Encyclopedia of Law and Economics
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Encyclopedia of Law and Economics

Edited by Gerrit De Geest

The second, expanded edition of the acclaimed Encyclopedia represents a major update of the most authoritative reference work in the field of law and economics and the nine print volumes are now released online as a single integrated product. The Encyclopedia provides balanced and comprehensive coverage of the major domain in law and economics, including: criminal law, regulation, property law, contract law, tort law, labor and employment law, antitrust law, procedural law, and the production of legal rules. Each theme or volume is overseen by a leading scholar and each of the 166 entries is prepared by an expert in the field, providing an in-depth and authoritative overview of the individual topic, combined with an exhaustive bibliography, allowing users to access and filter the entire corpus of literature in law and economics. As with the print edition, the Encyclopedia is unique in serving both as an entry point and a platform for advanced research. The online edition is enhanced with Elgaronline’s powerful search tools, facilitating the search for key terms across the entire Encyclopedia, whilst the browse function allows users to move seamlessly between the volumes. These elements combine to create a powerful research tool for any researcher or scholar in the field of law and economics.
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Index: Index

[In: Volume 3, Nuno Garoupa (ed) Criminal Law and Economics]

  • Aalder, M. 337

  • Abbink, K. 283

  • Abbot, C. 324, 333, 335, 338

  • Aboody, David 242

  • Abrahamse, A. 407

  • acquittals, mistaken see under errors

  • Adelstein, Richard 127, 133, 134

  • administrative fines see under fines

  • adversarial systems 71, 146, 157, 165

  • Afghanistan 384, 385, 387

  • agents, principals and see principal-agent

  • Aghion, P. 61, 62

  • Agrawal, Aunp 246

  • Ainslie, G. 424

  • Albrecht, Hans Jorg 149

  • alcohol 28, 115, 260, 421

  • Alexander, Cindy 223, 239

  • Allen, T. 82

  • Allingham M. 290, 291, 294300, 3023, 3068

  • Alm, J. 298, 299, 304

  • Al-Nowaihi A. 298

  • Alpizar, F. 338

  • Alschuler, Albert 149, 1534, 156, 158, 160, 161, 164

  • Al-Yamamah agreement 284

  • Anderson, David 182, 415

  • Anderson, P. 299

  • Andreoni, J. 290, 307, 313

  • Andvig, J.C. 273

  • Anti-terrorism Crime and Security Act (2001) 3989

  • antitrust 60, 61, 62, 934, 385

  • Antonovics, K. 429

  • Aoki, M. 63

  • appeals 13940, 164, 178, 2012

  • Aranson, P. 105

  • Arend, A.C. 380

  • Arlen, Jennifer 234, 237, 242, 249, 332, 333, 339

  • arms and guns 82, 212, 258, 260, 265, 266, 398

  • Arya, Anil 244

  • Ashe v Swenson (1970) 210

  • Ashurst Report (European Commission) 69, 80

  • Ashworth, A. 100, 322

  • Asia 69

  • assets see wealth

  • Attempt at an Analysis of Smuggling, An (Beccaria) 290

  • Aubert, C. 79, 80, 235

  • audits 292, 296, 299, 302, 3056, 30710, 311, 450

  • auditors 33, 60, 233, 235, 244, 247, 354

  • availability heuristic see under behavioural criminal law

  • Avio, Kenneth 210

  • Aviram, A. 427, 430

  • Ayres, I. 98, 106, 134

  • Azabou, M. 274

  • Babbit, C.J. 328, 329

  • Babcock, Linda 165

  • Bac, M. 273, 281

  • BAE Systems 2845

  • Bagenstos, S. 409

  • bail system 134, 153, 154, 162

  • Bail Reform Act (1984) 134

  • Baiman, Stanley 243

  • Baker, L. 406

  • Baker, Scott 156

  • Baldry, J. 304

  • Baldwin, R. 91, 95

  • Bank of America 240

  • Bardach, E. 97

  • Bardhan, P. 272

  • Bar-Gill, Oren 157, 242, 243, 244, 247, 249

  • Barrett, J.J. 329

  • Batasuna 387

  • Bayer, R. 300

  • Beattie, J.M. 145

  • p. 438Bebchuk, Lucian 242, 243, 244, 247

  • Beccaria, C. 1, 290

  • Beck, R.J. 380

  • Beckenstein, Alan 241

  • Becker, G.S. 1

  • behavioural criminal law and economics 40332

    • availability heuristic 4067, 41819

    • behavioural adjustments to deterrence theory 41726

    • behavioural economics, background to 40513

    • cognitive bias 165, 41722, 430

    • control, illusion of 42022

    • criticisms of behavioural literature 41213

    • detection 406, 41718

    • deterrence theory 41317

    • deviations, perfect rationality from 4068

    • fairness 4256

    • finding of systematic mistakes 406

    • framing 408, 420

    • hedonic adaptation 40810, 416

    • hyperbolic discounting 4235

    • overoptimism 406, 41718, 42930

    • pessimism and projection 41920

    • police 428

    • potential criminal offenders, analysis of 41326

    • prosecutors and defendants 42930

    • prospect theory 4078, 4223

    • remembering, patterns of 41012

    • victims 4267

  • Belgium 328, 330, 333

  • Benabou, Roland 244

  • Beneish, Messod 246

  • Benjamini, Y. 298

  • Bentham, J. 1, 64, 76, 290

  • Berk, Richard 215

  • Bernasconi, M. 298

  • Besley, T. 274, 283

  • bias 165, 406, 41722, 42832

  • Bibas, Stephanos 153, 158, 159, 161, 430

  • Bibliography of Law and Economics (Faure) 321

  • Bickel, W.E. 424

  • Bierschbach, R.A. 95

  • Biggar, D. 112, 117

  • Billiet, C.M. 328, 333

  • Birke, Richard 160, 429, 430

  • Bishop, J. 293

  • Bishop, W. 105

  • Bjerk, David 141, 148, 163

  • Black, D. 425

  • Black, T. 210

  • Blackstone, William 103, 114, 177, 179, 206

  • Blockburger v United States (1932) 199, 200, 201

  • Blumberg, Abraham 160

  • Blumenthal, J.A. 409

  • Blumenthal, M. 305

  • Boa, E.D. 280

  • Bohm-Bawerk, Eugen von 63

  • Bordens, Kenneth 156

  • Border, K. 308, 311

  • Bordignon, M. 2978

  • Bose, G. 283

  • Bosnian war crimes 83

  • Bowen, Robert 235

  • Bowers, Josh 154, 158, 424

  • Bowers, W.J. 208, 210

  • Bowles, R.M. 99, 105, 273, 275, 322, 328, 330, 335

  • Boylan, Richard 158

  • Braithwaite, J. 98, 106, 336, 338

  • Branch v Texas (1972) 208

  • Brand, S. 276

  • Brazil 69, 80, 259

  • Breit, W. 68, 74

  • bribery and extortion 446, 94, 206, 222, 271

  • Brickman, P. 40

  • Broadway, R. 311

  • Brokelmann, H. 80

  • Bronsteen, J. 416

  • Brosi, Kathleen 151

  • Brown, R.M. 98

  • Brumm, H.J. 21

  • Buell, S.W. 336

  • Bunt, H.G. van de 338

  • Bureau of Justice Statistics 148

  • Burke, A.S. 429, 430

  • Burns, Natasha 246

  • Burns, R. 427

  • Busch, L.A. 61

  • business purpose doctrine see under tax evasion

  • Cadot, O. 275

  • Cadsby, B. 304, 305

  • Calfee, J.E. 96

  • Call, Andrew 235

  • Cameron, S. 210

  • Canada 66, 69, 339

  • capital punishment 66, 195, 20717

    • brutalization effect 208

    • deterrent, examined as 20716

      • moratorium, impact of 213

      • sensitivity analysis 21416

      • testing for deterrence 21113

    • history 2089

    • terrorism 376, 390, 391

    • see also homicide

  • Capone, Al 262

  • Carney, William 242

  • Carver, T. 259

  • Cassone, Alberto 241

  • causation and loss determination 36971

  • Ceausescu, Nicholae 83

  • Chadha, Sahiba 246

  • Chander, P. 308, 313

  • Chang, J. 273

  • charge-bargaining 1478, 157, 164

  • Chen, Z. 79, 80

  • Chhaochharia, Vidhi 248

  • Chicago v Morales (1999) 206

  • Chicago school of antitrust 69, 74

  • Chicano gangs 261

  • China 75, 79, 185

  • Choi, Stephen 248

  • Chressanthis, G.A. 210

  • Chu, C.Y. 228, 234, 237, 308, 313

  • Church, Thomas 153, 156

  • civil cases 82, 91, 94, 113, 12022, 136, 3578

  • civil law countries 132, 1467, 1656

  • Clark, J.B. 63

  • Classical School 290

  • Clawson, P.L. 260, 263

  • Clay, K. 76

  • Clayton Act (1914) 68, 80

  • Clean Water Act (1972) 83

  • Cloniger, D.O. 210, 211, 213, 217

  • Clotfelter, C. 302

  • Coase, R. 70, 72, 120, 227, 331

  • Coates, D. 409

  • Coates, John 247

  • Cockburn J.S. 145

  • Coffee, John 233, 328

  • Cohen, Mark 221, 223, 276, 331, 3334, 336, 339, 393

  • Cohen, Stanley 153

  • Coke, Edward 177

  • Colander, D. 63

  • Cole, H. 68

  • Columbia 257, 259, 263, 385

  • combined sanctions 910, 19

  • Commission Report on Cocaine and Sentencing Policy 3678

  • Committee on Capital Markets Regulation 247 (2006)

  • common law 63, 11213, 115, 120, 1223, 1456

  • companies see corporate crime

  • competition see antitrust; see under organized crime

  • compliance

    • programmes see under corporate crime

    • tax regimes, with see under tax evasion

  • compulsory prosecution 133, 134, 147, 166

  • p. 440computers and computer crime see under sentencing guidelines

  • conflict of interests 300

  • Congress, United States 134, 242, 285, 361, 404, 427

  • contributory negligence 112, 392

  • convictions, mistaken see under errors

  • cooperation enforcement approach 33640

  • Cooter, R.

    • behavioural criminal law and economics 419, 420, 423, 424

    • criminal procedure 130, 132

    • economics of capital punishment 208

    • environmental crimes 323, 329

    • private enforcement of law 70, 72

  • Core, Robert 246, 247

  • corporate crime and torts 22049, 280, 357, 362, 383

    • equity holdings, effect of 223

    • monitoring see under monitoring

    • nature of 22023

    • sanctions 22336

    • securities fraud 2428

    • see also environmental crimes; terrorism

  • corporate finance and securities see securities

  • Corrado, M.L. 424

  • Correll, J. 428

  • corruption 446, 100, 104, 105, 106, 206, 27186, 394

    • anti-corruption policies 2825

    • corporate crime 222, 235

    • costs 27481

      • anticipation of corruption, in 278, 27981

      • criminal justice system 2789

      • rent-seeking 2767

      • victims 2778

    • definition 2712, 279

    • environmental crimes 337

    • nature 2736

    • organized crime 268

    • political 2812

    • rent-seeking 1868, 1935, 2767

    • tax evasion 31314

    • see also bribery; rent-seeking

  • Cortenraad, W.H.F.M. 325

  • Cory, D.C. 328

  • costs 3, 9, 74 , 104, 132, 134

  • Courage v Crehan (2001) 6970, 73, 80

  • Cover, J.P. 210

  • Covey, R. 430

  • Cowell, F. 290, 291, 297, 299, 300, 306

  • Craswell, R. 96

  • Crawford, C. 427

  • Cremer, H. 308

  • Crime Control Act (1984) 361

  • Crime Control Model 1745

  • crimes 1, 21, 346, 379, 40, 48, 112, 357, 359

    • detecting see detecting offenders

    • economic see tax evasion; sentencing guidelines

    • organized see organized crime

    • prevention see prevention of crime

    • street see street crimes

    • white-collar see white collar crime

    • see also corporate crime; cyber crime; environmental crime; tax evasion; terrorism

  • Criminal Justice Agency, New York City 154

  • criminal justice, economic model see under cyber crime

  • criminal law

    • behavioural see behavioural criminal law and economics

    • procedure see procedure; procedural protections

    • regulation, and see under regulation

    • torts, and see torts

  • Crocker, K. 300

  • Cronshaw, M. 304

  • Crow, Jim 185

  • cruel and unusual punishments see under sanctions; see also fairness

  • cyber crime 34674

    • criminal justice economic model 35861

      • certainty of punishment 359

      • interdependencies, crimes and actors of 361

      • offenders accountable for all costs 3589

      • sanctions 36061

      • sentencing economic crimes, and see sentencing guidelines

    • optimal level and crime control 34758

      • law enforcement and resources 3556

      • mistakes 3568

      • offenders, potential 3513, 356

      • victims, potential 354

  • dangerousness 412, 47, 134

  • Darley, J.M. 414, 415, 416

  • Das-Gupta, A. 298, 312

  • Davis, Michael 224

  • Dawson, Robert 136

  • De Roos, T. 330

  • Dechow, Patricia 246

  • Decker, C. 335

  • Del Monte, A. 279

  • Democracy and Distrust (Ely) 1756

  • democracy-forcing theory 1756

  • Denmark 337

  • Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs 329

  • Department of Homeland Security 396

  • Department of Justice 65, 234, 236, 279, 284, 365

  • Depoorter, B. 80

  • deportation and removal 376, 397, 399

  • Desai, Hemang 246

  • detecting offenders 20, 534, 116, 359, 385, 389

  • deterrence 212, 334, 436, 127, 139, 233, 330, 332

  • deterrence style approach 33640

  • Dezhbakhsh, H. 211, 213, 217

  • Dhami, S. 298

  • Diamond, Douglas 243

  • Diaz v United States (1912) 199, 200

  • Diener, E. 410

  • discretion 42, 43, 95, 99, 106, 1267, 141

  • see also judges; juries; prosecutors

  • discrimination 52, 134, 162, 185, 208, 217, 262, 4289

  • Dixit, Avinash 264

  • Djankov, S. 84

  • Dnes, A. 111, 118, 119

  • Doig, A. 271

  • Donaldson, William 240

  • Donohue, John 183, 216, 217, 429

  • Doob, Anthony 153

  • Dostoevsky, Fyodor 64

  • double jeopardy 115, 122, 172, 178, 197, 199203

  • Drew, K.F. 62

  • drugs 222, 3678, 415, 416, 4245

  • Dubin, J, 302

  • Duborg, R. 276

  • Due Process Model 1745

  • duration neglect 411, 415, 416

  • Dyck, Alexander 235

  • Dye, Ronald 243, 244

  • Easterbrook, Frank 126, 127, 133, 151, 156, 329

  • economic crimes see tax evasion; sentencing guidelines

  • economic substance doctrine see under tax evasion

  • Eckert, H. 339

  • Ecuador 259

  • Efendi, Jan 24

  • Ehrlich, I. 105, 209, 210, 215

  • Eide, E. 298

  • Ekelund, R. 214

  • Elder, Harold 132

  • Ellickson, Robert C. 76

  • Ellis, Christopher 234

  • Ellsworth, P.C. 428

  • Ely, John Hart 1756

  • Elzinga, G. 68, 74

  • Emery, R.E. 40

  • enforcement, law see private enforcement; public enforcement

  • enforcement pyramid 98

  • Enriques, Luca 247

  • Enron 221, 242, 245

  • Enste, D. 293

  • entrapment 139

  • Environment Agency 96

  • environmental crimes 39, 60, 61, 67, 834, 32040

    • administrative or criminal law 3246

    • corporate crime, and 225, 230, 239, 33033

    • dependence of law, administrative 32022

    • environmental criminal law 3268, 3336

    • enforcement strategies 33640

      • optimal sanctions for 32830

    • public enforcement, arguments in favor of 3224

  • Erard, B. 311

  • Erickson, Merle 246

  • errors 2832, 76, 82, 83, 125, 13941, 306

  • Escobar, Pablo 263

  • ETA 385, 386, 387, 399

  • Europe 624, 66, 6970, 75, 76, 259, 304, 312

  • European Commission 69

  • European Court of Justice 69, 70, 73, 80

  • European Union 6970, 80

  • evidence 1023, 125, 1369

  • ex post facto rule 172, 1789, 195, 197, 2045

  • ex post facto tax recovery 292, 3067

  • excessive punishments see under fairness

  • see also cruel and unusual punishments

  • exclusionary rule 125, 137, 162

  • extortion see bribery; corruption

  • Fagan, J. 214, 215, 426

  • fairness 534, 1267, 139, 141, 209, 303, 306

    • behavioural analysis, and see under behavioural criminal law

    • sanctions 524, 141, 163, 179, 1968

  • fault based liability 1, 3, 20, 314, 524

    • optimal magnitude when enforcement certain 56, 89, 10

    • optimal magnitude when enforcement uncertain 13, 15, 1617, 18, 19

  • Faure, M. 111, 321, 322, 327, 330, 331

  • Fearon, G. 61

  • Federal Bureau of Investigation 358

  • Federal Civil False Claims Act (1863) 235

  • Federal Trade Commission 357

  • Feeley, Malcolm 154

  • Feess, Eberhard 234

  • Feinstein, J. 302

  • Feldman, M. 419, 420

  • Feldman, Y. 419, 420

  • Fenn, P. 97, 160, 337

  • Findley, K.A. 428

  • fines 3, 212, 29, 334, 37, 122, 195, 36061

    • administrative 3246, 327, 336

    • cheaper sanctions providing 19, 212, 328

    • costs of imposing 312, 328

    • environmental crimes 3246, 328

    • imprisonment and, see combined sanction

    • optimal magnitude 46, 1115, 32, 423, 45

  • Finkelstein, C. 101

  • Fiorentini, G. 273

  • Fiorina, M.P. 105

  • firms, sanctioning of 534

  • first best behaviour 20, 234, 33, 35, 41, 49

  • first time offenders 40

  • Fischel, D.R. 237, 238

  • Fisher, George 149

  • Fisman, R. 280, 284

  • Fixed Amount of Taxes or Tax Audit 308

  • Flatters, F. 313

  • Fleming, Charles 240

  • Flemish Environmental Inspection Agency 340

  • foreign crimes see under torts

  • forfeiture 330, 397

  • Forst, Brian 15

  • framing and framing related extortion 445

  • France 63, 148

  • Franzoni, L.A. 291, 311, 312

  • Frederick, S.

  • freedom, defendant’s right to 134

  • Frey, B. 408

  • Frick, K. 96

  • Friedman, D.

    • criminal law procedure 173, 195, 196

    • criminal law and regulation 95

    • criminal law and torts 111, 112

    • environmental crimes 331

    • plea bargaining and prosecution 145, 146

    • p. 444private law enforcement 62, 656, 74, 75, 81

  • Friedrich, J. 428

  • Friesen, L. 339

  • Fudenberg, Drew 243, 244

  • Funk, P. 95, 426

  • Furman v Georgia (1072) 208, 209

  • Gabel, H. 241

  • gain 56, 78, 326, 333

  • Galbiati, R, 293

  • Gale, W. 310

  • Gambetta, D. 261

  • gambling 222, 257, 260, 425

  • Ganuza, Juan Jose 233

  • Garoupa, N.

    • corruption 275

    • criminal law and regulation 106

    • environmental crimes 337

    • private enforcement of law 75, 76, 81

  • gate-keepers 60, 235, 244, 247

  • Gazal-Ayal, Oren 157

  • Geller, A. 214

  • Gellhorn, W. 93

  • Genesove, David 235

  • Germany 1489, 165, 283, 330, 331, 333

  • Gerschenkron, A. 63

  • Gerxhani, K. 293

  • Gibbons, J. 210

  • Gideon v Wainwright (1963) 172

  • Gidi, A. 69, 80

  • Gilbert, Daniel 408, 409

  • Gilliam, F.D. 427

  • Gilmore, Gary 209

  • Ginsberg, D. 80

  • Gittings, R.K. 212, 215, 216

  • Glaeser, E. 62, 75

  • Glaser, J. 428

  • Glover, Jonathan 244

  • Goerke, L. 300

  • Goldman, Eitan 243, 244

  • Gomes, Fernando 233

  • Gomez-Pomar, F. 99, 326

  • Gordon, J. 298, 300

  • Graetz, M. 309

  • Grande, Elisabetta 147

  • grand juries 146, 151

  • Gray, A. 160

  • Gray, W.B. 96

  • Green Gang 257, 263

  • Greenberg, J. 309

  • Greenstone, Michael 248

  • Gregg v Georgia (1976) 209

  • Gregory, W.L. 156

  • Greif, A. 63, 76

  • Grinstein, Yanif 248

  • Grogger, J. 210

  • Grossman, Gene 131, 155

  • Grossman, H.I. 264

  • Grossman, Sanford 242

  • Guinchard, A. 101

  • Guthrie, C. 408, 431

  • Guttel, E. 420, 421

  • Guyton, J. 310

  • Gyimah-Brempong, K. 280

  • Halcrow Group Ltd. 99

  • Hanlon, Michelle 246

  • Hamdani, A. 101

  • Hampton, P. 91

  • Handelman, S. 260

  • Hansmann, H. 325

  • Harel, A. 420, 421, 422, 423

  • harm 212, 336, 40, 45, 47, 49, 93, 11415

  • Harrington, J. 234, 240

  • Harrington, S. 240

  • Harrington, W. 97, 309, 334, 335, 339

  • Harris, V. 419

  • Hart, Oliver 243

  • Harvard school of antitrust 69, 74

  • Hasker, K. 277

  • Hawkins, G. 209

  • Hawkins, K. 337

  • Hay, J. 84

  • health and safety see safety

  • Healy, Paul 242, 246

  • hedonic adaptation see under behavioural criminal law

  • Heine, G. 321, 328, 331

  • Helland, Eric 238

  • Herzog, Sergio 153

  • Hess, H. 263

  • Heyes, A.G. 334, 338, 339

  • Hill, C. 428

  • Hindriks, J. 308, 311, 313

  • p. 445Hinloopen, Jeroen 234

  • Hipp, J.R. 427

  • Hirart, Y. 78, 83

  • Hochberg, Yael 248

  • Hoenack, S.A. 210

  • Holderness, Cliff 241, 242

  • Holtzblatt, J. 310

  • homicide 115, 11617, 1223, 199200, 268, 407

    • see also capital punishment

  • Homicide Act (1957) 122

  • Hommes, J. 333, 337

  • Hong Kong 257

  • Huisman, W. 338

  • human rights 60, 61, 1012

  • human trafficking 260

  • hybrid cases and regimes 12022, 237

  • Hylton, K.H. 104

  • hyperbolic discounting see under behavioural criminal law

  • illegal contracts 3856

  • Immordino, Giovanni 244

  • imperfect knowledge of sanctions and detection 423

  • ‘impossibility theorem’ 72, 74

  • imprisonment 21, 334, 94, 113, 183, 195, 36061, 416

    • corruption for 45, 279

    • costs see under costs

    • environmental crimes 325, 326, 3289, 332, 335

    • fines, and, see combined sanctions

    • life 7, 279

    • mistakes diluting deterrence 2930

    • optimal magnitude 69, 1619, 20

    • population 164, 183

    • pre-trial 134, 153, 154, 430

    • principal-agent relationships 37

    • repeat offenders 37, 42, 468, 360

    • settlements 38, 39

    • standard of proof 136

    • stigma see stigma

    • United States, in 65, 76

    • white collar crime 3636

  • incapacitation 42, 468

  • incentives 456, 723, 745

  • individuals 32, 413, 47, 967

    • prevention of crime 54, 3489, 350, 3546, 358, 361, 3913

    • private protection 54, 82, 279

    • risk, and see risk averse; risk neutral; risk preferring

    • wealth see wealth

  • Indonesia 284

  • inflation 363, 364

  • Inland Revenue Service 301, 302, 303, 365

  • Innes, Robert 233, 339

  • innocence 1389, 428

  • inquisitorial systems 1323, 146

  • insolvency 3256, 328, 331

  • inspectors 60, 67

  • insurance 335, 349, 393

  • interest 3723

  • Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (Bentham) 64

  • investing funds 61, 67, 68, 813

  • IRA 386, 387, 397

  • irrelevance principle see under corporate crime

  • Isachsen, A. 299

  • Israel 165, 393, 4012

  • Italy 147, 148, 167, 257, 259, 312

  • Iyengar, S. 427

  • Jackson, B. 304

  • Jackson, John 149, 159

  • Jackson, Justice Robert H. 145

  • Jackson v Georgia (1072) 208

  • Jain, Pankaj 248

  • James, Annabelle 238

  • Jankowski, M.S. 259, 261, 262, 267

  • Janoff-Bulman, R. 409

  • Japan 66, 257

  • Jellal, M. 75, 275

  • Johnson, M. 248

  • Johnson, S. 106

  • Johnston, J.F. 240

  • Johnston, J.S. 106, 338

  • Jolls, C. 314, 412, 417, 418, 423, 428

  • p. 446Jones, C. 80

  • Jones, E. 419

  • Jourden, F. 432

  • Journal of Economic Literature 272

  • Juan, A. de 304

  • judgment-proof offenders 61, 81, 82

    • firms and corporations see under corporate crime

  • judges and judicial 61, 67, 136, 137, 327

    • bias and corruption 188, 279, 394, 431

    • discretion 1267, 141

    • plea bargaining, and 1478, 157, 160, 1645

    • refusing access to public infrastructure 61

    • resources 126, 132, 141

    • sentencing, and see under sentencing guidelines

  • Judicial Conference’s Committee on Criminal Law 362, 367, 369

  • judicial review 105, 122, 151

  • Jurek v Texas (1076) 209

  • juries 104, 136, 138, 141, 146, 151, 2023, 432

    • rent-seeking, and 1989

    • trial by, right to 178

  • Kagan, R.A. 97, 311

  • Kahan, D.M. 331, 420

  • Kahneman, D. 406, 407, 408, 409, 41011

  • Kambhu, J. 106

  • Kaplow, L. 233, 312

  • Karpoff, J. 95, 239, 247, 336

  • Kassin, S.M. 428

  • Kasznik, Ron 242

  • Katyal, N. 420

  • Katz, L. 212

  • Katz, Michael 131, 155

  • Kaufman, Daniel 285

  • Kedia, Simi 246

  • Keefer, P. 280

  • Kellough, Gail 154

  • Kemper 240

  • Kepner v United States (1904) 2012

  • Keulenaer, S. de 333

  • Khalil, Fahad 231

  • Khanna, V.S. 104

  • Kilching, M. 330

  • Kim, Y. 298

  • Kingston, C. 271

  • Kirkbride, James 238

  • Kleck, G. 414, 415

  • Klees, A. 80

  • Klein, Susan 111, 115, 122

  • Klepper, S. 322

  • Klerman, D. 75, 81, 106, 337

  • Knack, S. 280

  • Knight, B.G. 429

  • Knowles, E.D. 428

  • Kobayashi, B.H. 103, 155

  • Kofman, F. 273, 277

  • Kokott, Juliane 103

  • Konrad, K.A. 267

  • Kornhauser, L.A. 224, 226, 332

  • Korobkin, R.B. 408

  • Kovacic, W. 235

  • KPMG 236

  • Kraakman, Reinier 221, 2324, 236, 237, 241, 249, 325, 339

  • Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan 246

  • Kruchek, B.L. 328

  • Kugler, M. 273

  • Kunruether, Howard 418

  • La Porta, Rafael 248

  • labour market 67, 299300

  • Laffont, J.J. 64, 78, 79, 80, 273, 277

  • Laibson, D. 423

  • Lambert, Richard 244

  • Lambert v Lewis (1981) 118

  • Lambsdorff, J.G. 277

  • Landa, J. 76

  • Landes, W.

    • criminal law and torts 112

    • criminal procedure 1289, 134

    • economics of capital punishment 212

    • environmental crimes 323, 331

    • plea bargaining and prosecution 150, 151, 154, 155, 157

    • private enforcement of law 70, 724, 77

  • Lando, H. 102, 135

  • Landreth, H. 63

  • Landsberger, M. 309

  • Landskroner, Y. 298

  • p. 447Langbein, John 133, 149, 150, 173, 174

  • Langer, E.J. 420

  • Langer, Maximo 149, 166

  • Laroque, Guy 244

  • Latin America 66, 69, 76, 312

  • Lattimore, P. 422

  • Law, M.T. 106

  • Lawarree, J. 273, 277

  • Layard, Richard 408

  • Layson, S. 210

  • Leamer, E. 210

  • Lee, D. 246, 417

  • Lee, R.W. 260, 263

  • legality principle 1467

  • Leitzel, J. 425

  • Letza, Syeve 238

  • Levitt, Steven

    • behavioural criminal law and economics 404, 412, 413, 417, 429

    • corporate crime 233

    • criminal procedure 183

    • economics of capital punishment 212

    • organized crime 261, 262

  • Lewis, T. 103

  • Li, Haidan 248

  • Liberty, Susan 243

  • licences 934, 335, 360

  • Licht, A. 304

  • Lieven, Anatol 259

  • limited liability 62, 325

    • corporate crime, and see under corporate crime

  • Lipatov, V. 311

  • List, John 412

  • litigation 789

    • see also under costs; see private enforcement

  • Liu, Z. 215

  • Lloyd’s of London 240

  • lobbying 1856, 18791

  • Lochner, L. 417

  • Loewenstein, George 165

  • Lofton, J.A. 338

  • London, attacks on 393, 397, 399

  • Long, Cheryl 158

  • Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio 248

  • Lott, John 155, 221, 239, 249, 336

  • Lucas, R.E. 410

  • Lynch, Gerard 238

  • Macaulay, S. 76

  • MacCoun, Robert 414

  • Macho-Stadler, I. 308, 312

  • MacLaren, J. 274, 283, 313

  • MacLeod, B. 313

  • MacMinn, Richard 229

  • Macrory, R. 91, 98, 99

  • Madrid attacks 393

  • mafia 257, 25963, 265, 267, 386

  • Magna Carta 196

  • Maital, S. 298

  • Malik, A.S. 93, 233, 306, 313

  • Malthus, Thomas 63

  • Manion, M. 94

  • manslaughter 117, 118, 119

  • Marchese, Carla 241, 291

  • Marchesini, R. 213, 217

  • marginal deterrence 346, 46, 95, 390

  • Marhuenda, F. 308

  • Marrelli, M. 300

  • Marsch, L.A. 424

  • Martimort, D. 78, 79, 80, 231, 273

  • Martin, B.G. 263

  • Martin, Gerald 246

  • Martina, R. 300

  • Mashaw, J. 105

  • Mattiacci, Guiseppe Dari 233, 378

  • Maurizi, A. 93

  • Mauro, P. 280

  • May, P. 96, 337

  • Maydew, Edward 246

  • Mayhew, P. 276

  • McAleer, M. 210

  • McCallin, N. 298

  • McCannon, B.C. 97

  • McClelland, G.H. 304

  • McCrary, J. 417

  • McGeorge, P. 428

  • McKee, M. 304

  • McManus, W. 210

  • McNulty Memorandum (2006) 236

  • Meares, T. 420, 426

  • Medellin cartel 263

  • Medicare 365

  • Meilijson, I. 309

  • Meinberg, V. 328, 333

  • p. 448Meissner, C.A. 428

  • Melumad, N. 313

  • Memon, A. 428

  • mens rea 100101, 113, 114, 3278

  • Merry, S. 623

  • Mexico 257

  • Mezzetti, Claudio 156

  • Mialon, Hugo 138

  • Miceli, T. 76, 103, 126, 133, 135, 141, 326

  • Miles, T.J. 404

  • Milgrom, P. 76

  • Miller, Nathan 235

  • Ministry of Defence 285

  • Miranda v Arizona (1966) 172

  • Mishra, A. 273

  • Misner, Robert 164

  • misreporting see securities fraud

  • mistrials 2023

  • Mitchell, G. 413

  • Mitnick, B.M. 90

  • Mnookin, Robert 165

  • Mocan, H.N. 212, 215, 216

  • Mollenkamp, Carrick 240

  • monetary sanctions see fines

  • money laundering 358, 385, 397

  • Mongerald, Eric 83

  • monitoring 36, 72, 923, 978, 104, 176

  • Montesquieu 1, 290

  • Mookherjee, Dilip 62, 95, 283, 308, 312, 313

  • Moore, Michael 160

  • Moore, T. 92

  • morality see social norms

  • Morris, N. 336

  • Morse, Adair 235

  • Motta, Massimo 234

  • Mullin, Wallace 235, 240, 241

  • Murphy, K.M. 273, 274, 424, 426

  • Mussolini, Benito 83

  • Myerson, Roger 244

  • Myles, G. 298

  • Nagin, D. 311, 413

  • naming and shaming see stigma

  • Narayan, P.K. 215

  • National Academy of Sciences 210, 404

  • National Advisory Commission 150

  • National Research Programme 301

  • Naylor, R. 298

  • Nelson, Karen 248

  • Nentjes, A. 333, 337

  • Netherlands 330, 337, 338

  • New York, 9/11 attacks on 393, 395, 398

  • Newman, H.A. 224, 228

  • Nickerson, R.S. 428

  • Niehaus, Gregory 240

  • non-monetary sanctions 32930

    • imprisonment see imprisonment

  • normative analysis as positive theory 111, 118, 119, 123

  • Norway 334

  • Nugent, J.B. 274

  • Nussim, J. 93

  • Nyborg, K. 96, 334

  • O’Brien, B. 428

  • O’Donoghue, T. 423

  • offenders 40, 3523, 3589, 41415

    • behavioural analysis of see under behavioural criminal law

    • detecting see detecting under resources

    • potential see under cyber crime

  • Ogus, A. 272, 280

  • Ohanian, L. 68

  • Okten, C. 277

  • Oldfather, C.M. 413

  • opportunity principle 1467

  • Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 271, 299, 307, 312

  • organized crime 25769, 3837, 398

    • economic consequences 2668

    • internal organization and market structure 2626

    • origins 25861, 384

    • p. 449protection, sale of 2578, 384

    • terrorism as 3838

  • Origins of Adversary Criminal Trial, The (Langbein) 174

  • Orsagh, T. 210

  • Ortuno-Orton, I. 308

  • over-deterrence 8, 41, 956, 238, 332, 357, 358

  • Oyer, Paul 248

  • Packer, Herbert 1712, 1745

  • Pagano, Marco 244

  • Palepu, Krishna 242, 246

  • Palestine 393

  • Palim, M. 69

  • Papachristou v City of Jacksonville (1972) 205

  • Papagni, E. 279

  • Parigi, Bruno 231

  • Parisi, F. 80, 233, 378

  • Parker, J.S. 101, 103, 238

  • Parpworth, N. 329

  • Passel, P. 210

  • Paternoster, R. 414, 426

  • Patriot Act (2001) 395, 3967

  • peak end rule 410

  • Pearce v Secretary of State for Defence (1988) 118

  • pecuniary legal claims 61, 62, 81

  • Penal Code (1988) 399

  • Pencavel, J. 299

  • Perez-Castrillo, D. 308, 312

  • Perron, W. 330

  • Persson, M. 76, 83

  • Peru 259

  • Phillips, J. 311

  • Physiocrats 63

  • Pierce, J.L. 208, 210

  • Pigouvian tax system 64

  • Pincus, Morton 248

  • Pitchford, Rohan, 228, 229

  • plea bargaining 12834, 141, 14566

    • behavioural analysis 42930

    • comparative jurisdictions 1324, 1656

    • discretion, prosecutors of 145, 1467, 1614, 348

    • history 1456, 14950

    • judicial participation 1645

    • mistaken convictions, and 1537

    • nature 1479

    • private litigation settlements, compared with 1523

    • resources, constraints, and 15052

    • screening mechanism, as 1557

  • Plous, Scott 406

  • Png, I.P.L. 95, 283, 313

  • Poitevin, M. 103

  • Polanyi, K. 75

  • police 28, 33, 35, 60, 67, 71, 104, 142, 162

    • behavioural analysis of see under behavioural criminal law

    • bribery see bribery

    • corruption 279

    • entrapment 139

    • marginal deterrence 35

    • sexual assault cases 812

    • tax evasion 290

  • policies 31, 43, 2825

  • Polinsky, M.

    • behavioural criminal law 425

    • corporate crime 221, 224, 2289, 249

    • corruption 273, 275

    • criminal law and regulation 98, 102, 103, 106

    • environmental crimes 328, 332

    • plea bargaining and prosecution 146

    • private enforcement of law 76

    • public enforcement of law 60

    • tax evasion and avoidance 306

    • terrorism 388

  • political economy

    • anti-terrorism legal policy see under terrorism

    • criminal procedure, of see procedural protections

  • pollution 3267, 328

  • Polo, Michele 234

  • Ponsaers, P. 333

  • Posner, R.

  • Pouyet, J. 78

  • precautions 245, 267, 30

    • individuals by see under individuals

  • Prescott, J.J. 432

  • presumption of innocence 134, 175, 395

  • pre-trial bargaining see settlements

  • pre-trial detention see under imprisonment

  • Prevention of Terrorism Act (1974) 397

  • Price, C. 83

  • Price, R. 276

  • prices 60, 647, 69, 80

  • principal-agent 367, 62, 1056, 309, 3813

  • prison over-crowding 164, 183

  • Prisoner’s Dilemma 2336

  • Pritchard, A.C. 248

  • private enforcement of law 545, 6084, 313

    • antitrust and competition 6770, 8081

    • blackmail, as 70, 73, 77

    • corporate finance 84

    • costs 61, 75

    • criminalization 657

    • definition 60

    • environmental pollution 834

    • ex ante regulations and ex post litigation compared 789, 83

    • history 623

    • martial law 83

    • models 7077, 7781, 81

    • pecuniary legal claims 61, 62, 81

    • privatization 6770

    • prosecutors and regulators 612, 64, 67

    • public law enforcement, and 6064, 7080

    • resources 63, 75

    • sexual assault and domestic abuse 812

  • Private Securities Litigation Reform Act (1995) 248

  • Privileggi, Fabio 241

  • probation 65, 136, 153, 238, 279, 350, 363

  • procedural protections, criminal 171206

    • applications of 199206

    • core protections 17783

      • double jeopardy prohibition see double jeopardy

      • reasonable doubt see reasonable doubt

    • public choice approach, procedure to see public choice

  • procedure, criminal 12542, 1614

    • definition 125

    • economic objectives 1278

    • errors see under errors

    • evidence, rules of see evidence

    • nature of 1267

    • pre-trial bargaining see under settlements

    • procedural protections 133

    • see also appeals; bail; discretion; plea bargaining; prosecutors; standard of proof

  • Proceeds of Crime Act (2002) 398

  • Profitt v Florida (1976) 209

  • prosecutors 31, 389, 60, 61, 1579, 164, 356

    • bribery see bribery

    • corruption see corruption

    • discretion 60, 1267, 136, 141, 1467, 149, 1614, 1915

    • see also plea bargaining; private enforcement of law; public agents

  • prospect theory see under behavioural criminal law

  • prostitution 65, 257, 260, 268

  • protection, private see under individuals

  • protection, sale of see organized crime

  • psychic benefits 351

  • public agents 456, 612, 81, 191

  • p. 451public choice theory 171206

    • applications of 199206

    • criminal procedural protections 183206

      • rent-seeking in law enforcement see rent-seeking

    • Ely 1756

    • Langbein 174

    • Packer 1745

  • Public Company Accounting Oversight Board 247

  • public enforcement of law 155, 60

    • coexisting with public law enforcement 6064

    • detection of offenders see detecting offenders

    • errors see errors

    • fines, costs of imposing see under fines

    • general enforcement and optimal sanctions 334

    • general problem of 34

    • incapacitation see incapacitation

    • individuals’ imperfect knowledge 423

    • marginal deterrence see marginal deterrence

    • optimal enforcement, theory of 410, 1021

    • principal-agent relationship see principal-agent

    • private enforcement compared see under private enforcement

    • repeat offenders see repeat offenders

    • sanctions see sanctions

    • self-reporting see self-reporting

    • settlements see settlements

    • social norms see social norms

  • public interest 92, 1056, 115, 119, 123, 146, 1512

  • punitive damages 112, 323, 325, 355

  • Qian, Yingyi 228, 234, 237

  • Rabin, M. 423

  • Rachlinski, J.J. 429, 431, 432

  • Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (1970) 268

  • Rajgopal, Shiva 235

  • Rasmusen, Eric 136, 336

  • rational actor paradigm 3467, 389, 4035

    • see also behavioural criminal law and economics

  • reasonable doubt 158, 1779, 18083, 1945, 197

    • definition of varying 134

    • function 172, 177, 184

    • standard of proof see standard of proof

    • substitution effects see substitution effects

    • tax evasion 3067

  • Rego, Sonja 248

  • regulation and breaches

    • administrative sanctions 96100, 1023

    • costs see criminal; regulation under costs

    • criminal law, and 90107

    • ex ante and ex post litigation compared 789, 83

    • ex post deterrence, ex ante prevention and 914

    • institutional processes 1047

    • mens rea see mens rea

    • over-deterrence 956

    • procedural arrangements 1014

    • public interest 11920

    • sanctions 94100

    • settlements see under settlements

    • standard of proof 103

  • regulators 1, 60

    • private enforcement of law, and see private enforcement

    • refusing access to public infrastructure 61

    • settlements see under settlements

    • see also public agents

  • rehabilitation 351

  • Reinganum, Jennifer 130, 141, 155, 307, 309, 311

  • remembering see under behavioural criminal law

  • rent-seeking behaviour 184

    • constraints on 1919

      • juries 1989

      • penalty restrictions 1958

      • procedural protections 1915

    • corruption, and see corruption

    • p. 452costs, criminal process in 18791

      • direct costs 188

    • crime as 117

    • law enforcement, in 1847, 205

      • corruption 1867

      • inter-group wealth expropriation 1856

      • private 71, 75

    • regulation 92, 104, 106

  • repeat offenders 4042, 47, 967, 141, 360, 362, 416

  • reputational damage see stigma

  • resources see under cyber crime; judges; plea bargaining; see procedure

  • respondent superior 232, 331

  • restitution 3689, 371, 373

  • retroactive punishments see ex post facto

  • Review of Enforcement in Environmental Regulation (DEFRA) 329

  • rewards 2, 45

  • Rey, P. 235

  • Rezaee, Zabihollah 248

  • Rhodes, William 151

  • Richardson, G. 303

  • Richardson, Scott 246

  • Richman, Daniel 159, 164

  • Rickman, N. 334, 338, 339

  • rights of access see private enforcement of law

  • Ringleb, A.L. 230

  • risk 38, 39, 46, 298

  • risk averse individuals 3, 158

  • risk neutral individuals and organisations

    • accidental harm 23

    • behavioural criminal law 4078, 4223

    • corporate crime, and 228, 390

    • detection probability 1113, 1617, 1920, 43, 456

    • deterrence, and 370

    • environmental crimes 335

    • errors 28, 30

    • fairness of sanctions 534

    • general enforcement 334

    • magnitude of fines 1113, 43, 456

    • precautions 25

    • self-reporting 40

    • settlements 38

    • tax evasion 307, 309

    • terrorist groups 390

  • risk-preferring individuals

    • behavioural criminal law 4078, 4223

    • certainty of punishment 35960, 3667

    • detection probability 1819

    • deterrence, and 370

    • plea bargaining, and 150

    • sanctions, and 352

  • Roach, K. 69

  • Roberts, J. 80, 414

  • Robinson, P. 414, 415, 416

  • Romano, Roberta 247

  • Rose-Ackerman, S. 778, 105, 276, 277, 283

  • Ross, L. 419

  • Rossi, M.A. 280

  • Roth, J. 290, 298

  • Rousseau, S. 328, 333, 340

  • Rubin, P.H. 211, 217

  • Rubinfeld, Daniel 130, 132

  • Runkel, M. 300

  • Russia 259

  • safety regulations and breaches 22, 27, 39, 332

  • Salop, S.C. 68

  • Sanchez, I. 304, 307, 308

  • sanctions 12, 195

    • combined see combined

    • corporate crime and torts for see corporate crime

    • costs see costs

    • criminal law 94100

    • p. 453cruel and unusual 195, 1967, 208

    • discretionary see under discretion

    • environmental crimes see environmental crimes

    • excessive see under fairness

    • fairness see under fairness

    • fines see fines

    • first time offenders 40

    • general enforcement 334

    • imprisonment see imprisonment

    • incapacitative see incapacitation

    • incentive as see under incentives

    • indirect see stigma

    • individuals’ imperfect knowledge of 423

    • inefficient 195, 196

    • levels compared 2, 647, 71, 73, 76

    • magnitude 3, 356

    • optimal, plea bargaining and 150

    • principal-agent, allocation between 37

    • purpose 36970

    • rent-seeking, reduced by 189

    • repeat offenders 4042

    • restrictions on 1958

    • retroactive see ex post facto

    • self-reporting, reduced for 3940

    • settlements, in 39

    • severity increasing 359, 3634

    • stigma and reputational damage see stigma

    • terrorism 38991, 396402

    • threat as deterrence see deterrence

    • wealth of individuals, and see costs under wealth

  • Sanders, Andrew 148, 165

  • Sandmo, A. 290, 291, 294300, 3023, 3068

  • Sansing, R. 311

  • Sapienza, Paula 248

  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) 114, 221, 242, 2478

  • Sato, M. 311

  • Saudi-Arabia 284, 285

  • Schaefer, H. 106

  • Schinkel, Maarten 241

  • Schkade, D.A. 409

  • Schlanger, M. 409

  • Schneider, F. 293

  • Scholz, J.T. 96

  • Schrag, J. 103, 432

  • Schulhofer, Stephen 1267, 150, 151, 154, 156, 158, 161

  • Schulze, W.D. 304

  • Schwab, R. 313

  • Schwartz, A. 412

  • Schwartz, E. 105

  • Schwartz, S. 304

  • Scollen, C.N. 410

  • Scotchmer, S. 103, 299, 307, 308, 311, 432

  • Scotland 160

  • Scott, Michael 428

  • Scott, Robert, 150, 154, 161

  • Scottish Enlightenment 63

  • search and seizure 137

  • Seaton, J. 111, 118

  • securities 61, 67, 84, 239, 2428, 336

  • Securities and Exchange Commission 245

  • Segel, V. 422, 423

  • Segerson, K. 231, 328, 331

  • Seidmann, Daniel 138

  • self-incrimination, rule against 138

  • self-regulation 104, 1056

  • self-reporting 394, 223, 2336, 339, 401

  • Seligman, Joel 247

  • Selznick, P. 96

  • sentence-bargaining 1478, 1645

  • Sentencing Commission, United States 4041, 2213, 238, 34674, 404

  • sentencing guidelines, 163, 164, 222, 238, 329, 34674

  • Serious Fraud Office 284

  • settlements 379, 106, 112, 132, 141, 146

    • plea bargaining see plea bargaining

    • pre-trial bargaining 125

    • private enforcement of law, and 7072, 1523

    • tax evasion 311, 312

  • Shaked, A. 106

  • Shanghai 257, 263

  • Shavell, S.

  • Shepherd, Joanna 126, 136, 141, 208, 212, 213, 214, 216, 217

  • Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) 68, 69, 80

  • Shleifer, A. 62, 75, 84, 248

  • Shustorovich, E. 212

  • Sicily 259, 261, 263

  • Siegelman, Peter 183

  • silence, right to 138, 139, 162

  • Simon, D. 428

  • Simpson, Sally 238

  • Sinn Fein 387

  • Siven, C.H. 76, 83

  • Sjostrom, W. 95

  • Skaperdas, Stergios 262, 267

  • Skogh, G. 323

  • Slemrod, J. 290, 291, 292, 299, 300

  • Slezak, Steve 243, 244

  • Slaon, Richard 246

  • Smettan, J.R. 330

  • Smith, Adam 63

  • smuggling 290

  • Smyth, R. 215

  • Snow, A. 299

  • Snyder, Christopher 233, 240, 241

  • Sobel. J. 307, 308, 311

  • social norms 512, 298

  • social welfare 35, 7

    • ex ante preventive regimes 914

    • bail 134

    • corporate crime 226, 228, 229, 243

    • corruption, and 46

    • environmental crimes, and 3267

    • fairness of sanctions 524

    • industrial and commercial undertakings 96

    • marginal deterrence 35

    • maximizing when enforcement certain 310

    • mistakes diluting deterrence 2931

    • optimal level of crime and crime control 34758

    • organized crime 3845

    • principal-agent relationship, and 367

    • repeat offenders, sanctions for, and 412

    • rent-seeking, effects of see costs under rent-seeking

    • securities fraud 243

    • self-reporting, benefits on 40

    • settlements, effects on 379

    • social norms 512

    • tax evasion 299

  • Solnick, S.L. 260

  • Sourcebook of Federal Sentencing Statistics 2212

  • South Africa 66, 76, 259

  • Soviet Union, former 75, 25960

  • Spagnolo, Giancarlo 234

  • Spain 399401

  • Spiller, P.T. 105

  • Srinivasan, T.N. 294

  • Srivastava, Anup 246

  • p. 455standard of proof 129, 177, 238, 307

  • Starr, S. 432

  • Stein, A. 95, 423

  • Steinzor, R.I. 339

  • Stella, P. 313

  • Stephen, Frank 127, 133, 158, 160, 161, 165

  • Stephenson, M.C. 105

  • Stigler, G.

    • corruption 275

    • criminal law and torts 119

    • environmental crimes 320, 321, 339

    • private enforcement of law 71, 72, 73, 74, 81

    • tax evasion and avoidance 313

  • stigma and reputation 945, 103, 115, 153, 179, 183, 360

  • Stocken, Phillip 244

  • Stone, Christopher 241

  • street crimes 354, 362, 365

  • strict liability 3, 20

    • administrative sanctions 96

    • corporate crime, and see under corporate crime

    • environmental crimes 3278

    • errors see errors

    • general enforcement 334

    • mens rea see mens rea

    • optimal magnitude when enforcement certain 45, 68, 9–10,

    • optimal magnitude when enforcement uncertain 1115, 1619, 19

    • precautions, and see precautions

  • Strom, S. 299

  • Stuart, C. 323

  • Stuntz, William 150, 154, 158, 16064

  • subjective expected utility 4078

  • substitution effects 189, 197

  • Sunder, Shyam 244

  • Sunstein, C.R. 412, 423, 428, 432

  • Supreme Court, United States 114, 1212

  • Sutton, J. 106

  • Svensson, J. 280

  • Svorny, S. 92, 94

  • Swanson, Edward 246

  • Sweeney, Amy 246

  • Swiss Re 240

  • Sykes, Alan 224, 237, 238

  • Syropoulos, C. 262

  • Tabbach, A.D. 93

  • Taliban 384, 385

  • Tanzi, V. 312

  • Tata, Cyrus 160

  • tax evasion and avoidance 2022, 33, 42, 46, 60, 66, 290314

    • avoidance, definition of 292

    • business purpose doctrine 292

    • corporate tax 300301

    • decision to evade 294301

      • Allingham-Sandmo model 294300

    • definition and extent 2913

    • economic substance doctrine 292

    • enforcement procedure 31014

    • ethical behaviour 2978

    • evasion, definition of 2912

    • p. 456indirect taxes 300

    • labour supply 299300

    • non-expected utility theory 2989

    • optimal tax enforcement 30610

    • optimal auditing 30710

    • sanctions 3634

    • social pressure 298

    • sentencing see sentencing guidelines

    • tax gap 2912

    • tax shifting 300

    • taxpayers’ behaviour 291, 3016

    • uncertainty 299

  • Taxpayer Compliance Measurement Programme 3012

  • Taylor, J.B. 210

  • Telle, K. 97, 334

  • Terror Alert System 396

  • terrorism 281, 375402

    • anti-terrorism measures 395402

    • communal liability 37780

    • crime, as 38891

    • incapacitation 376

    • organized crime, as 3838

    • political economy, anti-terrorism legal policy of 3945

    • preferences of terrorists 3756

    • principal-agent framework 38083

    • victims, security of 3913

  • Terrorism Act (2000) 398

  • Terrorism Act (2006) 399

  • Thaler, R. 412, 423

  • Thistle, P.D. 210

  • Thompson, K. 427

  • Thompson Memorandum (2003) 236

  • three-strike laws 141, 163

  • Tietenberg, T. 231, 328, 331

  • Tirole, J. 61, 62, 243, 244, 277

  • Tona, E. 313

  • Toma, M. 313

  • Tonry, N. 336

  • Tor, Avishalom 156, 157

  • Torgler, B. 304, 305

  • torts 11123

    • corporations by see corporate

    • criminal boundary, empirically testing 11819

    • foreign crimes and long arm crimes 1223

    • hybrid cases 12022

    • intentional and unintentional 11213

    • recklessness and gross negligence 114, 116, 117

  • traffic control and violations 20, 21, 22, 39, 40, 46

  • Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse 279

  • Transparency International 278

  • Trebilcock, M. 69

  • Triads 257

  • Tuinstra, Jan 241

  • Tullock, G. 117

  • Tuna, Irem 246

  • Tuohy, C. 105

  • Turner, Jenia Iontcheva 149, 164

  • Tversky, A. 406, 407, 408

  • Two Models of Criminal Procedure (Packer) 174

  • Tyler, T.R. 426

  • uncertainty 4078

    • see also certainty under risk preferring individuals

  • Ueng, K.L. 308

  • Ulen, T. 70, 72, 208, 329

  • under-deterrence 8, 20, 33, 412, 189, 333

  • United Kingdom 91, 115, 1223, 132, 284

    • environmental crimes 329, 333, 338

    • evolution of legal procedures 624, 75, 145, 196

    • plea bargaining 145, 148, 164

    • terrorism measures see under terrorism

  • United Nations 285

    • Convention against Corruption 271

  • United States 834, 115, 1223, 134, 185, 242, 364, 417

  • United States v McDowell (1997) 369

  • Utset, M.A. 424

  • Van Aaken, Anne 159

  • Van der Wyngaert, Christine 148

  • Van Rijckeghem, C. 281

  • Van Rooy, B. 337

  • Veall, M.R. 210

  • Veljanovski, C. 97, 338

  • Venkataraman Kumar 246

  • Venkatesh, Sudhir 261, 262

  • Verrecchia, Robert 243

  • victims 2, 3545, 391–3,

    • behavioural analysis of see under behavioural criminal law

    • sentencing, and see under sentencing guidelines

    • vulnerable 354, 355, 362

  • Viscusi, K. 111

  • Visser, M. 321, 322, 327

  • Vissing-Jorgensen, Annette 248

  • void-for-vagueness doctrine 2056

  • Voigt, Stefan 159

  • Volpin, Paolo 247

  • Wadhawan, S. 319

  • Waldfogel, Joel 134

  • Walters, D. 96

  • Walzl, Markus 234

  • Warren, R. 299

  • Warren Court innovations 172

  • wealth and assets of individuals 33, 34, 37, 4850, 113, 116, 134, 389

  • Weber, Max 61, 62, 63, 261, 304

  • Webley, P. 304

  • Weder, B. 283

  • Weisbach, D. 292

  • Wehrly, E.W. 239

  • Weiler, W.C. 210

  • Weimer, David 151

  • Weinstein, N. 406

  • wheel-clamping 94, 99

  • Wheeler, N. 332

  • whistle-blowing 2346

  • White, James. J, 229

  • White, L.J. 68

  • white-collar crime 330, 354, 356, 361, 3637

  • Whitman, J.Q. 99

  • Wiggins, Steven 230

  • Wilde, L. 302, 307, 308, 309, 311, 313

  • Wilde, M. 322

  • Wiley, J.S. 96

  • Williamson, O. 63, 81

  • Wilson, J.Q. 407, 409

  • Wilson, T. 409

  • Wilson, Wesley 234

  • Winship, Re (1970) 1723, 17781, 183

  • Winter, S. 337

  • Wistrich, A.J. 431

  • Witte, A. 302, 422

  • Wolf, E. 623

  • Wolfers, J. 216, 217

  • Wolfson, A. 105

  • Wood, R. 96

  • Woodbury, D. 302

  • Woods, M. 91, 98

  • World Bank 271, 278, 285

  • World Values Survey 304

  • Worldcom 221, 240

  • Wortley, Scot 154

  • Wrede, M. 298

  • Wright, David 224, 228

  • Wu, Min 246

  • Wurmnest, W. 80

  • Yakuza 257

  • Yang, C.C. 308

  • Yaniv, G. 298, 299, 300

  • Yeung, K. 106

  • Yitzaki, S. 291, 292, 294, 297

  • p. 458Young, Richard 148, 165

  • young offenders 65

  • Yuesheng, Du 263

  • Yunker, J.A. 210

  • Zamagni, S. 273

  • Zanardi, A. 293, 298

  • Zhang, Q. 93, 248

  • Zimmerman, Jerold 243

  • Zimmerman, P.R. 21213, 214

  • Zimring, F.E 209, 214

  • Zingales, Luigi 235

  • Zitzewitz, Eric 247