Encyclopedia of Law and Economics
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Encyclopedia of Law and Economics

Edited by Gerrit De Geest

The second, expanded edition of the acclaimed Encyclopedia represents a major update of the most authoritative reference work in the field of law and economics and the nine print volumes are now released online as a single integrated product. The Encyclopedia provides balanced and comprehensive coverage of the major domain in law and economics, including: criminal law, regulation, property law, contract law, tort law, labor and employment law, antitrust law, procedural law, and the production of legal rules. Each theme or volume is overseen by a leading scholar and each of the 156 entries is prepared by an expert in the field, providing an in-depth and authoritative overview of the individual topic, combined with an exhaustive bibliography, allowing users to access and filter the entire corpus of literature in law and economics. As with the print edition, the Encyclopedia is unique in serving both as an entry point and a platform for advanced research. The online edition is enhanced with Elgaronline’s powerful search tools, facilitating the search for key terms across the entire Encyclopedia, whilst the browse function allows users to move seamlessly between the volumes. These elements combine to create a powerful research tool for any researcher or scholar in the field of law and economics.
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Index: Index

[In: Volume 2, Kenneth G. Dau-Schmidt, Seth D. Harris and Orly Lobel (eds) Labor and Employment Law and Economics]

  • 401(k) plans 544

  • accommodating families 320338

    • economic theory 322324

    • empirical work 328333

    • existing laws and policies 324328

    • intervention rationales 320322

  • acquired rights 216

  • added worker effect 39

  • adjudication see disputes adjudication

  • advance notice 78

  • adverse selection 15, 459, 472

  • Advisory Council on Unemployment and Compensation 493, 500

  • AFDC 509

  • Africa 154, 606

  • age discrimination 550551

  • Age Discrimination in Employment Act 1967 368, 381, 550, 573

  • age effect 80

  • agency problems 6568

  • agent 66, 67

  • agglomerations (clusters) 710711

    • see also Silicon Valley

  • aggregate studies 592594

  • agriculture 432

  • Aigner-Cain model 304

  • Alexander v. Gardner–Denver Co. (1974) 375376, 377

  • Alien Tort Claims Act 635

  • Allen v. Chicago Transit Authority (2000) 706

  • alternative base period 494

  • alternative dispute resolution 361, 362366

  • Amendment XIII of the Constitution 420

  • American Arbitration Association 366, 374, 379, 384, 387

    • Commercial Arbitration Rules 379

  • American Bar Association study 381

  • American Economic Association 2122

  • American Express Company 539

  • American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL–CIO) 102, 623624

  • American Jobs Creation Act 2004 540

  • American National Standards Institute 646

  • Americans with Disabilities Act 313, 342343, 347349, 352, 354356, 376, 381

    • accommodation mandate 350351

  • American Textile Manufacturers Institute v. Donovan (1981) 282

  • Ancient Greeks 419

  • annual bonuses 184, 193

  • annual contribution rates 564

  • annuitization, decline in 573574

  • Apparel Task Force 643

  • apprentice programs 609

  • arbitration 366378

    • amounts recovered 383385

    • awards 367

    • ejusdem generis principle 367

    • implications 378383

    • mandatory 367

    • outcomes, variation in 385390

    • see also unconscionability

  • Arbitration Fairness Act 2007 361, 390

  • Argentina 189, 208, 677

  • Arizona Governing Committee v. Norris 314

  • Armendiaz v. Foundation Health Psychcare Services (2000) 370

  • Arrow–Debreu equilibrium theory 39

  • Ashenfelter’s Dip 505, 508509

  • Asia 154, 196, 200, 589, 606

  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations 676, 679680, 681

    • Charter 680

    • Human Rights Body 680

    • Labour Ministers Work Programme 679

    • Socio–cultural Community 679

  • asymmetric information 15, 72, 83, 89, 345, 472, 636637

  • p. 720Atkins v. Children’s Hospital (1923) 152, 691

  • at-will rule 70, 72, 77, 89

  • Australasia 3

  • Australia:

    • accommodating families 330331, 332

    • compensation 236

    • Corporations Act 2001 208

    • education and training 132, 142

    • Federal Conciliation and Arbitration Court 152

    • Harvester (1907) judgment 152, 162

    • international executive pay 189, 194195, 209, 213214, 218

    • international standards and trade 673

    • migration 594, 599

    • minimum wage legislation 151152

    • new governance approaches 647

    • pensions and retirement 543

    • Work Choices 454, 465

  • Austria 136, 144

  • ‘cafeteria’ plans 173

  • California effect 632633

  • California Employment Training Panel 143

  • Cambodia 408, 679

  • Canada 101, 331

  • p. 721Caribbean 462

  • cartel models 306307, 608

  • cash benefits 253259

    • adequacy 256257

    • death benefits 256

    • equity 257259

    • operational approaches 253

    • permanent partial disability benefits 254255

    • permanent total disability benefits 255

    • temporary total disability benefits 254

  • CEA 592

  • Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries 243

  • Central America 589, 59091, 606

  • central and eastern Europe 154

  • Change to Win Coalition 102103, 61718

  • Chicago School 45, 6

  • child labor 399413

  • Chile 131, 132, 543, 678

  • China 439

    • All-China Federation of Trade Unions 618

    • collective action 606

    • Communist Party: Fourteenth Congress 199

    • Company Law 199, 213

    • international executive pay 189, 202, 209

    • international standards and trade 673

    • Securities Regulatory Commission 190, 203

    • Shanghai Stock Exchange 199

    • share ownership patterns 198199

    • Shenzhen Stock Exchange 199

    • State–owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission 221

    • state–owned enterprises 199

  • Chiquita Agreement 620621

  • churning 345

  • Circuit City Stores v. Adams (2001a) 367369, 375, 376, 390

  • Civil Rights Act 1964 348

  • Civil Service Reform Act 1978 697

  • Claeys formula 79

  • class action suits 704706

  • Clayton Antitrust Act 693694

  • cliometrics 424

  • Coasean invariance result 456457

  • Coase theorem 19, 247

  • Coca-Cola Bottling Company 704

  • codes of conduct 619623

  • coercion models 433434

  • cognitive biases 637

  • cognitive dissonance 280

  • Cole v. Burns International Security Services (1997) 369, 370, 374

  • collective action 606626, 7046

    • codes of conduct 619623

    • economic models 607614

      • monopoly or cartel theory 607611

      • productivity 612

      • rents and quasi-rents 612613

    • global coordination of employee groups 616619

    • international treaties and standards 623625

    • monopolistic pressure, traditional 614616

  • collective bargaining 10, 375378, 675, 709711

    • laws 692697

    • see also regulating unions and collective bargaining

  • collective employment rights 447

  • Colombia 678

  • Commerce Clause 691692

  • Commission on Labor Cooperation 676

  • common law 18, 447

  • Commons, John 23

  • comparative advantage 435437

  • compensation:

    • arrangements, nonqualified deferred 545546, 556

    • backloading 7172

    • convergence 193195

    • de facto coverage 238243

    • levels, high 186

    • see also workers’ compensation

  • competition 3641

    • destructive 38

  • p. 722competitive model critique 2729

  • competitive wage 37

  • complete contracts 16

  • Comprehensive Employment and Training Act 502503

  • compromise and release agreements 255

  • Congress:

    • discharge 454

    • employment discrimination 312, 315

    • minimum wage legislation 155

    • new governance approaches 635

    • occupational safety and health 284

    • workplace disability 355

  • Congress of Vienna (1815) 420

  • construction industry 432

  • contract:

  • contracts of employment 6190

    • agency problems 6568

    • firm–specific human capital 6365

    • implicit self-enforcing 7172, 89

    • individual bargaining 8788

    • pre-contractual information problems 8386

    • relational contract 6263, 89

    • see also termination rules and consequences of termination

  • cooperative model 287

  • coordination, lack of 637

  • coordination, modes of 26

  • corporate law and globalization of executive pay 207215

    • breach of duty and related causes of action 208210

    • direct regulation 207208

    • disclosure 212215

    • shareholder voting 210211

    • stock distribution to executives, restrictions on 211212

  • corrective justice 249

  • cost minimization/profit maximization 44

  • Council on Economic Priorities 642

  • countervailing arguments against employment regulation and mandates 1720

  • creaming 503

  • credit 411

  • Croatia 136

  • cross-border hiring 201204

  • CRS 592

  • Cuba 421

  • culture 219222

  • Current Population Survey 155, 349, 484, 486

  • Cyprus 136

  • Czech Republic 132, 136, 327

  • damages 451

  • Davis–Bacon Act 610

  • death benefits 256

  • debt bondage 429, 432, 435

  • decision–making, imperfect 17

  • Declaration Relative to the Universal Abolition of the Slave Trade 420

  • de facto coverage 238243

  • default rules 636

  • defined benefit plans 543544

  • defined contribution plans 544

  • de jure coverage 237238

  • demand:

    • aggregate 40

    • forced labor and human trafficking 431433

    • slavery 421423

  • demand curve 609

  • Denmark 131, 132, 136, 142, 326

  • Department of Labor 491, 501, 510

    • future employment law 696

    • Job Accommodation Network 352

    • migration 595

    • pensions and retirement 547

    • Population Survey 699

    • unemployment 494

  • destructive competition 38

  • deterrence 249

  • diffusion effects 588

  • p. 723disability 342357

    • accommodation 298

    • discrimination 355357

    • economic theory 343349

    • educational attainment 353354

    • empirical work 349353

    • health care 354355

    • ratings, equity for 258

    • see also Americans with Disabilities Act

  • disadvantaged workers 502, 507, 509

  • discharge 75, 447474

    • challenges 471474

    • identifying effects of American state laws 4659

    • international comparative perspective 452453, 460465

    • market failures 458460

    • political economy of employment protection 469471

    • predicted effects 455458

    • trends and legal change 453455

    • United States employment and labor laws 449451

  • disclosure 212215, 641

  • discouraged workers 485

  • discrimination 296316, 675

  • discriminatory discharges 101

  • discriminatory signals 8586, 89

  • dislocated workers 502, 504506

  • disparate impact 297, 307308, 309310, 342, 349

  • disparate treatment 297298, 342, 349

  • displacement effect 105

  • disputes adjudication 361390

    • see also arbitration

  • disqualifying income 492

  • Doctoral Recipients in the United States Survey 595

  • Doctor’s Associates Inc. v Casarotto (1996) 371

  • domestic services 432

  • Due Process Protocol 373374, 691

  • Duffield v. Robertson Stephens Co. (1998) 368

  • Dukes v. Wal–Mart Stores 706

  • Dunlop Commission 3, 373

  • Duplex Printing Co. v. Deering (1921) 694

  • dyadic models 433

  • Earned Doctorates Survey 595

  • Earned Income Tax Credit program 50, 163

  • earnings losses of dislocated workers 504506

  • Economic Espionage Act 1996 523524

  • economic protection 30

  • Ecuador 678

  • education 336337, 353354, 402403, 4078, 411, 412

    • see also lifelong learning

  • Edwards v. Arthur Andersen 521

  • EEO-1 reports 313

  • efficiency 4145, 346

    • of competitive markets 7

    • defined in terms of consumers’ interests 7

    • wage theory 37, 4344, 67

  • efficient allocation 6, 7

  • efficient contract model 110113, 115

  • efficient frontier 558

  • ejusdem generis principle 367

  • El Salvador 408

  • empirical evidence 1920

  • p. 724employee:

    • definition 6956

    • inventions 517

    • mobility 530

    • participation 675

  • Employee Benefits Security Administration 547

  • Employee Plans Business Division 547

  • Employee Polygraph Act 1988 697698

  • Employee Retirement Income Security Act 1974 180181, 540, 541, 546547, 549, 550, 557, 559

    • future employment law 697

    • health insurance 177178

    • Title IV 551

  • employer:

  • employment:

  • Employment Service 501, 504

  • enforcement 638, 639, 672673

  • Environmental Protection Agency 641

  • environmental standards 633

  • Epstein model 305306

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 347, 350, 374375, 645, 648

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Waffle House Inc. (2002) 374375

  • Equal Pay Act 307

  • equity 257259

  • Estonia 136

  • Europe 631

  • European Commission 430, 713

  • European Court of Justice 633, 674

  • European Union 3

    • education and training 145

    • Employment Framework Directive 343

    • international standards and trade 667, 673676, 681

    • new governance approaches 633, 635, 639, 641

  • EUROPOL 435

  • Exchange Act 1934 212

  • exchange value 42

  • exhaustion rate 495496

  • experience rating 498, 499

  • ex post moral hazard 252

  • Extended Benefits 495

  • Extended Unemployment Compensation Act 495

  • externalities 1617, 4550, 637

  • external labor market 346

  • Fair Labor Association 642

  • Fair Labor Standards Act 1938 21, 40, 691

  • fairness 78

  • fallacy of composition 40

  • Families and Work Institute 332

  • family constitution 403

  • Family and Medical Leave Act 1993 326, 330, 333, 708, 714

  • Federal Arbitration Act 367, 368, 371

  • Federal Budget 2009 541542

  • Federal Employers Liability Act 247248

  • Federal Organizational Sentencing Guidelines 649

  • Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 704

  • final-average-pay plans, non-portability of 565

  • p. 725Financial Accounting Standards Board 176, 557

  • financial data 118

  • financial incentives created by pension plans 56069

    • benefit accrual patterns 563569

    • health benefits and timing of retirement 569

    • pension wealth accumulation and early retirement 562563

    • tax preferences for pension savings and work disincentives 561562

  • Finland 132, 136, 212

  • firm-specific human capital 6365

  • First Great Law and Economics Movement 20

  • food subsidy 411

  • Forced Labor Convention (No.29) 428

  • forced labor and human trafficking 427440

    • bonded labor 434435

    • coercion models 433434

    • demand and supply of exploitable labor 4313

    • empirical advantage 437439

    • legislation 427430

    • magnitude of contemporary forced labor and trafficking 430431

    • market failure and comparative advantage 435437

    • state-imposed forced labor 439440

  • France 135, 136, 142

    • accommodating families 327, 329, 331, 333

    • discharge 454, 461, 465

    • guaranteed minimum inter-occupational wage (SMIG) 153

    • international executive pay 188, 189, 191, 214

    • international standards and trade 673

    • migration 596

    • minimum inter-occupational growth wage (SMIC) 153

    • Sodexho 617

  • freedom of contract 9, 19, 520

  • free riders 17

  • full employment 36

  • full utilization of labor 7

  • fundamental welfare theorems 7, 8, 45

  • gang system 425

  • gap effect 323

  • General Accepted Accounting Principles 557

  • General Accounting Office 501

  • General Health Care Reform 264

  • General Motors: Voluntary Employee Benefit Association 176

  • geographically defined groups 709711

  • Germany 21

    • accommodating families 329, 330, 333

    • Corporate Sector Supervision and Transparency Act 211212

    • discharge 454, 464465

    • Disclosure of Executive Remuneration Act (VorstOG) 214

    • education and training 132, 134, 136

    • Federal Statistical Office 597

    • Industrial Injuries Institutes 235

    • international executive pay 188190, 191193, 194, 195, 202203, 210, 217, 218

    • international standards and trade 673

    • Mannesmann case 220

    • migration and labor markets 585, 596598

    • minimum wage legislation 153154

    • share ownership patterns 197198

    • Stock Corporations Act 1965 208

    • workplace disability 343

  • Ghana 408

  • Gilmer v. Interstate/Johnson Lane (1991) 367369, 379

  • globalization, effects of 631636

  • golden handcuffs 566

  • good causes 492, 498

  • good faith:

  • Government Accountability Office 145, 430, 647

  • p. 726Government Accounting Standards Board 557

  • government failure 18

  • government regulation to foster employee organization 100101

  • Granger-Sims causality test 470

  • Great Depression 38

  • Greece 136

  • growth 4145

  • Guatemala 408

  • guest workers 596597

  • Gulags 428

  • Haiti 422

  • hard justice systems 364366

  • hardship 520

  • health benefits for retirees 546

  • health benefits and timing of retirement 569

  • health care:

    • disability in the workplace 354355

    • plans 541

    • systems, separate 263265

  • health insurance 172181

    • consequences of linking employment and health insurance 176177

    • employment mandates and Employee Retirement Income Security Act 180181

    • factors encouraging employment-based health insurance 174176

    • regulation 177180

  • health maintenance organizations 262, 263264

  • Health and Retirement Study 347

  • Health Savings Accounts 175

  • Heckscher-Ohlin theory of comparative advantage 436

  • high performance work system 4445

  • high-quarter earnings 4912, 494

  • high skills market, effects on 589, 5946

  • homogeneity condition 31, 3233

  • Honduras 591

  • Hong Kong 189, 190, 218

  • Hooters of America Inc. v. Phillips (1999) 370, 373

  • Hour and Wage Division 689

  • household poverty 162166

  • housing 335336

  • human capital:

    • firm-specific 62, 6365

    • formation 402403

    • general 63, 65

    • intellectual property and restrictive covenants 530531

    • investment in lifelong learning 135139

  • humanness of labor 25

  • human trafficking see forced labor and human trafficking

  • Hungary 132, 136, 142

  • Hurricane Mitch 590591

  • ‘hybrid’ retirement plans 544545

  • IBM 701702

  • Iceland 136

  • immigration law 35

  • Immigration and Naturalization Service 591

  • immigration surplus 587

  • impairment approach 253

  • imperfect information 1415, 118119

  • implicit self-enforcing contracts 7172, 89

  • implied contract 451, 467469

  • implied notice 7879

  • inactively charged benefits 498

  • Income and Program Participation Survey 349

  • India 189, 197

    • Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976 430

    • child labor 406407, 408

    • collective action 606

    • Companies Act (1956) 207

    • forced labor and trafficking 431, 437

    • international executive pay 190191, 208, 214215

    • international standards and trade 673

    • National Stock Exchange 200

    • share ownership patterns 199200

    • state-owned enterprises 199

  • indifference curves 110112, 113

  • individual bargaining 8788

  • individual employees 6979

  • individual employment rights 447

  • individual retirement accounts 545, 551, 554556, 558, 571

  • p. 727Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 353

  • Indonesia 679

  • Industrial Revolution 163, 424

  • ineffectively charged benefits 498499

  • inevitable disclosure doctrine 525

  • information:

    • and communication technology 134, 141

    • economy 528531

    • imperfect 1415, 118119

    • problems, pre-contractual 8386

    • regimes 641

    • see also asymmetric information

  • initiative 89

  • injuries and diseases, coverage of 237238, 239241

  • innovation 518

  • insiders 31, 34

  • institutional law and economics 2050, 107, 159

    • bargaining power, inequality of 3035

    • competitive model critique 2729

    • efficiency and growth 4145

    • exploitation 35

    • externalities and social costs 4550

    • involuntary unemployment and destructive competition 3641

    • key assumptions 2427

    • people, ideas and historical context 2024

  • institutions 26

  • insurance 405406, 409, 411412

    • workers’ compensation 266267

    • see also health insurance

  • Integration of Benefits and Services 264

  • Integration within Self-Insuring Employers 264

  • intellectual property and restrictive covenants 517532

    • information economy 528531

    • regulatory and contractual controls 518528

      • invention assignment 526528

      • non-competition agreements 519523

      • trade secrets 523526

  • intensive job search assistance 510511

  • inter–injury horizontal equity for benefits 258259

  • inter–injury horizontal equity for ratings 258

  • intermediate skills 589

  • internal labor market 69091

  • Internal Revenue Code 174, 540, 547, 551, 571

  • Internal Revenue Service 174, 546547

  • International Air Line Pilots Association 618

  • International Brotherhood of Teamsters 618, 624

  • International Coalition of Free Trade Unions 623

  • international comparative perspective and discharge 460465

  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 418

  • International Criminal Court 420

  • international executive pay 183224

    • CEO pay in other countries 186195

      • compensation convergence 193195

      • compensation in the DAX companies 192

      • lower CEO pay outside the United States 191193

      • lower levels of performance-based pay than in the United States 188191

      • pay components 2005 187

      • variable pay 1998 and 2005 189

    • culture 219222

    • high compensation levels 186

    • high pay for performance levels 184186

    • labor law 216217

    • ‘soft law’ 217219

    • tax 215216

    • see also corporate law and globalization of executive pay;market-oriented drivers of executive pay

  • international experience of pensions and retirement 542543

  • international framework agreements 621

  • International Labor Organization 4, 27, 671673

    • child labor 399

  • p. 728collective action 619, 620, 624

  • Committee on Freedom of Association 623

  • Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work 436437

  • education and training 143

  • forced labor and trafficking 430, 431, 437439

  • fundamental conventions 672673

  • international standards and trade 666, 667, 673, 678, 681, 689

  • new governance approaches 633, 635

  • slavery 428

  • World Employment Report 1998–9 135

  • international labor standards and international trade 41213, 66681

    • definition of labor standards 667668

    • economic arguments against imposition of standards 668669, 67071

    • economic arguments supporting imposition of standards 66971

    • European Union 6736

    • International Labor Organization 6713

    • trading blocs 67680

  • international treaties and standards 6235

  • International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers’ Associations 620

  • intra-family arrangements, informal 409

  • intra-injury horizontal equity for benefits 259

  • intra-injury horizontal equity for ratings 258

  • invention assignment 5268

  • invisible hand 36, 38

  • IRA contributions 561, 562

  • IRC 571

  • Ireland 132, 136, 633, 673

  • isoprofit curve 110112

  • Israel 596, 673

  • Italy 136, 144, 145, 189, 191, 197

    • accommodating families 327

    • child labor 410

    • discharge 461, 464

    • international executive pay 194, 195

    • international standards and trade 673

  • Jamaica 421

  • JAMS/Endispute 374

  • Japan 642

  • Jim Crow laws 302, 306307, 312

  • Job Corps 138

  • job ladders 690

  • job-matching and trade-frictions approach 489490

  • Job Openings and Labor Turnover survey 487

  • job-search and reservation wage model 487489

  • job security 472

  • job training, general and specific 521

  • Job Training Partnership Act 137139, 502, 508509

    • Private Industry Councils 503504

  • Jones and Laughlin v. NLRB (1937) 691692

  • Judicial Arbitration and Mediation Service 387

  • jus sanguine principle 597

  • just-cause rule 6974, 612

  • justice 4778

  • Keogh plans 545

  • Keynesianism 4041

  • knowledge 701

  • Korea 142, 673

    • see also North Korea; South Korea

  • Labor Condition Applications 595

  • labor contracting 543

  • p. 729labor courts 100

  • labor force participation rate 486

  • Labor–Management Relations Act see Taft–Hartley

  • labor market regulation 910

  • labor standards 667

    • see also international labor standards and international trade

  • laissez-faire 2324, 38, 43

  • Laos 679

  • last-period problem 71, 81

  • Latin America 3, 154

    • Coordination of Banana Workers Unions 620

    • discharge 453, 462

    • forced labor and trafficking 432

    • international executive pay 200

  • Latvia 136

  • League of Nations Slavery Convention (1926) 419, 420

  • least-cost information gatherer 8384

  • legally enforceable constraints and discharge 447

  • legal realism 2224

  • legitimacy of interests 520

  • liability-driven investment strategies 558

  • liberty 25

  • life cycle model 552, 553, 554

  • life expectancy for men and women (1940–2060) 561

  • lifelong learning 131145

    • empirical evidence 135139

    • policy responses 139145

      • general framework 139142

      • tax rebates and deductions 143145

      • training accounts, individual 144145

      • training funds 142143

      • training leave, paid 143

      • training levies 142

    • theoretical framework 132135

  • Link Aerospace 7012

  • Lisbon strategy 135

  • Lithuania 136

  • living wage campaign 108

  • Lochner case (1905) 152

  • long-term incentive plans 184, 185, 188189, 190, 193, 194

  • Los Angeles Department of Water and Power v. Manhart 314

  • loss of earning capacity approach 253

  • lost workday rate 283

  • low skills 589

  • Lundberg–Startz model 304

  • Luxembourg 136

  • McAdams 314

  • McCarran–Ferguson Act 177

  • McReynolds v. Sodexho Marriott Services Inc. (2002) 706

  • macroeconomic stabilization 36

  • Malaysia 189, 679

  • Malta 136

  • mandatory arbitration 366367

  • mandatory rules 636

  • Manpower Development and Training Act 502

  • marginal cost 39

  • marginal productivity justice 8

  • Mariel Boatlift (1980) 590591

  • market failure 1417, 18, 435437, 458460, 636638

  • market ordering of employment relationship 636640

  • market-oriented drivers of executive pay 196207

    • cross-border hiring 201204

    • multinational enterprises, growth of 205207

    • share ownership patterns 196201

    • transnational mergers and acquisitions 204205

  • Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation 431

  • Massachusetts Workforce Training Fund 143

  • material safety data sheets 281

  • maternity leave 675

  • Mathias v. Jacobs 520

  • maximum of liberty 19

  • median voter model 113114, 115

  • mediation 364

  • Medicaid 263, 355, 563

  • medical care and rehabilitation services 260265

    • health care systems, separate 263265

    • medical benefits in practice 260261

    • medical benefits in theory 260

    • p. 730performance improvement policies 262263

    • performance studies 261262

  • Medicare 263, 355, 546, 563

  • MERCOSUR 676, 677679, 680

    • Central Labor Bodies Coordination 678

    • Common Market Group 678

    • Sociolabor Declaration 678679

  • mergers and acquisitions, transnational 204205

  • merit good 17

  • meta-regulation 643644

  • Methodenstreit (war over method) 21

  • Mexico:

    • collective action 618, 624, 625

    • international executive pay 189

    • international standards and trade 667, 672, 673

    • migration 589, 594, 596

    • see also North American Free Trade Agreement

  • Middle East 432, 600601

  • migration and labor markets 585601

    • empirical results for the United States 588596

      • aggregate studies 592594

      • high skills market, effects on 594596

      • spatial studies 589592

    • Germany 596598

    • in the host country 586

    • neoclassical model 586588

    • United Kingdom 598600

  • minimum funding rules 557

  • minimum wage legislation 10, 150167

    • alternative theoretical perspectives 157159

    • empirical evidence 155156

    • household poverty and work incentives 162166

    • introducing and raising minimum wage, dynamic effects of 159162

    • neoclassical theory 154155

    • types of 150154

  • Model Act (Revised) 256

  • mommy tracking 327

  • monetary eligibility criteria 491, 493

  • money wage 38

  • monitored self-regulation 290

  • monopoly 41, 302303

    • bilateral 64

    • or cartel theory 10, 607611

    • model of unions 103106

    • pressure, traditional 614616

    • regulating unions and collective bargaining 115, 116

  • monopsony 1516, 41, 87, 108

  • moral hazard 250251, 459

  • Morocco 408

  • multinational enterprises, growth of 205207

  • Myanmar 439, 679

  • NASDAQ 217218

  • National Academy of Arbitrators 373374, 378, 382, 387

  • National Academy of Social Insurance 237, 238, 256, 257

  • National Administrative Office 676677

  • National Association of Securities Dealers 380

  • National Commission on State Workmen’s Compensation Laws 236237, 256, 258, 267

  • National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws 523

  • National Council on Compensation Insurance 240

  • National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 243

  • National JTPA Evaluation 507510

  • National Labor Relations Act 21, 40, 623, 691692

  • National Labor Relations Board 623

  • national regulation and new governance approaches 630651

    • globalization, effects of 631636

    • market and non-market ordering of employment relationship 636640

    • p. 731sequenced regulation 643646

    • third-way regulatory approaches 646651

  • National Supported Work Demonstration 507

  • National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system 243

  • needs 38

  • negative know-how 524

  • neoclassical law and economics 520

    • countervailing arguments against employment regulation and mandates 1720

    • employment mandates 1214

    • international standards and trade 667, 668, 680, 681

    • labor market regulation 1012

    • market failure 1417

    • migration and labor markets 586588

    • minimum wage legislation 154155, 158

    • models and assumptions 69

    • workplace disability 344, 345347

  • nepotism 301

  • Netherlands 81

    • accommodating families 327, 330

    • compensation 236

    • education and training 132, 135, 136, 142, 144

    • Extraordinary Decree on Labor Relations (1945) 7677

    • forced labor and trafficking 432433

    • international executive pay 189, 194

    • new governance approaches 633

    • pensions and retirement 543

  • New Deal 4, 21, 23, 40, 41, 69092

    • future employment law 697, 698, 707, 708

    • regulating unions and collective bargaining 102

  • New Institutional Economics 45

  • New York Stock Exchange 217218, 380

  • New Zealand 132

    • compensation 236

    • international executive pay 218

    • minimum wage legislation 151152

  • Nicaragua 591

  • Niger 427

  • Nike 617, 622

  • no accommodation mandate states 350

  • no damage compensation 7478

  • Non-accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment 482

  • non-compete covenants 8183, 517, 522, 523, 525, 529

  • non-competition agreements 519523

  • non-disclosure agreements 517, 526

  • non-excludability 17

  • non-governmental organizations 61922, 624, 642

  • non-market ordering of employment relationship 636640

  • nonmonetary eligibility criteria 491492

  • nonqualified deferred compensation arrangements 545546, 556

  • non-rivalry 17

  • nonseparation criteria (UI work test) 492493

  • no-protection states 350

  • Nordic countries 154

  • Norris–LaGuardia Act 1932 691, 694

  • North America 421, 676

  • North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation 624625, 635, 676677, 680

  • North American Free Trade Agreement 618, 624625, 666667, 676677

  • North Korea 439

  • Norway 132, 136, 201, 203, 206, 326, 461

  • notice of large-scale layoffs 675

  • notice periods 7881

  • Notification and Federal Employee Antidiscrimination and Retaliation Act 2002 651

  • notional defined contribution plans 543

  • Oakwood Care Center and N & W Agency 697

  • obligations upon termination 7483

    • covenants not to complete 8183

    • no damage compensation 7478

    • notice periods and severance pay 7881

  • occupational safety and health 675

  • Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970 275, 277

    • collective action 622

    • p. 732compensation 245

    • future employment law 697, 708

  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration 275, 281291

    • collective action 624

    • compensation 243

    • Cooperative Compliance Programs 647

    • cooperative model of enforcement 288291

    • empirical evidence of effectiveness 282284

    • future employment law 689

    • hazardous communication standard 281

    • inefficacy theory 284285

    • mandate 281282

    • new governance approaches 638, 639, 645, 646

    • non-compliance theory 285

    • overregulation causes underregulation 285286

    • prosecutorial approach to enforcement 287288

    • standard-setting reform 286287

  • occupational safety and health regulation 275292

    • reform 281

    • regulation and efficiency 277

    • spillover costs 276

    • wage premiums 276277

    • wage premiums, adequacy of 279280

    • wage premiums, empirical evidence of 278279

    • see also Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  • Office of Price Administration 174

  • Ombudsperson 363364

  • One-Stop Centers 503504

  • open-door policies 363

  • opportunistic terminations 7273

  • optimal choices 17

  • optimal sample size rule 488

  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 321, 324, 326, 327, 330331

    • forced labor and trafficking 436

    • migration 585

    • new governance approaches 635

  • organized period 21

  • output-based pay 67

  • outsiders 31, 34

  • ownership 2526

    • and control separation 44

  • Pakistan 438

  • Palermo Protocol 428430

  • Panel Study of Income Dynamics 352

  • Paraguay 677

  • parental leave 675

  • parental preferences 400401

  • Pareto optimality 6, 38, 45, 111, 119120

  • pay:

    • final-average pay plan 565

    • output-based 67

    • performance-related 188191, 194195

    • or play taxes 108

    • severance 7881

    • variable 190

    • see also international executive pay

  • payroll tax 497498

  • pecuniary externality 42

  • peer review 365

  • Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation 540, 543, 547, 551552, 558560

  • Pension Protection Act 2006 540, 554, 557, 558, 560

  • pensions and retirement 314315, 539574

    • annuitization, decline in 573574

    • behavioral economics 552554

    • coverage rate 469472

    • current pension system 540542

    • defined benefit plan 543544

    • defined contribution plans 544

    • funding of pensions 557558

    • health benefits 546

    • historical background of retirement 539540

    • ‘hybrid’ retirement plans 544545

    • individual retirement accounts and Keogh plans 545

    • international experience 542543

    • investing pensions 558559

    • life cycle model 552, 553

    • nonqualified deferred compensation arrangements 545546

    • Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation insurance 559560

    • p. 733phased retirement and bridge jobs, trend towards 573

    • regulation of pension plans 546552

      • annuity payouts and lump–sum distributions 550

      • benefit accrual 549

      • coverage 548

      • funding 551552

      • limits on contributions and benefits 549

      • minimum distribution age 551

      • nondiscrimination 549550

      • normal retirement ageand age discrimination 550551

      • participation 548

      • premature distributions 551

      • vesting 548

    • tax deferral 554556

    • traditional defined benefit plans, reduction of 572573

    • undersaving problems 572

    • see also Employee Retirement Income Security Act; financial incentives created by pension plans

  • performance improvement policies 262263

  • performance levels 184186

  • performance-related pay 188191, 194195

  • performance shares 186

  • performance standards 503

  • performance studies 261262

  • permanent partial disability benefits 254255, 256257, 259, 260, 268

  • permanent total disability benefits 255

  • personal freedom 89

  • Peru 678

  • phantom stock 184

  • Philippines 208, 679

  • Poland 132, 136, 189, 543

  • political democracy 30

  • political economy of employment

  • protection 469471

  • Portugal 132, 136

  • positive freedom 40

  • post-employment covenants 522

  • potential wage exploitation 33

  • power 2627

  • pre-contractual information problems 8386

  • preferred provider organizations 262

  • pregnancy 315

  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act 1978 315, 697

  • pre-organized period 21

  • present value amount 557

  • price 29

    • administered 33

    • floor 10

  • principal 66, 67

  • Prisoner’s Dilemma game 45, 120, 122

  • private bargaining 19

  • private benefit 16

  • private costs 16, 276

  • private pensions 543

  • probation periods 85

  • product 29

  • production possibility frontier 36

  • productivity 612

  • profit-sharing plans 544

  • Progressive Movement 4

  • property rights 2526

  • prosecutorial methods 290

  • protectable interests schema 531

  • proto-Keynesians 36

  • pseudo competitive wage 49

  • public goods and externalities 1617

  • purpose of an economy 24

  • Pyett v. Pennsylvania Building Co. (2007) 377378

  • qualified joint-and-survivor annuity 550

  • qualified plans 5546

  • quasi-rents 107

  • racial discrimination 426427

  • Racial Preferencing Licensing Act (hypothetical) 310

  • Railway Labor Act 378, 695

  • real wage 38

  • reasonable accommodation 297298

  • reasonableness (rule of reason) 34, 518, 519520

  • reasonable value 3334

  • reasonable workplace accommodation 342

  • redemption programs 427

  • redistribution 78

  • p. 734re-employment policies see training programs and re-employment policies

  • regulating unions and collective bargaining 96123

    • bargaining process, models of 114117

    • efficient contract model 110113

    • government regulation to foster employee organization 100101

    • market for union services 98100

    • median voter model 113114

    • monopoly model of unions 103106

    • rise and fall of unions in private sector 101103

    • strikes, models of 117122

    • wage and benefit increases 106110

  • regulation 639

  • regulatory capture by special interests 1819

  • regulatory failures 638639

  • regulatory pyramid 643

  • Rehabilitation Act 1973 697

  • rehabilitation services see medical care and rehabilitation services

  • relational contracts 6263, 89

  • rent seeking by special interests 1819

  • rents and quasi-rents 612613

  • repeat player effect 379380, 386

  • replacement rates 258259, 494495, 497

  • reporting effect 251252

  • reporting pyramid 645

  • reservation-wage rule (sequential-decision rule) 489

  • resources, unequal 3335

  • responsibility 89

  • restricted stock 184, 186

  • restrictive covenants see intellectual property and restrictive covenants

  • retirement see pensions and retirement

  • Ricardian rents 107

  • rights 3435

  • right to lie 84

  • right to work laws 100101

  • risk allocation 527

  • Rite Aid Corp. 704

  • Roman Empire 419, 420421, 422, 423, 539

  • Romania 136

  • Rome Statute 420

  • Roth arrangements 556

  • rulemaking 638, 639

  • Russian Federation 673

  • S&P 500 companies 186, 213

  • SA8000 Social Accountability Standard 642

  • safety 243252

    • approaches to workplace safety 244252

    • general assessment 252

    • management systems 290

    • trends in workplace health and safety 243244

    • see also occupational safety and health

  • salary 190

  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act 649650

  • satisficing behavior 44

  • Saudi Arabia 420

  • saver’s tax credit 556

  • Say’s Law 7, 36

  • Scandinavia 326, 327

  • scarring 345

  • Schwab model 305

  • scientific management 700

  • Screen Actors Guild: Global One Rule 614616

  • secondary boycott prohibitions 693695

  • second chance training programs 502

  • section 301 preemption doctrine 703

  • Securities Exchange Commission 217

  • segregation 299, 301302

  • self-implementation programs 641

  • self-regulation 36

  • Senate Committee 361, 390

  • seniority 80

  • separation criteria 492

  • sequenced regulation 643646

  • serfdom 429

  • Service Employees International Union 617618

  • severance pay 7881

  • sex discrimination 313316

  • sex industry 432

  • sexual harassment 316, 648

  • shareholder voting 210211

  • share ownership patterns 196201

  • p. 735Sherman Act 522

  • shirking 66, 67, 72

  • shock effect argument 44

  • Silicon Valley 529, 711

  • Singapore 142, 189, 218, 679

  • slavery 405, 419427

    • de facto (slavery condition) 420

    • de jure (slavery status) 420

    • demand and supply 421423

    • economic theory 423424

    • legislation 419420

    • magnitude 420421

    • present-day legacy 426427

    • profitability 424426

    • Williams hypothesis 426

  • Slovakia 136

  • Slovenia 132, 136

  • smuggling of migrants 429

  • social benefit 16

  • social clause 436

  • social costs 16, 4550, 276

  • social pressure 222

  • Social Security 541, 543, 552, 561, 563, 567

  • Social Security Act 1935 21, 40, 491, 497, 697

  • Social Security Disability Insurance 347, 354355, 356357

  • Social Security program 539

  • social subsidy 49

  • social tax 49

  • soft justice systems 362364

  • ‘soft law’ 217219

  • sorting model 305306

  • South Africa 189, 195, 209, 302, 408

  • South America 606, 676

  • South Asia 432

  • Southeast Asia 676

    • see also Association of Southeast Asian Nations

  • South Korea 189, 212, 214215

  • sovereignty 26

  • Spain 136, 144, 189, 194, 214

    • colonies 421, 422

    • discharge 453, 461, 465

    • international executive pay 215

    • international standards and trade 673

  • spatial studies 589592

  • Special Negotiating Body 675

  • Speenhamland system of poor relief 163, 165

  • spillover costs 276

  • spillover effects 473474

  • spillovers, positive 529

  • Starbucks Corp. 704705

  • start-up ventures 527528

  • state court outcomes 380381

  • state law 450, 451

  • statistical discrimination model 309, 314, 316

  • status-discrimination model 309

  • status-production model 306307, 314

  • statute law 447

  • statutory discrimination 384

  • stock:

  • strategic behavior 119122

  • strikes, models of 117122

  • structural discrimination 426427

  • substantive due process doctrine 24

  • Sudan 427

  • suitable work 493

  • Supiot Report 713714

  • Supplemental Security Income 354355, 356357

  • supply:

    • forced labor and human trafficking 431433

    • slavery 421423

  • supply curve: regulating unions and collective bargaining 98103, 105, 108, 110

  • Supreme Court 24, 34, 42

  • Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses 239

  • sweat equity 43

  • Sweatshop Watch 616

  • Sweden 131, 132, 135, 136, 189

    • accommodating families 326, 329, 330, 336

    • p. 736Code of Corporate Governance 218

    • Companies Act 2006 210211, 212

    • Confederation of Swedish Enterprise 221

    • Institutional Shareholder Services 212

    • international executive pay 188189, 200201, 203, 206, 209, 214, 215

    • international standards and trade 673

    • pensions and retirement 543

    • share ownership patterns 197

    • Stockholm Stock Exchange 194, 218

  • Switzerland 132, 135, 136, 144, 145, 189

    • compensation 236

    • international executive pay 191, 193

    • pensions and retirement 543

  • Taft–Hartley Act 540

  • Taft–Hartley Amendments 21, 114, 117, 694

  • Taiwan 189

  • tangible economic losses 235

  • Tariff Act 1930 439

  • taste-for-discrimination model 203, 299303, 307308, 313314, 343

  • tax 215216

    • deferral 554556

    • Earned Income Tax Credit program 50, 163

    • pay or play 108

    • payroll 497498

    • preferences for pension savings and work disincentives 561562

    • rebates and deductions 143145

    • saver’s tax credit 556

    • social 49

  • temporary partial disability 254

  • Temporary Protected Status 591

  • temporary total disability benefits 254, 256

  • temporary workers 696697

  • termination rules and consequences of termination 6883

    • at-will termination 68, 6974

    • good faith limitation 6869

    • just cause limitation 6974

    • see also obligations

  • Texas Worker Adjustment Demonstration 507

  • Thailand 679

  • third-party administrator 266

  • third-party governance 64, 89

  • third-way regulatory approaches 646651

  • tit-for-tat compliance model 643

  • Title VII 308309, 311314, 315

    • dispute adjudication 375, 377

    • new governance approaches 635

  • tort law 245249

  • total quality management 700, 701

  • Toxic Release Inventory Program 641

  • trade:

    • secrets 517, 523526

    • see also international labor standards and international trade

  • Trade Adjustment Assistance 502

  • trading blocs 676680

  • traditional approach 4

  • traditional regulation (command-and-control regulation) 636

  • trafficking in persons 429430

  • Trafficking Victims Protection Act 2000 430

  • Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act 2005 430

  • training:

    • generalized 522

    • programs and re-employment policies 501511

      • earnings losses of dislocated workers 504506

      • effectiveness of programs 506510

      • historical background 501504

      • intensive job search assistance 510511

    • requirements 609

    • see also lifelong learning

  • transactions and transaction cost 26

  • transfer of ownership 675676

  • transnational mergers and acquisitions 204205

  • transportation 334335

  • Treaty of Amsterdam 673, 675

  • Treaty of Asuncion 677678

  • Treaty of European Union (Maastricht) 601, 673674

  • Treaty of Rome 673674

  • p. 737triadic models 433

  • true injury effect 251252

  • trust fund adequacy 499500

  • Turkey 327

  • two-tiered contracts 114

  • unconscionability 34, 368, 370373

    • Due Process Protocol 373374

    • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 374375

    • National Academy of Arbitrators 373374

    • procedural 370373

    • substantive 370371

  • undervaluation 157

  • unemployment 480511

    • compensation 541

    • definition 480

    • demand-deficient 481482

    • frictional 480481, 482, 491

    • insurance 490501

      • benefit adequacy 493496

      • disincentive effects and optimal benefits 4967

      • eligibility and benefit determination 491493

      • financing 497499

      • policy issues 499

      • tradeoffs 500501

      • trust fund adequacy 499500

    • involuntary 3641

    • job-matching and trade-frictions approach 489490

    • job-search and reservation wage model 487489

    • measurement 480, 483485

    • rate and related labor force statistics 485487

    • recipiency rate 493494

    • structural 481, 482483

    • types 480483

    • see also training programs

  • Uniform Trade Secrets Act 523524

  • unintended consequences law 10

  • unions 10

    • resistance and employer concession curves 115116

    • security agreements 100101

    • shock effect 109

  • United Farm Workers 624

  • United Food and Commercial Workers Union 706

  • United Kingdom:

  • United Nations 4289, 671

    • Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 343

    • General Assembly 418

  • United Parcel Service 618, 704

  • United States v. Hutchenson (1941) 694

  • p. 738Universal Declaration of Human Rights 418

  • universities/private sector companies alliances 529530

  • Uruguay 677

  • value, reasonable 27

  • value of statistical life 278279

  • variable pay 190

  • Venezuela 189, 678

  • vertical equity for benefits 258

  • vertical equity for ratings 258

  • Vietnam 406, 679

  • violence 101

  • voluntary arbitration 366

  • voluntary private pension systems 541, 542

  • Voting Rights Act 312

  • wages 29

    • bills 10

    • competitive 37

    • councils 151

    • data 118

    • funds 164

    • increases 106110

    • levels 80

    • living wage campaign 108

    • loss approach 253

    • money 38

    • potential wage exploitation 33

    • premiums 276277, 278280

    • pseudo-competitive 49

    • real 38

    • reservation 487499

    • see also minimum wage legislation

  • Wagner Act 114

  • Wagner-Peyser Act 1933 501

  • Wal-Mart bill 180

  • wealth maximization 6

  • Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act 1958 540

  • West Coast Hotel v. Parrish (1937) 152, 691

  • whistleblowing 88, 649650

  • white-collar workers 7980

  • Williams hypothesis 424, 426

  • Wood’s rule see at-will rule

  • work disincentives and tax preferences 561562

  • Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act 1988 78, 697

  • Worker Profiling and Reemployment Services program 511

  • workers’ compensation 235268, 541

    • de jure coverage 237238

    • delivery system models 265266

    • insurance arrangements 266267

    • see also cash benefits; medical care and rehabilitation services; safety

  • work-first approach 501502

  • workforce autocracy 33

  • Workforce Investment Act 145, 503

  • Workforce Investment Boards 503504

  • work incentives 162166

  • working hours 674

  • Working Sub–group 10 on Labor Relations, Employment and Social Security 1992 678

  • workplace accommodation mandates 344, 348

  • Workplace Code on Conduct 643

  • workplace injury and illness, cost of 48

  • workplace sabbatical/social drawing rights 712714

  • World Bank 411

  • Doing Business project 454, 463

  • World Trade Organization 436, 623, 666, 676

  • Wright v. Universal Maritime Service Corp. (1998) 376

  • Writers’ Guild 706

  • Wrongful Discharge from Employment Act 470