 973

    • Intellectual property, national applicable law, 962

    • Internet, jurisdiction, 993, 996, 997

    • Internet, liability, 1001, 1002

    • Licence contract, 1146

    • TRIPS, 1749, 1750, 1751

    • Waseda Principles, 966

    • WIPO and private international law, 1838, 1840

  • Corporate control contract

    • Companies, transnational groups of, 412

  • Corporate law

    • Centre of main interest, 540

    • Choice of law, 540

    • Companies, 405

    • Director’s liability, 539

    • Game theory and private international law, 833

    • GEDIP, 844

    • Regulatory competition, 1515, 1516, 1517, 1518, 1520

  • Corporation

    • Regulatory competition, 1519

  • Corporations

    • Albania, 1862

    • Argentina, 1873, 1876

    • Belarus, 1900, 1905

    • Belgium, 1917

    • Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1925, 1927

    • Brazil, 1934, 1937

    • Bulgaria, 1946

    • Canada, 1955, 1957

    • Chile, 1966

    • Colombia, 1985, 1987

    • Companies, 407, 410

    • Croatia, 1996, 1999

    • Czech Republic, 2014, 2018

    • Denmark, 2027, 2033

    • Ecuador, 2046

    • Egypt, 2058

    • Estonia, 2068, 2070

    • Finland, 2076, 2077

    • France, 2085, 2088

    • GATS, 1851

    • Georgia, 2095, 2098

    • Germany, 2110

    • Hungary, 2145

    • Iceland, 2152, 2154

    • Incorporation, 540

    • India, 2160

    • Indonesia, 2171

    • Ireland, 2187

    • Israel, 2204

    • Kazakhstan, 2240

    • Korea, 2245, 2247

    • Latvia, 2259, 2261

    • Lebanon, 2270

    • Luxembourg, 2302

    • Macau, SAR of China, 2312

    • Macedonia, FYR, 2320, 2323

    • Management, 539

    • Mexico, 2340, 2343

    • Montenegro, 2352

    • Mozambique, 2355

    • Netherlands, 2366

    • Nigeria, 2382

    • Norway, 2394, 2395

    • Paraguay, 2402, 2407

    • Peru, 2417

    • Portugal, 2440

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1495, 1496, 1499

    • Romania, 2448, 2450

    • Russian Federation, 2458, 2460

    • Serbia, 2481

    • Singapore, 2487, 2490

    • Slovenia, 2510

    • Spain, 2530, 2532

    • Structure, 539

    • Switzerland, 2557

    • Tunisia, 2588

    • Turkey, 2598, 2600

    • Ukraine, 2607

    • United Kingdom, 2625

    • Uruguay, 2635

    • USA, 2646

    • Venezuela, 2652, 2655

    • Vietnam, 2664

    • WTO and private international law, 1851

  • Cosmopolitanism

    • Private international law, foundations, 1383

  • Cost funding

    • Legal aid, 1088

  • COTIF CIM

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 255, 260

    • CMR, and, 259

  • Council of Europe

    • Liechtenstein, 2278

  • Council of Europe conventions

    • Austria, 1887

  • Council of Ministers

    • European Union and private international law, 688

  • Council of State

    • Colombia, 1983

  • Countermeasures

    • Blocking statutes, 209, 210, 212

  • Country of origin principle, 479

    • Application to private law, 1817

    • Competition, unfair, 438

    • Concept, 479, 482

    • Economic freedom, 479, 480

    • EU legislation, 481

    • European citizenship, 481

    • European Union and private international law, 697

    • Free movement of goods, 482

    • Free movement of people, 481

    • Freedom of establishment, 481

    • Freedom of establishment/persons (European Union) and private international law, 807, 810, 811

    • Historical development, 480

    • Implementation, 480

    • Limitations, 482

    • Preconditions, 482

    • Rationale, 479

    • Recognition, 480

    • Vested rights theory, 480, 1816

    • Wächter, Carl Georg von, 1831

  • Coupled connection

    • Connecting factor, 448

  • Court-annexed ADR

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 60

    • Lex fori, 63

  • Court decrees

    • Divorce and personal separation, 543

  • Court fees

    • Payment Order Regulation, 1344

  • Court of Justice of the European Union, 483

    • Anti-suit injunctions, 81, 85

    • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation), 220, 221, 222, 223

    • Civil and commercial matters, 353

    • Collective action, 638

    • Composition, 483

    • Constitutionalization process, 486

    • Consumer cases, 488

    • Defence, 222

    • Denmark, 487

    • EU and national law, 486

    • European Court of Justice, 483

    • Filtering, 489

    • Foundation, 483

    • Function, 483

    • Integration, 222

    • Interpretation, autonomous, 221, 483, 1007, 1009, 1014

    • Ireland, 487

    • Jurisdiction, contracts and torts, 486

    • Jurisdiction, 487

    • Languages used, 484

    • Legal certainty, 222

    • Mutual trust, 222

    • Place of performance, 1364, 1366, 1367

    • Preliminary reference, 221

    • Principle based reasoning, 222

    • Rabel, Ernst, 1465

    • Reform, 489

    • Rule of law, 483, 484

    • Schuman, Robert, 483

    • United Kingdom, 487

  • Court review

    • Arbitration, recognition of awards, 124, 125

  • Court settlement(s)

    • Lugano Convention, 1182

    • Rome IV Regulation (succession), 1586

  • Courtoisie, international

    • Comity, 382

  • Covenants

    • Bonds and loans, 215

  • Credit

    • Assignability/Assignment of claims, 142

    • Cessio legis, 287

  • Crediting method

    • Advantages, 568

    • Double taxation treaties, 568, 572

  • Creditor

    • Arrest of vessels, 134

    • Cessio legis, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 293

    • Companies, transnational groups of, 414

    • Guarantees, 861

    • Habitual residence, 293

    • Maritime, 132

  • Creditor protection

    • Donation, 565

  • Crisis of the conflict of laws

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 987

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 987, 1068

  • Croatia, 1990

    • Administration of private international law, 1994

    • Adoption, 1997, 2000

    • Application of foreign law, 1995

    • Arbitration, 2001

    • Case-law, 1993

    • Choice of law, 1990, 1998

    • Corporations, 1996, 1999

    • Courts and non-judicial authorities, 1994

    • Divorce and personal separation, 1997

    • Doctrinal writings, 1993

    • Exclusive jurisdiction, 1995

    • Family matters, 1997, 2000

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1991

    • Hague Conventions, 1991

    • History and development of private international law, 1994

    • Intellectual property, 1997, 1999

    • International civil procedure, 1994

    • International conventions, 1991, 1992

    • Jurisdiction, 1995

    • Maintenance obligations, 1997

    • Major legislation, 1990

    • Marriage, 1997, 2000

    • Matrimonial property, 1997, 2000

    • Obligations, 1996, 1998

    • Parent-child relationship, 2000

    • Personal law, 1994

    • PILA, 1990, 1994

    • Property rights, 1996, 1999

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 2001

    • Regional European conventions, 1992

    • Significance EU private international law, 1993

    • Sources of private international law, 1990

    • Special jurisdiction, 1996

    • Statutist theory, 1994

    • Succession, 1998, 2001

    • United Nations conventions, 1992

    • West Balkan Convention, 1833

  • Cross-border cases

    • Payment Order Regulation, 684, 1342, 1345

    • Provisional measures, 687

    • Provisional measures, 1442, 1447

  • Cross-border convention

    • Companies, 407, 408, 410

  • Cross-border disputes

    • Electronic commerce, 593

    • Legal aid, 1090, 1091, 1092, 1094

    • Mediation, 1247

  • Cross-border enforcement

    • European Account Preservation Order Regulation, 681, 682

  • Cross-border industrial action

    • Employment, industrial disputes, 635, 636, 637, 638

  • Cross-border insolvency

    • Colombia, 1985

    • Insolvency, applicable law, 931, 937

    • Insolvency, cooperation and recognition, 939, 944, 945

    • Insolvency, jurisdiction and vis attractiva, 947

    • Territoriality, 1707

  • Cross-border mediation

    • Mediation, 1248, 1252

  • Cross-border portfolio transfer

    • Reinsurance contracts, 1530

  • Cross-border tort

    • Local data, 1170

    • Omission, by, 1715

    • Torts, 1709

  • Crossed cheques, 296

  • Cross-vesting

    • Australia, 1881, 1885

  • Crystallization

    • Private international law, methods of, 1406

  • Cuba, 2002

    • Applicable law, 2005

    • Arbitration, 2003, 2004, 2007

    • Background, 2002

    • Basic structure of law, 2005

    • Bilateral conventions, 2004

    • Blocking statutes, 209, 211

    • Bustamante Code, 2003, 2006, 2007

    • Bustamante, Antonio Sánchez de, 244, 245, 247, 248, 249

    • Capacity, 2005

    • Choice of law, 2004

    • CIDIP, 2004

    • Civil Code, 2002

    • Civil status, 2005

    • Contractual obligations, 2006

    • Extra-contractual obligations, 2006

    • Formal validity, 2005

    • General characteristics of the system, 2002

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 2003

    • Independence, 2002

    • International conventions, 2003, 2004

    • Jurisdiction, 2004

    • Legal persons, 2005

    • Major legislation, 2002

    • Marriage, 2004, 2005

    • Model of law, 2003

    • Participation in codification, 2003

    • Property, 2006

    • Public policy, 2007

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 2007

    • Regulatory rules, 2005

    • Rules of application, 2006

    • Sources of law, 2002

    • Succession, 2006

    • UNCITRAL, 2003

  • Culpa in contrahendo, 72, 490

    • Applicable law, determination of, 496

    • Applicable law, deviations, 497

    • Classification (characterization), 72, 494

    • Common European Sales Law, 494

    • Common law jurisdictions, 493

    • Compensation, 491, 492, 494, 495, 497

    • Contracts, 490

    • Contractual liability, 490, 491

    • European law, 494

    • Expert liability, 720, 724

    • Formation of contract, 490

    • Germany, 492

    • Good faith, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 497

    • Historical development, 491

    • International law, 493

    • Italy, 492

    • Jehring, Rudolph von, 491

    • Legal sources, 492

    • Legitimate reliance, 490, 493, 497

    • Liability, capital market, 1134

    • National law, 492

    • Portugal, 492

    • Pre-contractual liability, 490, 492, 493, 496, 497

    • Private international law problems, 494

    • Promissory estoppel, 493

    • Purpose, 490

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 497, 1571

    • Tort/delict, 490, 491, 492, 493, 495, 496

    • UNIDROIT. 127

    • USA, 493

  • Cultural good

    • Cultural objects, protection of, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502

  • Cultural heritage

    • Cultural objects, protection of, 498, 500, 504

  • Cultural identity

    • Nationality, 1293

  • Cultural objects

    • Conditions for protection, 501

    • Cultural objects, protection of, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502

    • UNIDROIT, 1770

  • Cultural objects, protection of, 498

    • Article 12 of the Directive 93/7/EEC, 504

    • Article 90 of the Code de Droit International Privé Belge, 505

    • Brussels I Regulation (recast), 503

    • Council Regulation 116/2009/EC, 502

    • Council Regulation 752/93/EEC, 502

    • Definition, 498

    • Directive 93/7/EEC (now 2014/60/EU), 503

    • European Union law, 502

    • Hague Convention (1954), 500

    • History, 499

    • International law, 500

    • Mandatory provisions, 505

    • Private international law, 504

    • UNESCO Convention, 500

    • UNIDROIT Convention, 501

  • Cultural property

    • Cultural objects, protection of, 498, 499, 500, 503, 504, 505

    • Definition, 498, 500, 502

    • History, 499

    • International law, 500

    • Property and proprietary rights, 1432

    • Switzerland, 2554

  • Cumulative connecting factor

    • Connecting factor, 447

    • Renvoi, 1544

  • Curaçao

    • Netherlands, 2358

  • Curatorship

    • Adults, protection of, 24

  • Curing of deficiencies of service

    • Service of documents, 1631

  • Currency

    • Account, of, 1258

    • Definition, 1255

    • Determination in contractual relationship, 1257

    • Money and currency, 1255

    • Payment, of, 1259

    • State sovereignty, 1255

    • Use, relationships implying, 1257

  • Currie, Brainerd, 50, 66, 506

    • (American) Conflict of laws revolution, 67

    • Admiralty law, 508

    • Choice of law cases, 509

    • Conflict of laws, 508

    • Datum, 1166

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 587, 589

    • European approach, 511

    • Governmental interest analysis, 508, 510, 511

    • Guarantees, 863

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 66, 506, 980

    • Legal poetry, 507

    • Lex fori, 1107

    • Life, 507

    • Private international law, contribution to, 508

    • Private international law, foundations, 1384, 1386

    • Private international law, influence on, 510

    • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws, 1549

    • Unilateralism, 1782, 1783, 1784, 1785, 1786

    • USA, 2639, 2642

    • Work, 507

  • Custody (of securities)

    • Liability, capital market, 1131

  • Custom and usage

    • Argentina, 1871

  • Customary law

    • Chile, 1960

    • Lease contracts and tenancies, 1078

    • Lex mercatoria, 1121

    • Ukraine, 2605

  • Customs

    • Georgia, 2092

    • Kazakhstan, 2235

  • Cyprus

    • States, failed and non-recognized, 1657, 1658

  • Czech Republic, 2008

    • Acquisitive prescription, 2016

    • Administration of private international law, 2011

    • Adoption, 2013, 2017

    • Application and enforcement of foreign law, 2011

    • Arbitration, 2018

    • Bilateral conventions, 2009

    • Bills of exchange, 2015

    • Capacity, 2017

    • Case-law, 2010

    • Cheques, 2015

    • Children, 2017

    • Choice of law, 2014

    • Civil Procedure Code, 2008

    • Codification, 2009

    • Contracts, 2015

    • Corporations, 2014, 2018

    • Courts and other authorities, 2011

    • Divorce, 2017

    • Doctrinal writing, 2010

    • Employment contracts, 2015

    • European Union, 2009

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 2015

    • Exceptional cases of applicable law, 2014

    • Family matters, 2013, 2016

    • Functional immunity of state, 2012

    • Guardianship, 2017

    • Hague Conventions, 2016

    • History of private international law, 2010

    • Incidental (preliminary question), 2014

    • Insolvency, 2014

    • Intellectual property, 2016

    • International conventions, 2009

    • Jurisdiction, 2011

    • Major legislation, 2008

    • Marriage, 2017

    • Multilateral conventions, 2009

    • Nationality, 2017

    • Non-contractual relations, 2015

    • Obligations, 2012, 2015

    • PILA, 2008, 2009

    • Property, 2012, 2016

    • Public order reservation, 2014

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 2018

    • Registered partnerships, 2013, 2017

    • Relations between parents and children and some other relations, 2013

    • Relations between spouses, 2013

    • Rights in rem, 2016

    • Sources of private international law, 2008

    • Succession, 2013, 2017

    • Unilateral legal acts, 2015

  • D’Argentré, Bertrand

    • Comity, 383

    • Lex fori, 1106

  • Daily Mail

    • Freedom of establishment/persons (European Union) and private international law, 810

  • Damage

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 256, 257, 260, 261

  • Damage caused by aircraft

    • Transport law (uniform law), 1735

  • Damage(s), 512

    • Applicable law, 518

    • Arbitration, recognition of awards, 117, 125

    • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 305, 311

    • CISG, 340

    • Concept and notion, 512

    • Connecting factor, 517

    • Contract, 512, 513, 516, 518, 519

    • Current European regulation, 517

    • Current international regulation, 517

    • Current national regulation, 516

    • Discrimination, 72

    • Escape (homin) device, 519

    • European legal sources, 516

    • Function, 513

    • Germany, 512

    • Habitual residence, 519

    • Historical development, 513

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 964, 965

    • International legal sources, 515

    • Legal sources, 515

    • National legal sources, 515

    • Place of, 515, 516, 519

    • Public policy, 512

    • Purpose, 513

    • Remedies, 1535

    • Substance and procedure, 515, 519, 1674

    • Switzerland, 512

    • Terrorism, 46

    • Tort/delict, 512, 513, 515, 516, 518, 519

    • United Kingdom, 513

    • USA, 512

  • Damages (intellectual property)

    • TRIPS, 1748, 1750

  • Damages, on the surface

    • Air law (uniform law), 44, 45

  • Damages, third-party damages

    • Air law (uniform law), 43

  • Dane, Nathan

    • Story, Joseph, 1661

  • Dassonville

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 485

    • WTO and private international law, 1846

  • Data privacy

    • Electronic commerce, 592, 597

    • Level, 598

  • Datum

    • Country of origin rule, 480

  • Datum, data

    • Local data, 1166

  • Datum, moral

    • Local data, 1166

  • Datum theory

    • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 589

  • Davignon Report

    • European Union and private international law, 688

  • De facto case-law

    • Vietnam, 2660

  • De minimis limitation

    • Competition, unfair, 439

  • Death or personal injury

    • Carriage of passengers, 270, 271, 273, 274, 275, 277

    • Matrimonial property, 1235, 1239

  • Debt

    • Money and currency, 1258, 1259

    • Money and currency, 682

  • Debt recovery

    • Debt recovery, cross-border, 65, 519

  • Debt recovery, cross-border, 519

    • Austria, 521

    • Double jeopardy, 523, 525

    • Enforcement jurisdiction, 520

    • Enforcement measures, effects of, 523

    • England, 522

    • European Account Preservation Order, 524

    • France, 522

    • German-speaking states, 520

    • Germany, 521

    • Insolvency, 524

    • Lugano Convention, 522

    • Prospects, 524

    • Recognition, 523, 524

    • Sovereignty, 520, 521, 524

    • Switzerland, 520, 521

    • Territoriality, 523, 524

  • Debtor

    • Assignability/Assignment of claims, 144

    • Cessio legis, 288, 289, 290, 291

    • Guarantees, 861, 862

    • Status, 144

  • Debts (property regime)

    • Property and proprietary rights, 1433

  • Déchéances

    • Prescription, 1369

  • Decisional harmony

    • Public international law and private international law, 1452

    • Reciprocity, 1468

  • Declaration

    • Remedies, 1534, 1536

  • Declaration of death

    • Absence (disappearance, presumed death), 1, 2, 3, 4, 7

    • Slovakia, 2498

  • Decree absolute

    • Divorce and personal separation, 543

  • Decree nisi

    • Divorce and personal separation, 543

  • Deeds

    • Bonds and loans, 215

  • Defamation

    • Constitutional law and private international law, 456

    • Jurisdiction, contracts and torts, 1041

    • Personality rights, 1351, 1352, 1353, 1356

    • United Kingdom, 2617, 2620

  • Default rules

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 578

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1325, 1329

  • Délai prefix

    • Prescription, 1369

  • Delaware-Effect

    • Regulatory competition, 1517

  • Delay

    • Air law (uniform law), 41

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 256, 257, 259, 261

    • Carriage of passengers, 274, 275, 277, 278

  • Delayed choice of law

    • Floating choice of law, 766

  • Delibation

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments (civil law), 1478

  • Delict

    • Environmental liability, 658, 660

    • Savigny, Friedrich Carl von, 1612

    • South Africa, 2519

    • Wächter, Carl Georg von, 1829

  • Delivery

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 256, 257, 259, 260

    • Jurisdiction, contracts and torts, 1039

    • Place of performance, 1361, 1362, 1366, 1367

  • Delocalization

    • France, 2089, 2090

  • Delocalized approach

    • Arbitration, recognition of awards, 122

  • Demand

    • Regulatory competition, 1515, 1516, 1517

  • Demand guarantee

    • Guarantees, 862

  • Dematerialization

    • Bonds and loans, 216

    • Financial instruments, 739, 740

  • Democratic participation

    • Nationality, 1294

  • Déni de justice

    • Maintenance obligations, 1187, 1189

  • Denial of justice

    • Intellectual property, jurisdiction, 975

    • States, failed and non-recognized, 1653, 1659

  • Denmark, 2019

    • Administration of private international law, 2024

    • Alternative grounds of jurisdiction, 2027

    • Application of private international law and foreign law, 2025

    • Arbitration, 2030, 2035

    • Bilateral arrangements, 2023

    • Case-law, 2023

    • Choice of law, 2030

    • Civil procedure law, 2020, 2023, 2026

    • Commercial activities, 2028

    • Contractual obligations, 2027

    • Conventions by global organizations, 2021

    • Conventions by regional organizations, 2023

    • Corporations and other legal entities, 2027, 2033

    • Courts and non-judicial authorities, 2024

    • Custody of children, 2029, 2034

    • Doctrinal writings, 2024

    • Domicile, 2026

    • Environmental liability, 2032

    • EU private international law, 2023

    • European Conventions, 2023

    • Europol, 2020

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 2031

    • Express choice of law provisions, 2020

    • Family matters, 2029, 2033

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 2021

    • Hague Conventions, 2021

    • Hague Rules, 2022

    • History and development of private international law, 2024

    • Home jurisdiction, 2026, 2027, 2028, 2030

    • Insolvency, 2028

    • Intellectual property, 2028, 2033

    • International conventions, 2020, 2021

    • Jurisdiction, 2025

    • League of Nations, 2021

    • Legislation, 2020

    • Legitimacy of children, 2034

    • Lex fori, 2031, 2034

    • Marital agreements, 2034

    • Marriage, 2029, 2034

    • Matrimonial property, 2029, 2034

    • Nature of things, 2019, 2024

    • Non-contractual obligations (torts), 2027, 2031

    • Nordic Conventions, 2020, 2023

    • Nordic Maritime Code, 2022

    • Obligations, 2027, 2031

    • Opt-in to EU instruments, 2020

    • Property rights in immovables, 2027

    • Property rights in movables, 2032

    • Property rights, 2032

    • Public policy (ordre public), 2031

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 2035

    • Reservations to EU treaties, 2020, 2022, 2023

    • Sources of private international law, 2019

    • Statute theory, 2024

    • Succession, 2030, 2034

    • Trade marks, 2028

    • Unfair competition, 2032

    • United Nations Conventions, 2022

  • Dépeçage, 526

    • (American) Conflict of Laws Regulation, 69

    • Admissibility under Rome I Regulation, 526

    • Areas other than contract, 527

    • Capacity and emancipation, 251

    • Conflicts justice, 526

    • Connecting factor, 448

    • Impossibility, 527

    • Inseverability, 527

    • Limits, 526

    • Local data, 1168, 1169

    • Multiple partial choice of law, 526

    • Objective, 528

    • Partial choice of law, 526

    • Party autonomy, 526

    • Phenomenon, as, 526

    • Prescription, 1378

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 526, 1556

    • Severability, 526

    • Social protection and private international law, 1651

    • Succession, 528

    • Tacit partial choice, 527

  • Depolitization of private international law

    • Wächter, Carl Georg von, 1830, 1831

  • Depository receipts

    • Financial instruments, 739, 741

  • Deregulation

    • Country of origin rule, 480

    • Party autonomy, 1340

  • Derivatives

    • Financial instruments, 739, 742

  • Design

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 962

    • Intellectual property, jurisdiction, 973

    • Unitary intellectual property rights and jurisdiction, 1792

  • Designation of foreign law

    • Switzerland, 2552

  • Destination

    • Carriage of goods by road, rail and inland waterways, 256

  • Dicey, Albert Venn, 529

    • Conflict of laws, 529

    • Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 529

    • Influence, 531

    • Life, 529

    • Rule, Comment and Illustration, 530, 531

    • United Kingdom, 531

    • Vested rights theory, 1814

    • Westlake, John, 529

    • Work, 529

  • Digital Millennium Copyright Act

    • Internet, liability, 1000

  • Dikelogy

    • Goldschmidt, Werner, 853, 858

  • Direct action against liability insurance

    • Direct action, 531, 533, 535

    • Hague Traffic Accident Convention, 1724

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 1724

    • Traffic accidents, 1723, 1724

  • Direct action, jurisdiction and applicable law

    • Direct action, 532, 533, 538

  • Direct actions, 531

    • Applicable law, 535, 960

    • Arbitration agreements, 534

    • Australia, 532

    • Brussels I Regulation (recast), 533

    • Characterization (classification), 532

    • Choice of law, 535

    • Concept, 531

    • Current regulation, 533

    • Domicile, 533, 534

    • England, 532

    • EU, 957, 960

    • Germany, 533

    • Insurance contracts, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 957

    • Joinder, 535

    • Jurisdiction agreements, 534

    • Jurisdiction, 533, 957

    • Legal mechanisms, 532

    • Lex fori, 533, 534, 536

    • Liability of insurer, 532

    • Pay to be paid clause, 536

    • Private international law, 532

    • Road traffic accidents, 537

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 536

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 534, 536, 538

    • Substantive law solutions, 531

    • United Kingdom, 537

    • USA, 531, 957, 960

  • Direct applicability and direct effect of EU law

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 485, 486, 487, 488

  • Direct effect

    • European Union and private international law, 688

  • Direct ownership system

    • Financial instruments, 740

  • Directives

    • European Union and private international law, 692, 693

    • Uniform substantive law and private international law, 1772

  • Director’s liability, 539

    • Agency cost challenge, 539

    • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation), 539

    • Brussels I Regulation (recast), 542

    • Centre of main interest, 540

    • Characterization (classification), 541

    • Connecting factors, 539

    • Corporate jurisdiction, 542

    • Corporate law, 539

    • Duties, 539

    • Europe, 539, 540

    • Insolvency law, 540

    • International (adjudicatory) jurisdiction, 542

    • Place of incorporation, 539

    • Principal-agent-conflicts, 539

    • Real seat theory, 539

    • Torts law, 541

    • USA, 539, 540

    • Wrongful trading, 539, 541, 542

  • Disappearance

    • Absence (disappearance, presumed death), 1, 4, 6

  • Disclosure

    • Liability, capital market, 1132, 1137

    • Obligations, 1137

  • Disconnection clause

    • European Union and private international law, 694

  • Discovery

    • Comity, 712

    • Evidence, procurement of, 712, 713

  • Discretion

    • Adjudicatory, models of, 798

    • Anti-suit injunctions, 84

    • Arbitration, recognition of awards, 123, 126

    • Forum non conveniens, 798, 799, 803

    • Injunction, 927, 929

    • Jurisdiction agreements, and, 799

    • Jurisdiction, foundations, 1045

  • Discretion of courts

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1327, 1329

  • Discretionary devices

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1328

  • Discrimination

    • Adjustment/Adaption (Anpassung), 12

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 53

    • Contractual obligations, 73

    • Nationality, 1298, 1300, 1301

    • Pre-contractual stage, 72, 76

  • Disinterested forum

    • Currie, Brainerd, 509

  • Disposition of property upon death

    • Succession, 1687, 1688, 1690

  • Dispute resolution

    • Adjudication, 60

    • Conciliation, 59

    • Hybrid procedures, 60

    • International arbitration, 122

    • Mediation, 58, 59, 61, 1246, 1249

  • Dispute resolution/settlement (WTO)

    • WTO and private international law, 1845, 1849

  • Distanzdelikt

    • Local data, 1170

  • Distribution

    • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts, 391

  • Distribution agreement

    • Licence contract, 1147

  • Distribution contracts

    • Concept, 391

    • Conflict rules, 394

    • Contracts, type, 394

  • Distributive connecting factor

    • Connecting factor, 448

  • Divorce

    • Availability, 543

    • Belarus, 1903

    • Brussels IIa Regulation, 229, 230, 231, 233, 236, 546, 547, 548, 549, 551, 552, 553

    • Canada, 1954, 1957

    • Chile, 1965, 1968

    • Divorce and personal separation, 543

    • Ecuador, 2049

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 699, 703

    • Interreligious law, 1020, 1021, 1023, 1024, 1026

    • Ireland, 2188

    • Italy, 2213

    • Jurisdiction, 232

    • Marriage, 543, 549, 551, 554, 1227

    • Matrimonial property, 550, 1235, 1237, 1239

    • Meaning, 543

    • Recognition of foreign decrees, 550

    • Recognition, 545

    • Rome III Regulation (divorce), 229, 546, 549, 550, 553, 1574

    • Same-sex marriage, 543, 549, 551, 553, 554

    • Slovakia, 2501

    • South Africa, 2518, 2521

    • Sweden, 2540, 2544, 2546

  • Divorce and personal separation, 543

    • Applicable law, 548

    • Brussels IIa Regulation, 546, 549

    • Concepts and differences in substantive law, 543

    • Connecting factor, 445, 447, 448

    • Divorce industry, 545

    • European legal instruments, 547, 549, 551

    • European regulation, 545

    • Forum (and law) shopping, 544, 545, 546, 549, 553

    • GEDIP, 546, 841

    • Greece, 547, 2123

    • Historical development, 544

    • International conventions, 544

    • International legal instruments, 547, 549, 551

    • Jurisdiction, 546

    • Legal sources, 544

    • Lex fori, 1109

    • Migratory divorce, 545

    • National applicable law, 548

    • National law, 546, 550

    • National legal sources, 544

    • Peru, 2416

    • Recognition of foreign decrees, 550

    • Recognition of foreign judgments, 544

  • Divorce and separation rates

    • Child abduction, 298

  • Doctrinal writings

    • Albania, 1857

    • Argentina, 1871

    • Belarus, 1898

    • Belgium, 1911

    • Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1923

    • Brazil, 1931

    • Canada, 1951

    • China, 1973

    • Colombia, 1982

    • Croatia, 1993

    • Czech Republic, 2010

    • Denmark, 2024

    • Ecuador, 2044

    • Egypt, 2055

    • Estonia, 2065

    • Finland, 2073

    • France, 2082

    • Germany, 2103

    • Ghana, 2113

    • Hong Kong, SAR of China, 2131

    • Hungary, 2140

    • Iceland, 2150

    • India, 2157

    • Indonesia, 2165

    • Iran, 2176

    • Ireland, 2184

    • Israel, 2194

    • Japan, 2220

    • Kazakhstan, 2235

    • Korea, 2244

    • Latvia, 2256

    • Lebanon, 2265

    • Liechtenstein, 2280

    • Lithuania, 2289

    • Macau, SAR of China, 2308

    • Macedonia, FYR, 2318

    • Malta, 2327

    • Mexico, 2337

    • Montenegro, 2347

    • Netherlands, 2358

    • New Zealand, 2370

    • Nigeria, 2379

    • Norway, 2389

    • Paraguay, 2400

    • Poland, 2424

    • Portugal, 2435

    • Romania, 2444

    • Russian Federation, 2455

    • Serbia, 2473

    • Singapore, 2484

    • Slovakia, 2495

    • Slovenia, 2504

    • South Africa, 2515

    • Spain, 2527

    • Sweden, 2537

    • Switzerland, 2550

    • Taiwan, 2560

    • Thailand, 2570

    • Tunisia, 2583

    • Turkey, 2593

    • Ukraine, 2605

    • United Kingdom, 2614

    • Uruguay, 2629

    • USA, 2639

    • Venezuela, 2650

    • Vietnam, 2660

  • Doctrine

    • Bulgaria, 1939, 1942

    • Chile, 1962

  • Doctrine of conflict interests

    • Nationality, 1293

  • Document

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1495, 1496

  • Document of title

    • Bill of lading, 193, 194, 195

    • Property and proprietary rights, 1434

    • Sea waybills and other transport documents, 1617

  • Domain names

    • Internet, jurisdiction, 991, 995

    • Online dispute resolution, 1316, 1317

    • WIPO and private international law, 1842

  • Domestic companies

    • Companies, 407, 410

  • Domestic law

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1324, 1325, 1327, 1328, 1329

  • Domestic partner

    • Registered partnerships, 1505

  • Domicile

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 51, 54

    • Australia, 1882

    • British Empire, 555

    • Capacity and emancipation, 251, 253

    • CIDIP, 328

    • CIEC/ICCS (International Commission on Civil Status), 333, 335

    • Connecting factor, 442, 449, 450, 555, 556

    • Divorce and personal separation, 544, 547, 550

    • Greece, 2120, 2127

    • Jurisdiction, limits under international law, 1052, 1053, 1055

    • Kahn, Franz, 1059, 1062

    • Marriage, 18, 1229, 1230, 1231, 1232, 1233

    • Matrimonial property, 51

    • Nationality, 15, 17, 1290, 1292, 1295, 1296, 1298, 1299

    • Personal status, 1348

    • Private international law, methods of, 1403

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1503

    • Restatement (First and Second) of Conflict of Laws, 1551

    • Social protection and private international law, 1649

    • Switzerland, 2551, 2553, 2555, 2556

  • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment, 3, 15, 17, 555

    • Adoption, 15, 17

    • Aircraft operator, 42

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 60

    • Connecting factor, 556

    • Dicey, Albert Venn, 529

    • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment

  • Domicile principle

    • Bustamante, Antonio Sánchez de, 245, 247

    • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment

      • Connecting factor, 558

  • Dominant position, abuse

    • Competition law (antitrust), 425

  • Dominican Republic, 2036

    • Applicable law, 2037, 2041

    • Application of foreign law, 2042

    • Arbitration, 2040

    • Background to PILA, 2039

    • Bilateral agreements, 2039

    • Bustamante Code, 2038

    • Capacity, 2042

    • Case-law, 2038

    • Choice of law, 2037, 2042

    • CIDIP, 2039

    • Civil Code, 2037

    • Civil procedure, 2037

    • Effect of PILA, 2043

    • Exclusive jurisdiction, 2041

    • Exempt matters, 2040

    • France, 2038

    • General jurisdiction, 2041

    • Goals of PILA, 2040

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 2039

    • Incomplete system to modern codification, 2036

    • International conventions, 2038

    • Jurisdiction, 2041

    • Multilateral agreements, 2039

    • Multiple defendants, 2041

    • New PILA, 2039

    • Obligations, 2037, 2041, 2042

    • Personal rights, 2042

    • PILA structure and common provisions, 2040

    • PILA, 2036

    • Property, 2037, 2041

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 2042

    • Special jurisdiction, 2041

    • Succession, 2037, 2038, 2042

    • Tourism, 2040

    • Uncertainty, 2037

  • Donation, 561

    • Assets other than land, 563

    • Classification (characterization), 561

    • Connecting factor, 563

    • Contractual obligations, 561

    • Creditor protection, 565

    • Delimitation to other legal institutions, 561

    • Family law, 562, 564

    • Fiduciary duties of donor, 565

    • Formal requirements, 563

    • Foundations and trusts, 563

    • Gratuitous transfers, 562

    • Insolvency, 565

    • Jurisdiction, 561

    • Land, 563

    • Mandatory provisions, 565

    • Mortis causa, 562

    • Notion, 561

    • Property and proprietary rights, 565

    • Restrictions in interest of third parties, 564

    • Revocation, 562, 563

    • Special forms, 562

    • Succession law, 562, 564

    • Trade/profession, in, 563

  • Double actionability (rule)

    • Australia, 1883

    • Choice of law, 319

    • Personality rights, 1355

  • Double renvoi

    • Renvoi, 1538

  • Double taxation

    • Economic effects, 567

    • Economic, 567

    • International, See International double taxation

    • Legal, 567

    • Methods for prevention, 568

    • Potential, 567

    • Prevention, 567

  • Double taxation treaties, 566

    • Arbitration, 573

    • Assignment of the right to tax, 571

    • Bilateral regulation, 569

    • Common misapprehensions, 567

    • Constitutionality of treaty, 574

    • Content, 570

    • Crediting method, 568

    • DTT Policy, 574

    • Exemption method, 568

    • Germany, 1699, 1701, 1699, 1701

    • Information exchange, 573

    • Interpretation, 569

    • Legal nature, 569

    • Methods, 568

    • Model agreements, 1700

    • Multilateral regulation, 569

    • Mutual agreement procedures, 573

    • Non-discrimination, 573

    • Permanent establishment, 569

    • Procedural matters, 573

    • Scope of application, 570

    • Structure, 570

    • Taxation, international, 571, 1696, 1697, 1701

    • Temporal scope, 570

    • Territorial scope, 570

    • Treaty override, 573

    • Types of taxes, 570

    • Unilateral regulation, 568

  • Draft Common Frame of Reference

    • Estoppel, 680

  • Drawee

    • Bill of exchange, 187, 188, 191

    • Cheques, 295, 296

  • Drawer

    • Bill of exchange, 187

    • Cheques, 296

  • Driving licences

    • Recognition of administrative acts, 1491, 1492

  • Droit acquis

    • GEDIP, 843

    • Vested rights theory, 1813

  • Droit commun législatif

    • Rabel, Ernst, 1462

  • Droit d’aubaine

    • Aliens law (Condition des étrangers, Fremdenrecht), 56

  • Due process

    • Constitutional law and private international law, 455

    • USA, 2641

  • Dumoulin, Charles

    • Mancini, Pasquale Stanislao, 1197

    • Matrimonial property, 1236

    • Private international law, history of, 1393

  • Dutch school

    • Comity, 382, 383

    • Huber, Ulrik, 876, 879

  • Duty to recognize

    • Trust, 1754, 1755, 1756, 1758

  • East Germany

    • States, failed and non-recognized, 1655, 1656

  • Eastern Europe

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1326

  • eBL (Electronic bills of lading), 201

  • ECC-Net

    • Online dispute resolution, 1319

  • E-commerce. See Electronic commerce

  • E-Commerce Directive

    • Aims, 1002

    • Choice of law, 1002

    • Electronic commerce, 596

    • European Union and private international law, 693

    • Framework, 1001

    • Freedom to provide services, 596

    • Harmonization, 1001

    • Internet, liability, 1000

    • Limitations of liability, 1001

    • Mutual recognition, 1002

    • Vested rights theory, 1817

  • Economic analysis

    • Concepts, 575

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 575

    • Game theory and private international law, 830

  • Economic analysis and private international law, 575

    • Characteristic performance, 581

    • Classical school, 577

    • Coase Theorem, 578

    • Concepts of economic analysis of law, 575

    • Conceptual characteristics, 577

    • Consumer protection, 583

    • Current state, 580

    • Development, 575

    • Economic models of human behaviour, 575

    • Effects, 577

    • Efficiency, 576

    • Individuals as relevant actors, 578

    • Market failure, 579

    • Normative agenda, 578

    • Party autonomy, 580

    • Place of damage/injury, 582

    • Political school, 577

    • Principle of the closest connection, 581

    • Regulatory competition, 579

    • States as relevant actors, 579

    • Theoretical background, 575

    • Transaction costs, 578

  • Economic court

    • Belarus, 1896

  • Economic freedom

    • Country of origin rule, 479, 480

    • Freedom of establishment/persons (European Union) and private international law, 807

  • Economic sanctions

    • Delimitation, 603

    • Embargo, 96, 600

    • EU law, 601

    • Extraterritoriality, 602

    • Property and proprietary rights, and, 602

    • Security Council, 601

    • Unilateral rules, 603

  • Economic theory

    • Private international law, foundations, 1389

  • Ecuador, 2043

    • Acts of voluntary jurisdiction, 2048

    • Adoption, 2049

    • Alternative forum, 2047

    • Applicable law, 2048

    • Arbitration, 2045

    • Bankruptcy proceedings, 2048

    • Bustamante Code, 2043

    • Calvo doctrine, 2046

    • Capacity, 2048

    • Case-law, 2044, 2046

    • Choice of law, 2045

    • Colombia, 1985

    • Contract law in absence of agreement, 2050

    • Corporations, 2046

    • Defendant forum, 2047

    • Divorce, 2049

    • Doctrinal writings, 2044

    • Domestic sources of law, 2044

    • Domicile, 2048

    • Enforcement of foreign judicial and arbitral decisions, 2051

    • Enforcement of international arbitral awards, 2052

    • Evidence, 2051

    • Family matters, 2049

    • Forums selected by parties, 2045

    • General forums, 2045

    • In rem actions, 2048

    • Inheritance proceedings, 2048

    • Institutional sources of law, 2044

    • International defences, 2052

    • International judicial competence, 2045

    • Jurisdiction, 2045

    • Major legislation, 2043

    • Marriage, 2049

    • Nationality, 2048

    • Obligations, 2050

    • Party autonomy, 2050

    • Paternity and child support, 2049

    • Persons, 2048

    • Procedural acts, 2051

    • Property, 2051

    • Recognition and enforcement of judgments, 2052

    • Regional conventions, 2044

    • Sources of private international law, 2043

    • Special forum, 2048

    • Succession, 2049

    • Tacit submission, 2047

  • Edict of Thessalonica

    • Private international law, history of, 1392

  • EEA-Agreement

    • Freedom of establishment/persons (European Union) and private international law, 808

  • EEJ-Net

    • Online dispute resolution, 1319

  • Effective judicial protection

    • Embargo, 602

  • Effectiveness

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1495, 1496

  • Effects of marriage

    • Marriage, 1233

  • Effects principle

    • Competition law (antitrust), 427, 428, 429, 431, 432

  • Efficiency

    • Better law approach, 182, 183

    • Economic analysis and private international law, 576

  • EFTA

    • West Balkan Convention, 1832

  • EGBG

    • Names of individuals, 1284

  • EGBGB

    • Germany, 2101, 2102, 2103

    • Kahn, Franz, 1057, 1058

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 1065, 1066, 1070

  • Egypt, 2053

    • Administration of private international law, 2056

    • Alimony, 2059

    • Application of foreign law, 2057

    • Arbitration, 2060

    • Capacity, 2058

    • Case-law, 2055

    • Choice of law, 2057

    • Civil procedure, 2053

    • Classification (characterization), 2057

    • Corporations, 2058

    • Courts, 2056

    • Doctrinal writings, 2055

    • Family matters, 2059

    • Geneva Conventions, 2054

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 2054

    • Hague Conventions, 2054

    • History and development of private international law, 2055

    • Human rights, 2054

    • Intellectual property, 2058

    • International conventions, 2053

    • Interreligious law, 1023, 1024, 2059

    • Jurisdiction, 2056

    • Major legislation, 2053

    • Marriage, 2059

    • Matters of personal status, 2054, 2055, 2059

    • Obligations, 2058

    • Property, 2058

    • Public policy, 2055, 2057

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, 2060

    • Sources of private international law, 2053

    • Succession, 2059

    • Torts, 2058

    • United Nations Conventions, 2054

  • Ehrenzweig, Albert A, 584

    • Batiffol, Henry, 167

    • Datum theory, 588, 589

    • International, regional and interstate conflicts law, 589

    • Lex fori, 49, 586, 587, 589, 590, 592, 1107

    • Life, 584

    • Local data, 585, 589, 591, 1166

    • Moral data, 585, 589, 591

    • National codifications, 590

    • Private international law, contribution to, 585

    • Private international law, foundations, 1384

    • Private international law, influence on, 589

    • Restatement, 586

    • Separation of interstate from international conflicts law, 587

    • Superlaw, EU Regulations as, 589

    • Work, 584

  • Eigenwechsel

    • Bill of exchange, 188

  • Eingriffsnormen

    • Local data, 1167

  • Electronic commerce, 592

    • Australia, 595

    • China, 599

    • Choice of forum, 594

    • Choice of law, 594

    • Click-wrap agreements, 594

    • Coverage, 592

    • Definition, 592

    • European law, 596

    • Geolocation technologies, 597

    • Historical development, 592

    • International initiatives, 595

    • Internet, jurisdiction, 990, 991, 993, 994

    • National law, 593

    • Online dispute resolution, 1315

    • Private international law, and, 593

    • Technology-neutral law, 595, 598

    • UNCITRAL, 1759, 1761, 1763

    • USA, 594

  • Emancipation

    • Capacity and emancipation, 251

  • Embargo, 599

    • Analytical perspectives, 600

    • Authority of organizations, 601

    • Bonds and loans, 217

    • Categories, 600

    • Contractual consequences, 604

    • Definition, 599

    • Due process, 602

    • EU law, 601

    • Extraterritoriality, 602

    • Forum state, 603

    • Legal analysis, 600

    • Lex contractus, 604

    • Limits, 602

    • Overriding mandatory provision, as, 603

    • Preferential trade agreements, 600

    • Private international law perspective, 603

    • Public international law, 600

    • Scope of application, 603

    • Security Council, 601

    • Third country, 605

  • Empirical legal research

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 172, 174, 175

  • Employee participation

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 621

  • Employment

    • Social protection and private international law, 1650

  • Employment, collective bargaining, 606

    • Choice of law, 608

    • Collective agreement, 606

    • Collective/individual contracts, 609

    • Definition, 607

    • Germany, 606

    • ILO Conventions, 607

    • International changes, 607

    • International regulatory framework, 607

    • Japan, 606

    • Jurisdiction, 608

    • Regulating posted workers, 611

    • Transnational collective bargaining, 613

    • Transnational company level, 613

    • USA, 606

  • Employment contracts

    • Agency and authority of agents, 29

    • Antidiscrimination, 71, 74, 78

    • Austria, 621

    • Choice of forum and submission to jurisdiction, 306

    • Country where employer is domiciled, 626

    • Employment, collective bargaining, 609, 613, 614

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 617, 619

    • Employment contracts, jurisdiction, 625, 626

    • Employment, posting of workers, 651

    • Germany, 621

    • Habitual workplace, 618

    • Judicial annulment, 631

    • Lex loci laboris, 1560

    • Netherlands, 621, 2361

    • Other contracts, and, 629

    • Place of employer’s establishment, 619

    • Place of engaging business, 628

    • Place of work, 627, 630

    • Public policy (ordre public), 1459

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 29, 1560

    • Social protection and private international law, 1648

  • Employment contracts, applicable law, 74, 615, 619

    • Antidiscrimination, 72, 621

    • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation), 619

    • Choice-of-law agreements, 617

    • Classification (Characterization), 621

    • CLIP, 371

    • Conflict rules, 616

    • Connecting factors, 617

    • Engaging business, 620

    • Escape clause, 620

    • EU model, 616

    • Habitual workplace, 618

    • Lex contractus, scope, 621

    • Non-EU jurisdictions, 617

    • Overriding mandatory provisions, 622

    • Protection of weaker party, 616

    • Public policy dimension, 615

    • Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 617, 619, 620, 622, 623, 624

    • USA, 618

  • Employment contracts, individual

    • Flag, 758

  • Employment contracts, jurisdiction, 78, 624

    • Application (and enforcement) of foreign law, 627

    • Application of foreign law, 627

    • Choice-of-court agreements, 631

    • Choice-of-law agreements, 631

    • Claims brought by employees, 625

    • Claims brought by employer, 630

    • Country where employer is domiciled, 626

    • Employee’s country of domicile, 629, 630

    • Forum (and law) shopping, 631

    • Forum selection clauses, 631

    • Legislative developments, 625

    • Place of engaging business, 628

    • Place of work, 627, 630

    • Posted workers, 629

    • Protection of employees, 624

    • Structure, 625

  • Employment, industrial disputes, 632

    • Choice of law, 635

    • EU limitations on right to take industrial action, 636

    • International regulatory framework, 634

    • Jurisdiction, 635

    • Legal terminology, 633

    • Lex loci actus, 638

    • Regulatory framework, 633

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 638

    • Settling, 633

    • United Kingdom, 633

  • Employment, maritime, 641

    • Background, 641

    • Collective bargaining, 648

    • Concept, 641

    • Conflict of laws, 647

    • Current regulation, 643

    • Flags of convenience, 643

    • Forum (and law) shopping, 647, 649

    • Historical development, 642

    • Individual employment contracts, 644

    • Industrial action, 649

    • Information, consultation and participation rights, 649

    • International jurisdiction, 644

    • Manning agencies, 642

    • Place of employer’s establishment, 620

    • Place of engaging business, 645, 646, 647

    • Place of work, 645, 646, 647

    • Private international law and collective labour relations, 648

    • Special relationship, 641

    • Uniform law, 643

    • Unlawful industrial action, 649

  • Employment law

    • Commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts, 391, 393, 394, 397

    • Public policy dimension, 615

  • Employment, posting of workers, 650

    • Bilateral conflict rules, 656

    • Cross-border, 650

    • Economic freedom v protection of workers, 651

    • EU fundamental freedoms, 652

    • Free movement of workers, 652

    • Freedom to provide services, 652

    • Host state, possible responses, 650

    • Laval, 655

    • Posted Workers Directive, 653

    • Social dumping, 650

    • Unilateral conflict rules, 656

  • Endowment effect

    • Behavioural economics and private international law, 173, 177

  • Energy Charter Treaty

    • Arbitration, investment, 97

  • Enforceability

    • European Account Preservation Order Regulation, 685

  • Enforcement

    • Anti-suit injunctions, 81

    • Arbitration, recognition of awards, 118

    • Arrest of vessels, 135

    • CLIP, 365, 372

    • Cross-border effects of enforcement measures, 523

    • Debt recovery, cross-border, 65, 520, 682

    • England, 522

    • European Account Preservation Order Regulation, 682, 685

    • France, 522

    • German-speaking states, 520

    • Immunity, 897, 899

    • Injunction, 925

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments (civil law), 1471

    • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments (common law), 1479

    • Recognition of legal situations evidenced by documents, 1500

    • Remedies, 1533, 1536

  • Enforcement (intellectual property)

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 964, 967, 968, 969

    • TRIPS, 1751

  • Enforcement jurisdiction

    • Competition law (antitrust), 429

    • Jurisdiction, limits under international law, 1052

  • Enforcement of foreign judgments

    • Reciprocity, 1467, 1470

  • Enforcement proceedings

    • Proceedings, law governing, 1411

  • Enforcement without declaration of enforceability

    • Payment Order Regulation, 1344

  • Engineer’s contract

    • Construction contracts, 461

  • England and Wales

    • Formal requirements and validity, 788

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1325, 1326

    • United Kingdom, 2612

  • Enhanced cooperation

    • Rome III Regulation (divorce), 546, 1574

  • Environmental authorisations

    • Environmental liability, 666

    • Recognition of administrative acts, 1493

  • Environmental damage

    • Environmental liability, 657, 661

    • Prevention, 662

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 658, 661, 663, 1569

    • Uniform substantive law, 666

  • Environmental liability, 657

    • Background, 657

    • Characterization of property-based claims, 662

    • Current regulation, 659

    • Derogation, 665

    • Environment damage, 661

    • Fault-based liability, 659, 664

    • Harmonization, 667

    • Historical development, 658

    • Legal sources, other, 666

    • Lex loci actus, 659, 665

    • Lex loci damni, 659, 660, 663

    • Lex loci delicti, 658

    • Maritime law (uniform law), 1214

    • Outline, 657

    • Overriding mandatory provisions, 666

    • Prevention of environmental damage, 662

    • Public policy, 666

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 660, 665, 1569

    • Rules of safety and conduct, 665

    • Strict liability, 659, 663, 664

    • Territorial connecting factor, 663

    • Territorial sovereignty, areas not subject to, 664

    • Torts, 658, 1709, 1715

    • Violations of the environment, 660

  • Equal protection of the laws (US Constitution)

    • Interest and policy analysis in private international law, 986

  • Equal treatment

    • Antidiscrimination, 71, 72, 74, 75, 78

    • Uniform substantive law and private international law, 1773

  • Equal treatment of domestic and foreign law

    • Portugal, 2435

  • Equal treatment of men and women

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 1066

    • Nationality, 1291, 1296

  • Equality

    • Human rights and private international law, 882, 883, 884

    • Nationality, 1296

  • Equity

    • Anti-suit injunctions, 80, 82

    • Estoppel, 676

    • Injunction, 924, 928

    • Trust, 1753, 1757

  • Equivalence

    • Recognition of administrative acts, 1486, 1489, 1490, 1493

    • Substitution, 1677

  • Erfolgsort

    • Personality rights, 1352

  • Erie Doctrine

    • Forum (and law) shopping, 789

  • Escape clause, 668

    • Adults, protection of, 26, 27

    • Carriage of goods by sea, 264, 268

    • Circumstances as a whole, 669

    • Closer connection, 672

    • Concept, 668

    • Connecting factor, 442, 451, 668, 671, 672

    • Consumer contract, 668

    • Contracts, 669

    • Discrimination, 73

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 620, 668, 669, 671

    • Employment, industrial disputes, 639

    • Employment, maritime, 647, 648, 649

    • European Court of Justice, 671

    • European Union, 670

    • Exception, 671

    • Expert liability, 724

    • Extent, 670

    • Flexibility, 668

    • Function, 668

    • Germany, 673

    • Habitual residence, 668, 669, 670

    • Habitual workplace, 671

    • Hiring branch of employer, 671

    • Historical development, 669

    • Intellectual property, applicable law, 968

    • Italy, 669

    • Italy, 2212

    • Kegel, Gerhard, 1069

    • Local data, 1167

    • Macedonia, FYR, 2321

    • Negotiorum gestio, 1304

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1327

    • Outlook, 674

    • Outside European Union, 670

    • Rome Convention and Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 668, 669, 671, 672, 673, 1557, 1560

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 1568

    • Rule, 671

    • Sales contract, 673

    • Serbia, 2476

    • Structure, 671

    • Succession, 670, 672, 674, 1686

    • Tort/delict, 668, 673

    • Unitary conflict rule, 671

    • Unjust enrichment (restitution), 1812

    • Usage, 668

  • Essential validity

    • Marriage, 1229

  • Establishment

    • Domicile, habitual residence and establishment

      • Connecting factor, 555

    • Insolvency, applicable law, 934, 938

    • Insolvency, jurisdiction and vis attractiva, 950

  • Establishment of companies

    • Companies, 409, 410

    • Evasion of laws (fraus legis), 703

  • Estonia, 2061

    • Administration of private international law, 2065

    • Application and enforcement of foreign law, 2066

    • Arbitration, 2070

    • Bilateral agreements, 2063

    • Case-law, 2064

    • Choice of law, 2068

    • Civil procedure, 2062

    • Contractual obligations, 2069

    • Corporations, 2068, 2070

    • Courts and non-judicial authorities, 2065

    • Doctrinal writings, 2065

    • Estonia-Russian Convention, 2064

    • Family matters, 2067, 2069

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law, 2063

    • Hague Conventions, 2063

    • History of private international law, 2065

    • Independence, 2065

    • Intellectual property, 2067, 2069

    • International conventions, 2062

    • International customary law, 2064

    • Jurisdiction, 2067

    • Lex fori, 2062

    • Major legislation, 2061

    • Marriage, 2068

    • Non-contractual obligations, 2069

    • Obligations, 2067, 2069

    • PILA, 2062

    • Property, 2067, 2069

    • Public policy, 2066, 2068

    • Significance of EU private international law, 2064

    • Sources of private international law, 2061

    • Succession, 2068, 2069

    • United Nations Conventions, 2064

  • Estoppel, 674

    • Arbitration clauses, 677

    • Australia, 675

    • Choice of law, 678

    • CISG, 678

    • Common European Sales Law, 680

    • Concept, 674

    • Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), 680

    • Emergence, 678

    • EU law, 677

    • European contract law, 679

    • Forum selection clause, 677

    • France, 677

    • Good faith and fair dealing, 678, 679

    • Good faith, 676

    • Historical development, 674

    • Inconsistent behaviour, 678, 679

    • International contract law, 678

    • International law, 676

    • Legitimate expectations, 676, 677

    • Lex mercatoria, 675, 678

    • Other concepts, and, 676

    • Prescription, 676, 1368, 1374

    • Principles of European Contract Law (PECL), 680

    • Private international law, and, 677

    • Reasonable expectations, 676

    • Reliance, 676

    • Substance and procedure, 1671

    • Types, 675

    • Unconscionability, 676

    • UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts, 679

    • United Kingdom, 675

    • USA, 675

    • Venire contra factum proprium, 676

    • Waiver, 676

  • EU fundamental freedoms

    • Employment, posting of workers, 651, 652, 656

  • EU law (Regulations and Directives)

    • Austria, 1888

    • European Union and private international law, 694

    • Unilateralism, 1789

  • EU legislation

    • Consumer contracts, 470

    • Country of origin rule, 481

    • Insurance contracts, 956

  • EU private international law. see European private international law)

  • EU/US comparison of collective redress

    • Collective redress, 373, 374, 375

  • Eurasian Economic Community

    • Kazakhstan, 2233

    • Russian Federation, 2454

  • Euro

    • Money and currency, 1255, 1257

  • Eurobonds

    • Bonds and loans, 216

  • European Account Preservation Order Regulation

    • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation), 225

    • Civil and commercial matters, 348

  • European Account Preservation Order Regulation

    • Attachment of bank accounts, 681

  • European Account Preservation Order (EAPO)

    • Brussels I Regulation (recast), and, 683, 685

    • Creation, 683

    • Debt recovery, cross-border, 524

    • Denmark, 683

    • European Account Preservation Order Regulation, 682

    • Ireland, 683

    • Jurisdiction, 684

    • Maintenance obligations, 683

    • Procedure, 684, 685

    • Public policy, 686

    • Recognition and enforcement, 685

    • Remedies, 686

    • Review, 686

    • Scope, 683

    • Significance, 686

    • Structure, 684

    • Switzerland, 684

    • United Kingdom, 683

  • European Arbitration Convention, 123

  • European Atomic Energy Community

    • European Union and private international law, 688

  • European basic freedoms

    • Freedom of establishment/persons (European Union) and private international law, 811

    • Recognition of administrative acts, 1489, 1490

  • European Blocking Regulation, 210, 213

  • European Certificate of Succession

    • Rome IV Regulation (succession), 1586

    • Succession, 1683, 1691

  • European Child Custody Convention, 301

    • Guardianship, custody and parental responsibility, 867

  • European Choice of Law Revolution

    • Connecting factor, 451

  • European citizenship

    • Country of origin rule, 481

    • European Union and private international law, 695

    • Personal status, 1349

  • European Coal and Steel Community

    • European Union and private international law, 687

  • European Commission

    • Optional (facultative) choice of law, 1326, 1327

  • European contract law

    • Contracts between traders and consumers, 281

    • Contracts between traders, 281

    • Estoppel, 679

    • Justification for unification, 281

    • Private international law, and, 282

    • Reform, 278

  • European Convention on Human Rights

    • Constitutional law and private international law, 455, 456

    • Human rights and private international law, 880, 884, 885, 886

    • Lease contracts and tenancies, 1080

    • Names of individuals, 1283

    • Personality rights, 1357

  • European Court of Human Rights

    • GEDIP, 836

    • Human rights and private international law, 881, 882, 885, 886

  • European Court of Justice

    • Arrest of vessels, 141

    • Bill of lading, 200

    • Composition, 484

    • Conflict court, as, 484

    • Constitutional relevance of EU law, 486

    • Court of Justice of the European Union, 483

    • Direct applicability, 485

    • Direct effect, 485, 486, 487, 488

    • Employment contracts, applicable law, 619, 620, 623, 624

    • Employment contracts, jurisdiction, 626, 627, 628, 629

    • Employment, posting of workers, 652, 654, 655

    • Escape clause, 671

    • EU and national law, 486

    • Formation, 483

    • Horizontal perspective, 490

    • Interpretation, autonomous, 1007, 1011, 1014

    • Jurisdiction, 487

    • Languages used, 484

    • Names of individuals, 1285

    • Posted Workers Directive, 654

    • Principles of interpretation, 360

    • Private international and procedural law, 487

    • Public international law, 487

    • Reference procedure, 488, 489

    • Role, 485

    • Specialization, need for, 489

  • European Economic Area

    • Liechtenstein, 2278

  • European Enforcement Title

    • Brussels IIa Regulation, 234

  • European Group for Private International Law

    • GEDIP, 835

  • European Legal Aid Directive, 1091

    • Aim, 1091

    • Alternative dispute resolution, 1093

    • Application, 1091

    • Authentic instruments, 1093

    • Background, 1091

    • Commission report, 1094

    • Cross-border disputes, 1091, 1092

    • Denmark, 1091

    • Eligibility criteria, 1093

    • Extrajudicial procedures, 1093

    • Legal aid, 1090

    • Matters covered, 1092

    • Minimum harmonization, 1094

    • Minimum standards, 1092

    • Natural person, 1092

    • Outlook, 1093

    • Procedure, 1093

    • Scope, 1092

    • Standard forms, 1091

    • Sufficient resources, 1091

  • European Order for Payment

    • Payment Order Regulation, 683, 1342

    • Substitution, 1681

  • European Patent Court

    • Brussels I (Convention and Regulation), 227

  • European Patent Package

    • Unitary intellectual property rights and jurisdiction, 1794

  • European private international law

    • Austria, 1888

    • Lease contracts and tenancies, 1081

    • Malta, 2326, 2327

    • Rome I Regulation (contractual obligations), 473, 474, 475, 687

    • Rome II Regulation (non-contractual obligations), 473, 474, 475, 1562, 1564, 1573

    • Rome III Regulation (divorce), 1579

    • Rome IV Regulation (succession), 1584, 1588

    • Succession, 1683

  • European Service Regulation

    • Brussels I Regulation, 226

  • European Single Market

    • Cultural objects, protection of, 502

  • European Small Claims Procedure

    • Small Claims Regulation

  • European Succession Regulation

    • Authentic acts, 1691

    • Brussels I Regulation, 225

    • Choice of law, 1688

    • Escape clause, 1686

    • Habitual residence, 1684

    • Party autonomy, 1686

    • Renvoi, 1685

    • Rome IV Regulation (succession), 10, 1580

    • Succession, 1683

  • European Union

    • Albania, 1856

    • Area of freedom, security and justice, 690

    • Belgium, 1910

    • Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1922

    • Brussels and Rome Convention, 689

    • Croatia, 1993

    • Czech Republic, 2009

    • Denmark, 2023

    • Economic sanctions, 601

    • Electronic commerce, 596

    • Estoni