Index : Index
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[In: Volume 7, Francesco Parisi (ed) Production of Legal Rules]

  • p. 418p. 419Abbott, Kenneth W. 323

  • Aberbach, Joel 69

  • abortion rights 197

  • Acemoglu, Daron 156, 159

  • adjudication 63

    • precision of the law and accuracy of 22

    • social cost 4652

  • adverse selection 134

  • Agbory, Julius A. 155

  • agencies

    • political agency problem 5861

    • production of legal rules by 6264, 8283

      • curbing discretion by procedural rules 6468

      • delegation of rule-making power 7780

      • econometric approaches to control of discretion 7072

      • police-patrol control versus fire-alarm control 6870

      • rule-production process 8082

      • spatial approaches to control of discretion 7276

  • alcohol prohibition 190191

  • Alesina, A. 367

  • Alexander, C. R. 219, 222

  • Altree, Lillian R. 3536

  • anarchy 317318

  • Anderlini, Luca 151

  • Angeloni, I. 367

  • Aranson, Peter H. 94, 98, 125

  • Aristotle 44, 342

  • Armour, J. 220

  • Arrow, Kenneth J. 126

  • Arrow theorem 99

  • Arruñada, Benito 156

  • articulation theories 300302

  • Arvan, Lanny 78

  • Ashenfelter, Orley 95

  • asymmetric information

    • bias in common law and 139140

    • criminal law and 217

  • attribution theory 211

  • Austrian economics

    • critique of efficiency in common law 124128

  • Ayres, Ian 243

  • Bailey, Martin J. 97, 117, 133, 134

  • Baker, Scott 150

  • Balla, Steven J. 70

  • bargaining power 78, 235

    • Coasian interjurisdictional bargains 357360

    • settlement bargaining 22

  • Baron, David P. 244

  • Bartle, Ian 230

  • Bawn, Kathleen 69, 78

  • Baxter, William F. 3536

  • Beccaria, Cesare 188

  • Beck, Nathaniel 71

  • Becker, Gary S. 199

  • Bederman, David J. 295

  • behaviour

    • effects of precision of the law on 1921, 23

    • effects of rules and standards on 2527, 2829

    • evolutionary models of judicial behaviour 8698

    • focal point theory see focal point theory of expressive law

    • social normssee social norms

  • Benabou, R. 210

  • Bennedsen, Morten 76

  • Benson, Bruce L. 66, 116

  • Bentham, Jeremy 44, 341

  • Berkowitz, Daniel 154

  • Berman, Harold J. 146

  • Besanko, David A. 78

  • bias 34

  • Blume, L. 13, 14, 31, 37

  • Bosch-Domènech, Antoni 171

  • Boudreaux, Donald J. 8

  • bounded rationality 217218

  • Bradbury, J. C. 11

  • Braithwaite, John 222, 243

  • Brennan, Geoffrey 9, 10, 15

  • Breton, Albert 81

  • Bretton Woods institutions 312

  • Breyer, Stephen G. 81

  • Brough, Wayne 97

  • Buchanan, James M. 3, 4, 5, 1112, 128, 391

  • Buell, S. 223

  • Bull, Hedley 318

  • bureaucracies

    • international law and 268269

    • production of legal rules by 6264, 8283

      • curbing discretion by procedural rules 6468

      • delegation of rule-making power 7780

      • econometric approaches to control of discretion 7072

      • police-patrol control versus fire-alarm control 6870

      • rule-production process 8082

      • spatial approaches to control of discretion 7276

  • Buskens, Vincent 232

  • Cannas, G. 220

  • Carbonara, Emanuela 192, 194, 195, 368, 369, 370

  • Cary, I. W. 370

  • change agents 209, 214

  • Chile 412

  • China 400, 410411

  • choice of law 376

  • civil (code) law 144

  • Claessens, S. 408

  • Clay, Karen B. 154

  • Clement, A. 222

  • Coase theorem 231

  • Coasian interjurisdictional bargains 357360

  • coercion 275

  • cognitive biases 217218

  • Cohen, Mark A. 79, 95

  • common law 144, 146, 377

  • efficiency of 9394, 9698, 107108

  • putative primacy of 158159

    • adaptability 148151

    • codification failures and endogenous legal traditions 157158

    • criticisms 155158

    • endogenous legal traditions 151153

    • evidence 153154

    • historical common law emphasis on private ordering 146147

    • omitted variables and observational equivalence 155157

  • competition

  • compliance 323324

  • Concert of Europe 310

  • Condorcet Jury theorem 99

  • p. 421conflict of laws 376

    • approaches to conflicts 377378

      • multilateral approach 379380

      • substantive approach 380

      • unilateral approach 378

    • efficiency and evolution of rules 381383

    • history 376377

  • Congress system 310, 314

  • consensus test 5

  • constitutional economics 34, 15

    • definition of constitutions 3

    • focal power of constitutional law 174176

    • normative

      • critical evaluation 56

      • efficiency and 5

      • methodological foundations 45

    • positive

      • direct democracy versus representative institutions 1214

      • explicit constitutional change 78

      • horizontal separation of powers 910

      • implicit constitutional change 89

      • presidential versus parliamentary systems 1011

      • procedures for generating constitutional rules 67

      • relevance of preferences and restrictions for generating procedural rules 7

      • unicameral versus bicameral systems 1112

  • constructivism 318

  • consumer protection 179

  • contract law 29, 33, 35

  • contractarian approaches 4

  • control systems

    • discretion control

      • econometric approaches 7072

      • spatial approaches 7276

    • police-patrol control versus fire-alarm control 6870

  • conventions see social norms

  • Cooter, Robert D. 9, 78, 97, 113, 151, 189, 207, 209

  • co-regulation 244

  • corporate law, legal harmonization of 370372, 373

  • corporate social responsibility 244246

  • corporatism 228

  • corruption 11, 235

  • Cosgel, Metin M. 99

  • costssee legal costs

  • countervailing norms 185, 197198

  • courts

    • international law and 266268

    • international tribunals 264266

    • see also judges

  • Crain, W.M. 11

  • Crawford, Vincent 172

  • Crew, Michael A. 97, 119

  • criminal law, social stigma and 205206, 213

    • belief in stigmatizing effects of criminal law 218

    • bounded rationality and cognitive biases 217218

    • economic perspective 218220

    • information asymmetry and high legal standard 217

    • punishment 213215

    • quantifying stigma 220221

    • standard of proof 216217

    • substantive issues 215216

  • Curran, Christopher 119

  • Curran, John F. 119

  • customary law 54

  • Cutrone, M. 11

  • cybersecurity 240

  • Dahl, Robert 339

  • D’Amato, A. 300

  • Dawson, John P. 146

  • p. 422De Alessi, Louis 126

  • De Marzo, Peter 239

  • decentralization see federalism

  • delegation

    • agencies and bureaucracies and delegation of rule-making power 7780

    • self-regulation as delegation of state law-making powers 232235

  • demand-side analysis of common law efficiency 109114

  • DeMesquita, Ethan Bueno 67

  • democracy 175

    • direct democracy versus representative institutions 1214

  • Denicolò, Vincenzo 236

  • Depoorter, Ben 122, 138, 140, 141

  • DeShazo, J. R. 65

  • Devries, A. 220

  • direct democracy 1214

  • discretion

    • curbing discretion by procedural rules 6468

    • econometric approaches to control of 7072

    • spatial approaches to control of discretion 7276

  • Diver, Colin S. 24

  • Djankov, Simeon 154

  • Dragonetti, Giacomo 199

  • Easterbrook, Frank H. 99

  • econometric approaches to control of discretion 7072

  • Economic Freedom Index 14

  • economic growth and development

    • democracy and 13

    • growth-oriented legal reforms 400401, 415416

      • calming disagreements about redistribution 413415

      • inequality, power and rights protection 407410

      • logic of reform in China 410411

      • loser’s dilemma in economic growth 411413

      • Pareto reform, information and identity 405406

      • types of reform 401405

    • individual rights and 1415

  • efficiency

    • common law 9394, 9698, 107108

    • conflict of laws and evolution of rules 381383

    • federalism and

      • balancing participation and efficiency 361362

      • Coasian interjurisdictional bargains 357360

      • critique of Tiebout approach 347352

      • politics of central government legislative policy 360361

      • politics of state legislative policy 352360

      • pros and cons of decentralization 344346

      • Tiebout approach 346347

    • normative constitutional economics and 4, 5

  • Ehrlich, Isaac 24, 44, 45, 46, 50, 58

  • Eisenberg, Theodore 95

  • Elhauge, Einer R. 117

  • Elkins, Z. 7

  • Ellickson, R. 209

  • Elliott, E. Donald 98

  • Elster, Jon 6, 7, 175

  • endogenous legal traditions 151153, 157158

  • enforcement

  • environmental law 218

  • Eom, Jiyong 76

  • Epstein, David 75, 76

  • Epstein, Richard A. 126, 393

  • Escresa, L. 210

  • Etro, F. 367

  • European Union (EU) 312313, 340

    • conflict of laws in 379

    • environmental law 218

    • legal harmonization in 367368, 372374

    • regulation in 237

    • subsidiarity principle 366367

  • p. 423evolutionary models of judicial behaviour 8698

  • expressive law 188190

    • focal point theory see focal point theory of expressive law

  • expropriation 3435

  • externalities 276

  • Faith, Roger L. 73

  • Fedderkez, Johannes W. 155

  • federalism 339341, 366

    • economic efficiency and

      • balancing participation and efficiency 361362

      • Coasian interjurisdictional bargains 357360

      • critique of Tiebout approach 347352

      • politics of central government legislative policy 360361

      • politics of state legislative policy 352356

      • pros and cons of decentralization 344346

      • Tiebout approach 346347

  • Feld. L. P. 13

  • Feldman, Sven E. 76

  • Feldstein, Martin 37

  • Felli, Leonardo 151

  • Ferejohn, John A. 73, 74

  • Fernandez, Patricio 148, 149, 150

  • Figueiredo, Rui J. P. de 69

  • Fiorina, Morris P. 77, 79

  • fire-alarm control 6870

  • Fischel, William A. 37, 390, 391, 394

  • Fitts, Michael 356

  • focal point theory of expressive law 167168, 181182

    • applications 174

      • focal power of constitutional law 174176

      • focal power of international law 176177

      • focal power of law in everyday disputes 177179

      • focal power to clarify consumer rules 179

    • experimental literature on legal focal points 171174

    • legal sanctions and 179181

    • theory 168171

  • Fon, Vincy 44, 45, 48, 49, 51, 55, 119, 122, 134, 135, 138, 282, 284, 286, 287, 298, 299, 301, 302, 304

  • forum shopping 378, 380, 383384

  • Fox, Eleanor M. 80, 81

  • France 146147, 414

  • fraud 29

  • free riding 244, 245

  • Freeman, Jody 65

  • Frey, B. 13

  • Friedman, Milton 240

  • functionalism 315

  • Funk, P. 222

  • Furlong, Scott R. 62, 72

  • Galbiati, Roberto 173, 174

  • Gamble, John K. 288

  • game theory 167, 168, 258

    • focal point theory see focal point theory of expressive law

    • prisoner’s dilemma 171, 175, 176, 258, 275, 298

  • Garrett, Geoffrey 176, 179

  • Gely, Rafael 73, 74

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 57, 312, 326

  • Gennaioli, Nicola 98, 136, 137, 151

  • Germany 67, 414

  • Gerson, Jacob E. 55, 59, 60

  • Ghei, Nita 51, 55

  • Ginsburg, Tom 9, 176

  • Glaeser, Edward L. 146, 147, 394

  • globalization 313, 324325

  • Gneezy, Uri 185, 214

  • Goetz, Charles 391

  • Goffman, Erving 205

  • Goldman, Lee 383

  • Goldschmidt, Chanan 155

  • Goldsmith, Jack L. 176, 258, 273, 275, 276, 280, 298

  • Goldstein, Judith 323

  • Goodman, John C. 96, 97, 112

  • governments

    • direct democracy versus representative institutions 1214

    • effects on government behaviour of requiring transition relief 3336

    • presidential versus parliamentary systems 1011

    • unicameral versus bicameral systems of government 1112

  • p. 424Graetz, Michael J. 30, 31, 37

  • Grajzl, Peter 76

  • Greig, D. W. 287

  • Greve, Michael 393

  • Grossma, Gene 149

  • Grotius, Hugo 318

  • growth see economic growth and development

  • Guerriero, Carmine 148, 151, 153, 157

  • Hackett, Steven C. 235

  • Hadfield, Gillian K. 94, 125, 179

  • Hale, Robert L. 30, 31, 35

  • Hamilton, Bruce 391

  • Hamilton, James T. 67, 71

  • Hamlin, Alan 9, 10, 15

  • Hammond, Thomas H. 12, 71, 74

  • Hardin, Russell 175

  • Harel, A. 222

  • harmonizationsee legal harmonization

  • Harrington, W. 71

  • Hart, H. 213

  • Hathaway, Oona A. 113, 281

  • Hayek, Friedrich A. 93, 124125, 126, 147

  • Hefeker, Carsten 151

  • Heiner, Ronald A. 55, 97

  • Helfer, Laurence R. 287, 288, 290

  • Helpman, Elhanan 149

  • Henry, Peter Blair 156

  • Hermalin, Benjamin E. 37

  • Higgins, Richard S. 95

  • Hirshleifer, Jack 97, 113

  • Hobbes, Thomas 4, 317

  • Holburn, Guy L. F. 72, 76

  • Holmström, Bengt 67, 70

  • Hopenhayn, Hugo 68

  • Horn, Murray 65, 66

  • Huber, John D. 76

  • Huber, Ulrich 377

  • human rights issues 1415, 407410

  • Huo, Yuen J. 190

  • Hylton, K. 139

  • Iceland 415

  • implementation of legislation 55

  • incentives

    • effects of transitions on private actors’ incentives and risk-bearing costs 3132

    • effects on government behaviour of requiring transition relief 3336

    • lawyers’ incentives to formulate legal commands 29

    • social norms and 205

  • Index of Economic Freedom 14

  • inequality 407410

  • informal rules 71

  • information

  • Inman, Robert 356

  • innovation, optimal instruments of 198200

  • institutions see international organizations

  • instrumentalism 323324

  • interest groups 76, 77, 110, 118119, 134, 235

  • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 263

  • International Court of Justice (ICJ) 176177

  • international institutions see international organizations

  • international law 255256

    • customary 258259, 273, 293294, 306307

      • articulation theories 300302

      • change and stability in 306

      • formation 298300

      • formative elements 294295

      • law and economics versus traditional theories 297298

      • persistent objector doctrine 295297, 302304

      • subsequent objector doctrine 297, 304306

      • treaties and 278280

    • definition 256261

    • focal power of 176177

    • treatiessee treaties

    • uses 261

      • ad hoc international tribunals 265266

      • formal and ongoing international tribunals 264265

      • international institutions 261262

      • national bureaucracies 268269

      • national courts 266268

      • p. 425nonjudicial bodies with authority to bind states 262

      • nonjudicial bodies with authority to extend or withhold resources 263264

      • nonjudicial bodies with authority to impose reputational sanctions 262263

      • private actors 269

    • see also choice of law

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) 263264, 312

  • international organizations 261262, 277, 326327

    • ad hoc international tribunals 265266

    • conceptual approaches 314

      • IOs as formal organizations 314317

      • IOs as ordering principle 317319

      • IOs as regimes 319320

    • contemporary theoretical approaches

      • actors beyond the state 324325

      • compliance and effectiveness 323324

      • institutional variation and design 321323

      • rationalist regime theory 320321

    • formal and ongoing international tribunals 264265

    • history

      • post-WWII international organizations 311313

      • recent trends 313314

      • rise of intergovernmental organizations 309311

    • nonjudicial bodies with authority to bind states 262

    • nonjudicial bodies with authority to extend or withhold resources 263264

    • nonjudicial bodies with authority to impose reputational sanctions 262263

  • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 264

  • investment, lawmaking compared with 54

  • Japan 220221

  • Johnson, Ronald N. 81

  • Johnson, Simon 156, 159

  • judges 146147

    • bias 118, 134138

      • plaintiff case selection and 134136

      • without plaintiff case selection 136138

    • efficiency 9394, 9698, 107108

    • efficient rules and 108109

    • judge-made law 93

      • evolutionary models of judicial

      • behaviour 8698

      • multi-judge interactions 98100

      • utility maximization 9495

    • judicial interpretation 4446, 54

    • payment of 115

  • jurisdiction 114115

    • see also choice of law

  • Laffont, Jean-Jacques 77

  • Lake, David 322

  • Landes, William M. 95, 96, 97, 112, 113, 132, 134

  • lawmaking

    • obsolescence problem 5051

    • optimal law-making institution 150151

    • optimal scale problem 4750

    • optimal timing

      • basic problem 5657

      • extensions 5758

      • political agency problem 5861

    • self-regulation as delegation of state law-making powers 232235

    • sequential 57

    • social cost 4652

    • under uncertainty 5152

  • lawyers, bias and long-term interests of 133134

  • League of Nations 315, 316

  • Leffler, K. 219

  • legal costs

    • allocation of 139

    • effects of precision of the law on 1921

    • effects of rules and standards on 2527

  • legal harmonization 177, 366370

  • legal innovation, optimal instruments of 198200

  • legal origins hypothesis 145, 155156, 158159

  • legal philosophy 29

  • legal profession, bias and long-term interests of tort lawyers 133134

  • legal sanctions, focal point theory of expressive law and 179181

  • legal traditions

    • putative primacy of common law 144146, 158159

      • adaptability of common law 148151

      • codification failures and endogenous legal traditions 157158

      • criticisms 155158

      • endogenous legal traditions 151153

      • evidence 153154

      • historical common law emphasis on private ordering 146147

      • omitted variables and observational equivalence 155157

  • Lehmann, Markus A. 76

  • Lepard, Brian D. 295, 296

  • Lessig, L. 212

  • Levine, Michael E. 66

  • Levmore, Saul 12, 37

  • lex fori 378

  • liability rules 38

  • Libecap, Gary D. 81

  • liberal choice regime 369

  • Licht, Amir N. 155

  • Lindsay, Cotton M. 70

  • Link, B. 207

  • Logue, Kyle D. 37

  • Lohmann, Susanne 68

  • Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio 144, 145, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158

  • Lott, J. 219, 221

  • Lupia, Arthur 69

  • Luppi, Barbara 55, 60, 122, 135

  • Lyon, Thomas P. 235

  • MacDonald, Jason 68

  • McAdams, Richard H. 170, 172173, 176, 177, 179, 189, 209

  • McCarty, N. 11

  • McCubbins, Matthew D. 6467, 68, 69, 80

  • McGarrity, Thomas O. 80, 81

  • McGuire, Robert A. 7

  • McKay, Amy 72

  • Macey, Jonathan R. 66, 67, 95

  • Magat, Wesley A. 71

  • Magin, Konstantin 402, 403

  • Mahoney, Paul G. 123, 147

  • Mailath, George J. 180

  • Masala, G. 220

  • Mashaw, Jerry L. 78

  • Matsusaka, J. 13

  • Maurizi, Alex R. 241

  • Maxwell, John W. 235, 236

  • Mayer, Colin 220, 238

  • Mehta, Judith 171

  • Merrill, Thomas 117, 118

  • Merryman, John H. 144

  • Mezzetti, Claudio 150

  • p. 427Miceli, Thomas J. 99, 137, 151

  • Michelman, Frank I. 35

  • Milgrom, Paul R. 67, 70

  • Mill, James 341

  • Mill, John Stuart 341, 342

  • Miller, Conrad 156

  • Miller, Gary J. 12

  • Mirocci, M. 220

  • Mitnick, Barry M. 64

  • Mitrany, David 315

  • Moe, Terry M. 70

  • Money, J. 11

  • monopoly 910

  • moral hazard 210

  • morally motivated self-regulation 244246

  • Moran, Mark J. 73

  • Muris, Timothy J. 73

  • Musgrave, Richard 391

  • Mussachio, Aldo 123

  • Myerson, Roger 168

  • Nadler, Janice 170, 172173, 177

  • Nakazato, Minoru 37

  • negligence 28, 3738

  • neofunctionalism 315

  • Netherlands 220, 223

  • Neugart, Michael 151

  • Neven, David 238

  • new economics of organizations (NEO) 322

  • new institutional economics 15

  • Niblett, Anthony 151

  • Nisbett, R. 211

  • Niskanen, William A. 77

  • Noll, Roger G. 6467

  • non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 314

  • non-legal international agreements 281282

  • Norman, George 258

  • normative constitutional economics

    • critical evaluation 56

    • efficiency and 5

    • methodological foundations 45

  • normative expectations 187

  • normative individualism 4

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 316

  • Norway 296

  • Oates, Wallace 345, 390, 391

  • obsolescence problem 5051

  • O’Driscoll, Gerald P. 125

  • Ogul, Morris S. 69

  • Ogus, Anthony I. 28, 69

  • O’Halloran, Sharyn 75, 76

  • O’Hara, Erin 100, 383

  • Ohsfeldt, Robert L. 7

  • Okamoto, M. 220

  • Olson, Mary 71

  • Oman, Nathan B. 122

  • Osborne, Evan 119

  • over-inclusion problem 4546

  • Rajan, Raghuram 123, 156

  • Ramsmeyer, J. Mark 37

  • Rasmusen, Eric 99, 207

  • rationality

  • Rawls, John 5

  • Recca, D. 222

  • regime theory 319320

    • rationalist regime theory 320321

  • regulation

    • adaptability of common law and 148149

    • co-regulation 244

    • harmonizationsee legal harmonization

    • regulatory competition 386388, 397398

    • self-regulation see self-regulation

  • rent-seeking, common law and 119, 120124

  • reputation 205

    • loss of see social stigma

  • reservations to treaties 284287

    • reserving versus non-reserving states 287288

  • retroactivity 30

  • Riboni, Alessandro 151

  • Ribstein, Larry E. 81, 367, 383

  • Riker, William 6, 7, 339

  • risk, effects of transitions on private actors’ incentives and risk-bearing costs 3132

  • Rizzo, Mario J. 94, 125

  • Robinson, Glen O. 67

  • Rockmann, Bert A. 69

  • Roe, Mark J. 98

  • Roman law 377

  • Romano, Roberta 371

  • Rose-Ackerman, Susan 67, 74

  • Ross, L. 211

  • Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 341, 342

  • Rowley, Charles K. 97 p. 429Rubin, Paul H. 79, 94, 95, 96, 97, 110111, 114, 117, 119, 133, 134, 151

  • Rubinfeld, Daniel L. 31, 37

  • rule of law 414

  • Russia/Soviet Union 58

  • growth-oriented legal reforms 401405, 407408

  • Rustichini, Aldo 185, 214

  • Sager, Lawrence G. 99

  • Samuels, Warren J. 30, 31

  • Samuelson, Paul 339, 390

  • sanctions

    • focal point theory of expressive law and 179181

    • social 187

    • stigmasee social stigma

  • Sanders, Anthony B. 125

  • Sandler, Todd 275, 280

  • Savioz, M. 13

  • scale economies 391392

  • Schäfer, H. 52

  • Schelling, Thomas 168, 169170, 180

  • Schroeder, Christopher H. 67, 71

  • Schulz, Norbert 394

  • Schumpeter, Joseph 339

  • Schwab, Stewart J. 95

  • Schwartz, Alan 55, 58

  • Schwartz, Shalom H. 155

  • Schwartz, T. 68, 69

  • Scitovsky, Tibor 127

  • Scott, Robert E. 55, 58

  • self-help 317318

  • self-regulation 228

    • competitive 241243

    • as delegation of state law-making powers 232235

    • enforcement 237238

    • mixed systems 243244

    • morally motivated self-regulation and corporate social responsibility 244246

    • nature of 228230

    • pre-emptive 235237

    • sector-specific studies 239241

    • spontaneous private legal ordering 230232

  • self-reporting 23

  • separation of powers 14

    • horizontal 910

    • presidential versus parliamentary systems of government 1011

    • unicameral versus bicameral systems 1112

  • sequential lawmaking 57

  • settlements

    • bargaining 22

    • feedback effect of civil settlements 140142

  • Ševcenko, Catherine 286

  • sexual offences 223

  • sexuality 216

  • Sgard, Jérôme 157

  • Shaffer, Gregory C. 323

  • Shapiro, C. 219

  • Shapiro, Perry 31, 37

  • Shavell, Steven 22, 25, 100, 388, 389

  • Shepsle, Kenneth A. 65, 66

  • Shipan, Charles 73, 74, 76

  • Shleifer, Andrei 98, 136, 137, 144, 145, 146, 147, 151, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 394

  • Sitkoff, Robert 392

  • Sloof, Randolph 76

  • Smith, Adam 115

  • smoking bans 178, 188, 189

  • Snidal, Duncan 322, 323

  • social constructivism 318

  • social contract theory 4

  • social cost of lawmaking and adjudication 4652

  • social norms 185187

    • choosing optimal instruments of legal innovation 198200

    • countervailing norms 185, 197198

    • enforcement 187

    • expressive power of the law and 188190

    • faster social reaction and social outrage 197198

    • international society and 318319

    • legal backlash and 191197

    • origins and evolution 187188

    • reasons why laws clash with 190191

    • social stigma and 206208

      • stigma, norms and the role of information 208210

      • stigma and signalling of unobservable attributes 210213

  • p. 430social responsibility 244246

  • social stigma 205206, 224225

    • criminal law and 205206, 213

      • belief in stigmatizing effects of criminal law 218

      • bounded rationality and cognitive biases 217218

      • economic perspective 218220

      • information asymmetry and high legal standard 217

      • punishment 213215

      • quantifying stigma 220221

      • standard of proof 216217

      • substantive issues 215216

    • naming and shaming

      • international organizations 262263

      • reputational versus formal penalties 222

      • shaming via administrative sanctions 223224

      • usefulness of shaming sanctions 222223

    • social norms and 206208

      • stigma, norms and the role of information 208210

      • stigma and signalling of unobservable attributes 210213

  • spatial approaches to control of discretion 7276

  • Spier, Kathryn E. 22

  • Spiller, Pablo T. 73, 74

  • Spitzer, Matthew L. 74, 77, 78

  • spontaneous private legal ordering 230232

  • Spulber, Daniel F. 78

  • Staaf, Robert J. 126

  • standards 177

    • legal rules compared with 4344

      • information costs 47

      • judicial interpretation problem 4446

      • policy implications 52

      • precedent, other legal interpretations and evolution of legal commands 2728

      • problem 2325

      • related issues and literature 2829

      • social cost of lawmaking and adjudication 4652

  • Stearns, Maxwell L. 114

  • Stefanadis, Christodoulos 239

  • Stein, Arthur 322

  • Stephenson, Matthew C. 67, 175

  • Steunenberg, Bernard 65, 73

  • stigmasee social stigma

  • Story, Joseph 377

  • Strauss, David A. 176

  • strict liability 3738, 126127

  • Stulz, René M. 155

  • Stuntz, William J. 186, 190

  • subjective value 127128

  • subsequent objector doctrine 297, 304306

  • subsidiarity principle 366367

  • Sugden, Robert 179

  • Sunshine, Jason 190

  • Sunstein, C. 212

  • supply-side model of common law efficiency 114117

  • Swaine, Edward T. 287

  • Sweeny, James L. 76

  • Switzerland 13

  • Sykes, Alan O. 280, 298

  • Tabellini, G. 10, 11

  • Tanimura, J. 220

  • taxation 23

  • Terrebonne, R. Peter 96, 112

  • terrorism 191

  • Tiebout, Charles 346352, 390

  • Tiller, Emerson H. 74

  • timing

    • optimal timing of lawmaking 5455

      • basic problem 5657

      • extensions 5758

      • political agency problem 5861

  • Tirole, Jean 77, 210

  • Tocqueville, Alexis de 342

  • tort law, bias and long-term interests of tort lawyers 133134

  • Trachtman, Joel 258

  • trade 179

  • traditionssee legal traditions

  • traffic situations 177178

  • transaction costs 4445, 115, 322

  • transition rules 2930

    • additional issues 36

    • effects on private actors’ incentives and risk-bearing costs 3132

    • literature 3637

    • related issues 3233

  • p. 431treaties 256258, 272273, 289290

    • customary international law and 278280

    • formation

      • factors conducive to treaties and other international cooperation 273278

      • modalities of 282284

    • non-legal international agreements and 281282

    • reservations 284287

      • reserving versus non-reserving states 287288

  • Tsebelis, G. 11

  • Tullock, Gordon 5, 1112, 94, 120, 121, 123

  • Twight, Charlotte 97, 119

  • Tyler, Tom R. 190

  • Yackee, Susan Webb 72

  • Yarbrough, Beth V. 322

  • Yarbrough, Robert M. 322