Encyclopedia of Law and Economics
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Encyclopedia of Law and Economics

Edited by Gerrit De Geest

The second, expanded edition of the acclaimed Encyclopedia represents a major update of the most authoritative reference work in the field of law and economics and the nine print volumes are now released online as a single integrated product. The Encyclopedia provides balanced and comprehensive coverage of the major domain in law and economics, including: criminal law, regulation, property law, contract law, tort law, labor and employment law, antitrust law, procedural law, and the production of legal rules. Each theme or volume is overseen by a leading scholar and each of the 156 entries is prepared by an expert in the field, providing an in-depth and authoritative overview of the individual topic, combined with an exhaustive bibliography, allowing users to access and filter the entire corpus of literature in law and economics. As with the print edition, the Encyclopedia is unique in serving both as an entry point and a platform for advanced research. The online edition is enhanced with Elgaronline’s powerful search tools, facilitating the search for key terms across the entire Encyclopedia, whilst the browse function allows users to move seamlessly between the volumes. These elements combine to create a powerful research tool for any researcher or scholar in the field of law and economics.
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Index: Index

Francesco Parisi

[In: Volume 7, Francesco Parisi (ed) Production of Legal Rules]

  • p. 418 p. 419Abbott, Kenneth W. 323

  • Aberbach, Joel 69

  • abortion rights 197

  • Acemoglu, Daron 156, 159

  • adjudication 63

    • precision of the law and accuracy of 22

    • social cost 4652

  • adverse selection 134

  • Agbory, Julius A. 155

  • agencies

    • political agency problem 5861

    • production of legal rules by 6264, 8283

      • curbing discretion by procedural rules 6468

      • delegation of rule-making power 7780

      • econometric approaches to control of discretion 7072

      • police-patrol control versus fire-alarm control 6870

      • rule-production process 8082

      • spatial approaches to control of discretion 7276

  • alcohol prohibition 190191

  • Alesina, A. 367

  • Alexander, C. R. 219, 222

  • Altree, Lillian R. 3536

  • anarchy 317318

  • Anderlini, Luca 151

  • Angeloni, I. 367

  • Aranson, Peter H. 94, 98, 125

  • Aristotle 44, 342

  • Armour, J. 220

  • Arrow, Kenneth J. 126

  • Arrow theorem 99

  • Arruñada, Benito 156

  • articulation theories 300302

  • Arvan, Lanny 78

  • Ashenfelter, Orley 95

  • asymmetric information

    • bias in common law and 139140

    • criminal law and 217

  • attribution theory 211

  • Austrian economics

    • critique of efficiency in common law 124128

  • Ayres, Ian 243

  • Bailey, Martin J. 97, 117, 133, 134

  • Baker, Scott 150

  • Balla, Steven J. 70

  • bargaining power 78, 235

    • Coasian interjurisdictional bargains 357360

    • settlement bargaining 22

  • Baron, David P. 244

  • Bartle, Ian 230

  • Bawn, Kathleen 69, 78

  • Baxter, William F. 3536

  • Beccaria, Cesare 188

  • Beck, Nathaniel 71

  • Becker, Gary S. 199

  • Bederman, David J. 295

  • behaviour

    • effects of precision of the law on 1921, 23

    • effects of rules and standards on 2527, 2829

    • evolutionary models of judicial behaviour 8698

    • focal point theory see focal point theory of expressive law

    • social normssee social norms

  • Benabou, R. 210

  • Bennedsen, Morten 76

  • Benson, Bruce L. 66, 116

  • Bentham, Jeremy 44, 341

  • Berkowitz, Daniel 154

  • Berman, Harold J. 146

  • Besanko, David A. 78

  • bias 34

    • cognitive biases 217218

    • in common law 132133, 142

      • asymmetric information 139140

      • p. 420feedback effect of civil settlements 140142

      • judges 118, 134138

      • long-term interests of tort lawyers 133134

      • path dependence and 138139

  • Blume, L. 13, 14, 31, 37

  • Bosch-Domènech, Antoni 171

  • Boudreaux, Donald J. 8

  • bounded rationality 217218

  • Bradbury, J. C. 11

  • Braithwaite, John 222, 243

  • Brennan, Geoffrey 9, 10, 15

  • Breton, Albert 81

  • Bretton Woods institutions 312

  • Breyer, Stephen G. 81

  • Brough, Wayne 97

  • Buchanan, James M. 3, 4, 5, 1112, 128, 391

  • Buell, S. 223

  • Bull, Hedley 318

  • bureaucracies

    • international law and 268269

    • production of legal rules by 6264, 8283

      • curbing discretion by procedural rules 6468

      • delegation of rule-making power 7780

      • econometric approaches to control of discretion 7072

      • police-patrol control versus fire-alarm control 6870

      • rule-production process 8082

      • spatial approaches to control of discretion 7276

  • Buskens, Vincent 232

  • Cannas, G. 220

  • Carbonara, Emanuela 192, 194, 195, 368, 369, 370

  • Cary, I. W. 370

  • change agents 209, 214

  • Chile 412

  • China 400, 410411

  • choice of law 376

  • civil (code) law 144

  • Claessens, S. 408

  • Clay, Karen B. 154

  • Clement, A. 222

  • Coase theorem 231

  • Coasian interjurisdictional bargains 357360

  • coercion 275

  • cognitive biases 217218

  • Cohen, Mark A. 79, 95

  • common law 144, 146, 377

  • efficiency of 9394, 9698, 107108

  • putative primacy of 158159

    • adaptability 148151

    • codification failures and endogenous legal traditions 157158

    • criticisms 155158

    • endogenous legal traditions 151153

    • evidence 153154

    • historical common law emphasis on private ordering 146147

    • omitted variables and observational equivalence 155157

  • competition

  • compliance 323324

  • Concert of Europe 310

  • Condorcet Jury theorem 99

  • p. 421conflict of laws 376

    • approaches to conflicts 377378

      • multilateral approach 379380

      • substantive approach 380

      • unilateral approach 378

    • efficiency and evolution of rules 381383

    • history 376377

  • Congress system 310, 314

  • consensus test 5

  • constitutional economics 34, 15

    • definition of constitutions 3

    • focal power of constitutional law 174176

    • normative

      • critical evaluation 56

      • efficiency and 5

      • methodological foundations 45

    • positive

      • direct democracy versus representative institutions 1214

      • explicit constitutional change 78

      • horizontal separation of powers 910

      • implicit constitutional change 89

      • presidential versus parliamentary systems 1011

      • procedures for generating constitutional rules 67

      • relevance of preferences and restrictions for generating procedural rules 7

      • unicameral versus bicameral systems 1112

  • constructivism 318

  • consumer protection 179

  • contract law 29, 33, 35

  • contractarian approaches 4

  • control systems

    • discretion control

      • econometric approaches 7072

      • spatial approaches 7276

    • police-patrol control versus fire-alarm control 6870

  • conventions see social norms

  • Cooter, Robert D. 9, 78, 97, 113, 151, 189, 207, 209

  • co-regulation 244

  • corporate law, legal harmonization of 370372, 373

  • corporate social responsibility 244246

  • corporatism 228

  • corruption 11, 235

  • Cosgel, Metin M. 99

  • costssee legal costs

  • countervailing norms 185, 197198

  • courts

    • international law and 266268

    • international tribunals 264266

    • see also judges

  • Crain, W.M. 11

  • Crawford, Vincent 172

  • Crew, Michael A. 97, 119

  • criminal law, social stigma and 205206, 213

    • belief in stigmatizing effects of criminal law 218

    • bounded rationality and cognitive biases 217218

    • economic perspective 218220

    • information asymmetry and high legal standard 217

    • punishment 213215

    • quantifying stigma 220221

    • standard of proof 216217

    • substantive issues 215216

  • Curran, Christopher 119

  • Curran, John F. 119

  • customary law 54

  • Cutrone, M. 11

  • cybersecurity 240

  • Dahl, Robert 339

  • D’Amato, A. 300

  • Dawson, John P. 146

  • p. 422De Alessi, Louis 126

  • De Marzo, Peter 239

  • decentralization see federalism

  • delegation

    • agencies and bureaucracies and delegation of rule-making power 7780

    • self-regulation as delegation of state law-making powers 232235

  • demand-side analysis of common law efficiency 109114

  • DeMesquita, Ethan Bueno 67

  • democracy 175

    • direct democracy versus representative institutions 1214

  • Denicolò, Vincenzo 236

  • Depoorter, Ben 122, 138, 140, 141

  • DeShazo, J. R. 65

  • Devries, A. 220

  • direct democracy 1214

  • discretion

    • curbing discretion by procedural rules 6468

    • econometric approaches to control of 7072

    • spatial approaches to control of discretion 7276

  • Diver, Colin S. 24

  • Djankov, Simeon 154

  • Dragonetti, Giacomo 199

  • Easterbrook, Frank H. 99

  • econometric approaches to control of discretion 7072

  • Economic Freedom Index 14

  • economic growth and development

    • democracy and 13

    • growth-oriented legal reforms 400401, 415416

      • calming disagreements about redistribution 413415

      • inequality, power and rights protection 407410

      • logic of reform in China 410411

      • loser’s dilemma in economic growth 411413

      • Pareto reform, information and identity 405406

      • types of reform 401405

    • individual rights and 1415

  • efficiency

    • common law 9394, 9698, 107108

    • conflict of laws and evolution of rules 381383

    • federalism and

      • balancing participation and efficiency 361362

      • Coasian interjurisdictional bargains 357360

      • critique of Tiebout approach 347352

      • politics of central government legislative policy 360361

      • politics of state legislative policy 352360

      • pros and cons of decentralization 344346

      • Tiebout approach 346347

    • normative constitutional economics and 4, 5

  • Ehrlich, Isaac 24, 44, 45, 46, 50, 58

  • Eisenberg, Theodore 95

  • Elhauge, Einer R. 117

  • Elkins, Z. 7

  • Ellickson, R. 209

  • Elliott, E. Donald 98

  • Elster, Jon 6, 7, 175

  • endogenous legal traditions 151153, 157158

  • enforcement

  • environmental law 218

  • Eom, Jiyong 76

  • Epstein, David 75, 76

  • Epstein, Richard A. 126, 393

  • Escresa, L. 210

  • Etro, F. 367

  • European Union (EU) 312313, 340

    • conflict of laws in 379

    • environmental law 218

    • legal harmonization in 367368, 372374

    • regulation in 237

    • subsidiarity principle 366367

  • p. 423evolutionary models of judicial behaviour 8698

  • expressive law 188190

    • focal point theory see focal point theory of expressive law

  • expropriation 3435

  • externalities 276

  • Faith, Roger L. 73

  • Fedderkez, Johannes W. 155

  • federalism 339341, 366

    • economic efficiency and

      • balancing participation and efficiency 361362

      • Coasian interjurisdictional bargains 357360

      • critique of Tiebout approach 347352

      • politics of central government legislative policy 360361

      • politics of state legislative policy 352356

      • pros and cons of decentralization 344346

      • Tiebout approach 346347

  • Feld. L. P. 13

  • Feldman, Sven E. 76

  • Feldstein, Martin 37

  • Felli, Leonardo 151

  • Ferejohn, John A. 73, 74

  • Fernandez, Patricio 148, 149, 150

  • Figueiredo, Rui J. P. de 69

  • Fiorina, Morris P. 77, 79

  • fire-alarm control 6870

  • Fischel, William A. 37, 390, 391, 394

  • Fitts, Michael 356

  • focal point theory of expressive law 167168, 181182

    • applications 174

      • focal power of constitutional law 174176

      • focal power of international law 176177

      • focal power of law in everyday disputes 177179

      • focal power to clarify consumer rules 179

    • experimental literature on legal focal points 171174

    • legal sanctions and 179181

    • theory 168171

  • Fon, Vincy 44, 45, 48, 49, 51, 55, 119, 122, 134, 135, 138, 282, 284, 286, 287, 298, 299, 301, 302, 304

  • forum shopping 378, 380, 383384

  • Fox, Eleanor M. 80, 81

  • France 146147, 414

  • fraud 29

  • free riding 244, 245

  • Freeman, Jody 65

  • Frey, B. 13

  • Friedman, Milton 240

  • functionalism 315

  • Funk, P. 222

  • Furlong, Scott R. 62, 72

  • Galbiati, Roberto 173, 174

  • Gamble, John K. 288

  • game theory 167, 168, 258

    • focal point theory see focal point theory of expressive law

    • prisoner’s dilemma 171, 175, 176, 258, 275, 298

  • Garrett, Geoffrey 176, 179

  • Gely, Rafael 73, 74

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 57, 312, 326

  • Gennaioli, Nicola 98, 136, 137, 151

  • Germany 67, 414

  • Gerson, Jacob E. 55, 59, 60

  • Ghei, Nita 51, 55

  • Ginsburg, Tom 9, 176

  • Glaeser, Edward L. 146, 147, 394

  • globalization 313, 324325

  • Gneezy, Uri 185, 214

  • Goetz, Charles 391

  • Goffman, Erving 205

  • Goldman, Lee 383

  • Goldschmidt, Chanan 155

  • Goldsmith, Jack L. 176, 258, 273, 275, 276, 280, 298

  • Goldstein, Judith 323

  • Goodman, John C. 96, 97, 112

  • governments

    • direct democracy versus representative institutions 1214

    • effects on government behaviour of requiring transition relief 3336

    • presidential versus parliamentary systems 1011

    • unicameral versus bicameral systems of government 1112

  • p. 424Graetz, Michael J. 30, 31, 37

  • Grajzl, Peter 76

  • Greig, D. W. 287

  • Greve, Michael 393

  • Grossma, Gene 149

  • Grotius, Hugo 318

  • growth see economic growth and development

  • Guerriero, Carmine 148, 151, 153, 157

  • Hackett, Steven C. 235

  • Hadfield, Gillian K. 94, 125, 179

  • Hale, Robert L. 30, 31, 35

  • Hamilton, Bruce 391

  • Hamilton, James T. 67, 71

  • Hamlin, Alan 9, 10, 15

  • Hammond, Thomas H. 12, 71, 74

  • Hardin, Russell 175

  • Harel, A. 222

  • harmonizationsee legal harmonization

  • Harrington, W. 71

  • Hart, H. 213

  • Hathaway, Oona A. 113, 281

  • Hayek, Friedrich A. 93, 124125, 126, 147

  • Hefeker, Carsten 151

  • Heiner, Ronald A. 55, 97

  • Helfer, Laurence R. 287, 288, 290

  • Helpman, Elhanan 149

  • Henry, Peter Blair 156

  • Hermalin, Benjamin E. 37

  • Higgins, Richard S. 95

  • Hirshleifer, Jack 97, 113

  • Hobbes, Thomas 4, 317

  • Holburn, Guy L. F. 72, 76

  • Holmström, Bengt 67, 70

  • Hopenhayn, Hugo 68

  • Horn, Murray 65, 66

  • Huber, John D. 76

  • Huber, Ulrich 377

  • human rights issues 1415, 407410

  • Huo, Yuen J. 190

  • Hylton, K. 139

  • Iceland 415

  • implementation of legislation 55

  • incentives

    • effects of transitions on private actors’ incentives and risk-bearing costs 3132

    • effects on government behaviour of requiring transition relief 3336

    • lawyers’ incentives to formulate legal commands 29

    • social norms and 205

  • Index of Economic Freedom 14

  • inequality 407410

  • informal rules 71

  • information

  • Inman, Robert 356

  • innovation, optimal instruments of 198200

  • institutions see international organizations

  • instrumentalism 323324

  • interest groups 76, 77, 110, 118119, 134, 235

  • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 263

  • International Court of Justice (ICJ) 176177

  • international institutions see international organizations

  • international law 255256

    • customary 258259, 273, 293294, 306307

      • articulation theories 300302

      • change and stability in 306

      • formation 298300

      • formative elements 294295

      • law and economics versus traditional theories 297298

      • persistent objector doctrine 295297, 302304

      • subsequent objector doctrine 297, 304306

      • treaties and 278280

    • definition 256261

    • focal power of 176177

    • treatiessee treaties

    • uses 261

      • ad hoc international tribunals 265266

      • formal and ongoing international tribunals 264265

      • international institutions 261262

      • national bureaucracies 268269

      • national courts 266268

      • p. 425nonjudicial bodies with authority to bind states 262

      • nonjudicial bodies with authority to extend or withhold resources 263264

      • nonjudicial bodies with authority to impose reputational sanctions 262263

      • private actors 269

    • see also choice of law

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) 263264, 312

  • international organizations 261262, 277, 326327

    • ad hoc international tribunals 265266

    • conceptual approaches 314

      • IOs as formal organizations 314317

      • IOs as ordering principle 317319

      • IOs as regimes 319320

    • contemporary theoretical approaches

      • actors beyond the state 324325

      • compliance and effectiveness 323324

      • institutional variation and design 321323

      • rationalist regime theory 320321

    • formal and ongoing international tribunals 264265

    • history

      • post-WWII international organizations 311313

      • recent trends 313314

      • rise of intergovernmental organizations 309311

    • nonjudicial bodies with authority to bind states 262

    • nonjudicial bodies with authority to extend or withhold resources 263264

    • nonjudicial bodies with authority to impose reputational sanctions 262263

  • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 264

  • investment, lawmaking compared with 54

  • Japan 220221

  • Johnson, Ronald N. 81

  • Johnson, Simon 156, 159

  • judges 146147

    • bias 118, 134138

      • plaintiff case selection and 134136

      • without plaintiff case selection 136138

    • efficiency 9394, 9698, 107108

    • efficient rules and 108109

    • judge-made law 93

      • evolutionary models of judicial

      • behaviour 8698

      • multi-judge interactions 98100

      • utility maximization 9495

    • judicial interpretation 4446, 54

    • payment of 115

  • jurisdiction 114115

    • see also choice of law

  • Laffont, Jean-Jacques 77

  • Lake, David 322

  • Landes, William M. 95, 96, 97, 112, 113, 132, 134

  • lawmaking

    • obsolescence problem 5051

    • optimal law-making institution 150151

    • optimal scale problem 4750

    • optimal timing

      • basic problem 5657

      • extensions 5758

      • political agency problem 5861

    • self-regulation as delegation of state law-making powers 232235

    • sequential 57

    • social cost 4652

    • under uncertainty 5152

  • lawyers, bias and long-term interests of 133134

  • League of Nations 315, 316

  • Leffler, K. 219

  • legal costs

    • allocation of 139

    • effects of precision of the law on 1921

    • effects of rules and standards on 2527

  • legal harmonization 177, 366370

  • legal innovation, optimal instruments of 198200

  • legal origins hypothesis 145, 155156, 158159

  • legal philosophy 29

  • legal profession, bias and long-term interests of tort lawyers 133134

  • legal sanctions, focal point theory of expressive law and 179181

  • legal traditions

    • putative primacy of common law 144146, 158159

      • adaptability of common law 148151

      • codification failures and endogenous legal traditions 157158

      • criticisms 155158

      • endogenous legal traditions 151153

      • evidence 153154

      • historical common law emphasis on private ordering 146147

      • omitted variables and observational equivalence 155157

  • Lehmann, Markus A. 76

  • Lepard, Brian D. 295, 296

  • Lessig, L. 212

  • Levine, Michael E. 66

  • Levmore, Saul 12, 37

  • lex fori 378

  • liability rules 38

  • Libecap, Gary D. 81

  • liberal choice regime 369

  • Licht, Amir N. 155

  • Lindsay, Cotton M. 70

  • Link, B. 207

  • Logue, Kyle D. 37

  • Lohmann, Susanne 68

  • Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio 144, 145, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158

  • Lott, J. 219, 221

  • Lupia, Arthur 69

  • Luppi, Barbara 55, 60, 122, 135

  • Lyon, Thomas P. 235

  • MacDonald, Jason 68

  • McAdams, Richard H. 170, 172173, 176, 177, 179, 189, 209

  • McCarty, N. 11

  • McCubbins, Matthew D. 6467, 68, 69, 80

  • McGarrity, Thomas O. 80, 81

  • McGuire, Robert A. 7

  • McKay, Amy 72

  • Macey, Jonathan R. 66, 67, 95

  • Magat, Wesley A. 71

  • Magin, Konstantin 402, 403

  • Mahoney, Paul G. 123, 147

  • Mailath, George J. 180

  • Masala, G. 220

  • Mashaw, Jerry L. 78

  • Matsusaka, J. 13

  • Maurizi, Alex R. 241

  • Maxwell, John W. 235, 236

  • Mayer, Colin 220, 238

  • Mehta, Judith 171

  • Merrill, Thomas 117, 118

  • Merryman, John H. 144

  • Mezzetti, Claudio 150

  • p. 427Miceli, Thomas J. 99, 137, 151

  • Michelman, Frank I. 35

  • Milgrom, Paul R. 67, 70

  • Mill, James 341

  • Mill, John Stuart 341, 342

  • Miller, Conrad 156

  • Miller, Gary J. 12

  • Mirocci, M. 220

  • Mitnick, Barry M. 64

  • Mitrany, David 315

  • Moe, Terry M. 70

  • Money, J. 11

  • monopoly 910

  • moral hazard 210

  • morally motivated self-regulation 244246

  • Moran, Mark J. 73

  • Muris, Timothy J. 73

  • Musgrave, Richard 391

  • Mussachio, Aldo 123

  • Myerson, Roger 168

  • Nadler, Janice 170, 172173, 177

  • Nakazato, Minoru 37

  • negligence 28, 3738

  • neofunctionalism 315

  • Netherlands 220, 223

  • Neugart, Michael 151

  • Neven, David 238

  • new economics of organizations (NEO) 322

  • new institutional economics 15

  • Niblett, Anthony 151

  • Nisbett, R. 211

  • Niskanen, William A. 77

  • Noll, Roger G. 6467

  • non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 314

  • non-legal international agreements 281282

  • Norman, George 258

  • normative constitutional economics

    • critical evaluation 56

    • efficiency and 5

    • methodological foundations 45

  • normative expectations 187

  • normative individualism 4

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 316

  • Norway 296

  • Oates, Wallace 345, 390, 391

  • obsolescence problem 5051

  • O’Driscoll, Gerald P. 125

  • Ogul, Morris S. 69

  • Ogus, Anthony I. 28, 69

  • O’Halloran, Sharyn 75, 76

  • O’Hara, Erin 100, 383

  • Ohsfeldt, Robert L. 7

  • Okamoto, M. 220

  • Olson, Mary 71

  • Oman, Nathan B. 122

  • Osborne, Evan 119

  • over-inclusion problem 4546

  • pacta sunt servanda doctrine 278279

  • Page, Talbot 80

  • Page, William H. 77

  • Palestini, A. 210

  • Parisi, Francesco 44, 45, 48, 49, 51, 55, 60, 119, 121, 122, 134, 135, 138, 192, 194, 195, 282, 284, 286, 287, 298, 299, 301, 302, 304, 368, 369, 370, 394, 396

  • parliaments

    • direct democracy versus representative institutions 1214

    • presidential versus parliamentary systems of government 1011

    • unicameral versus bicameral systems 1112

  • Parsons, Wes 97

  • participationsee political participation

  • path dependence 113114, 138139

  • persistent objector doctrine 295297, 302304

  • Persson, T. 10, 11

  • Phelan, J. 207

  • Pinochet, Augusto 412, 413

  • police-patrol control 6870

  • political agency problem 5861

  • political participation

  • Pollack, Mark A. 323

  • Polo, A. 220

  • Ponzetto, Giacomo A. M. 148, 149, 150

  • p. 428positive constitutional economics

    • direct democracy versus representative institutions 1214

    • explicit constitutional change 78

    • horizontal separation of powers 910

    • implicit constitutional change 89

    • presidential versus parliamentary systems 1011

    • procedures for generating constitutional rules 67

    • relevance of preferences and restrictions for generating procedural rules 7

    • unicameral versus bicameral systems 1112

  • Posner, Eric A. 55, 58, 59, 60, 76, 176, 258, 273, 275, 276, 280, 298

  • Posner, Richard A. 24, 44, 45, 46, 50, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 108, 109, 112, 113, 114, 132, 134, 150, 151

  • Postema, Gerald J. 179

  • power 407410

    • separation of see separation of powers

  • precedents 2728, 113, 121122, 150

  • precision of the law

    • accuracy of adjudication and 22

    • effects of precision on legal costs and behaviour 1921

    • problem 19

    • related issues and literature 2223

  • pre-emptive self-regulation 235237

  • presidential versus parliamentary systems of government 1011

  • Priest, George L. 96, 97, 98, 112, 113, 114, 139, 151

  • Prisoner’s dilemma 171, 175, 176, 258, 275, 298

  • Pritchard, Adam C. 8, 118, 119

  • privatization 401405, 407408

  • product liability 133134

  • productivity, democracy and 13

  • prohibition 190191

  • proof, criminal law and 216217

  • property rights 126, 127, 179, 231

  • property rules 38

  • public choice theories 29, 62, 110, 231, 369

    • critiques of common law 117119

  • public goods 173174, 277

  • punishment

    • criminal law and 213215

    • enforcement of self-regulation and 238

  • Rajan, Raghuram 123, 156

  • Ramsmeyer, J. Mark 37

  • Rasmusen, Eric 99, 207

  • rationality

  • Rawls, John 5

  • Recca, D. 222

  • regime theory 319320

    • rationalist regime theory 320321

  • regulation

    • adaptability of common law and 148149

    • co-regulation 244

    • harmonizationsee legal harmonization

    • regulatory competition 386388, 397398

    • self-regulation see self-regulation

  • rent-seeking, common law and 119, 120124

  • reputation 205

    • loss of see social stigma

  • reservations to treaties 284287

    • reserving versus non-reserving states 287288

  • retroactivity 30

  • Riboni, Alessandro 151

  • Ribstein, Larry E. 81, 367, 383

  • Riker, William 6, 7, 339

  • risk, effects of transitions on private actors’ incentives and risk-bearing costs 3132

  • Rizzo, Mario J. 94, 125

  • Robinson, Glen O. 67

  • Rockmann, Bert A. 69

  • Roe, Mark J. 98

  • Roman law 377

  • Romano, Roberta 371

  • Rose-Ackerman, Susan 67, 74

  • Ross, L. 211

  • Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 341, 342

  • Rowley, Charles K. 97 p. 429Rubin, Paul H. 79, 94, 95, 96, 97, 110111, 114, 117, 119, 133, 134, 151

  • Rubinfeld, Daniel L. 31, 37

  • rule of law 414

  • Russia/Soviet Union 58

  • growth-oriented legal reforms 401405, 407408

  • Rustichini, Aldo 185, 214

  • Sager, Lawrence G. 99

  • Samuels, Warren J. 30, 31

  • Samuelson, Paul 339, 390

  • sanctions

    • focal point theory of expressive law and 179181

    • social 187

    • stigmasee social stigma

  • Sanders, Anthony B. 125

  • Sandler, Todd 275, 280

  • Savioz, M. 13

  • scale economies 391392

  • Schäfer, H. 52

  • Schelling, Thomas 168, 169170, 180

  • Schroeder, Christopher H. 67, 71

  • Schulz, Norbert 394

  • Schumpeter, Joseph 339

  • Schwab, Stewart J. 95

  • Schwartz, Alan 55, 58

  • Schwartz, Shalom H. 155

  • Schwartz, T. 68, 69

  • Scitovsky, Tibor 127

  • Scott, Robert E. 55, 58

  • self-help 317318

  • self-regulation 228

    • competitive 241243

    • as delegation of state law-making powers 232235

    • enforcement 237238

    • mixed systems 243244

    • morally motivated self-regulation and corporate social responsibility 244246

    • nature of 228230

    • pre-emptive 235237

    • sector-specific studies 239241

    • spontaneous private legal ordering 230232

  • self-reporting 23

  • separation of powers 14

    • horizontal 910

    • presidential versus parliamentary systems of government 1011

    • unicameral versus bicameral systems 1112

  • sequential lawmaking 57

  • settlements

    • bargaining 22

    • feedback effect of civil settlements 140142

  • Ševcenko, Catherine 286

  • sexual offences 223

  • sexuality 216

  • Sgard, Jérôme 157

  • Shaffer, Gregory C. 323

  • Shapiro, C. 219

  • Shapiro, Perry 31, 37

  • Shavell, Steven 22, 25, 100, 388, 389

  • Shepsle, Kenneth A. 65, 66

  • Shipan, Charles 73, 74, 76

  • Shleifer, Andrei 98, 136, 137, 144, 145, 146, 147, 151, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 394

  • Sitkoff, Robert 392

  • Sloof, Randolph 76

  • Smith, Adam 115

  • smoking bans 178, 188, 189

  • Snidal, Duncan 322, 323

  • social constructivism 318

  • social contract theory 4

  • social cost of lawmaking and adjudication 4652

  • social norms 185187

    • choosing optimal instruments of legal innovation 198200

    • countervailing norms 185, 197198

    • enforcement 187

    • expressive power of the law and 188190

    • faster social reaction and social outrage 197198

    • international society and 318319

    • legal backlash and 191197

    • origins and evolution 187188

    • reasons why laws clash with 190191

    • social stigma and 206208

      • stigma, norms and the role of information 208210

      • stigma and signalling of unobservable attributes 210213

  • p. 430social responsibility 244246

  • social stigma 205206, 224225

    • criminal law and 205206, 213

      • belief in stigmatizing effects of criminal law 218

      • bounded rationality and cognitive biases 217218

      • economic perspective 218220

      • information asymmetry and high legal standard 217

      • punishment 213215

      • quantifying stigma 220221

      • standard of proof 216217

      • substantive issues 215216

    • naming and shaming

      • international organizations 262263

      • reputational versus formal penalties 222

      • shaming via administrative sanctions 223224

      • usefulness of shaming sanctions 222223

    • social norms and 206208

      • stigma, norms and the role of information 208210

      • stigma and signalling of unobservable attributes 210213

  • spatial approaches to control of discretion 7276

  • Spier, Kathryn E. 22

  • Spiller, Pablo T. 73, 74

  • Spitzer, Matthew L. 74, 77, 78

  • spontaneous private legal ordering 230232

  • Spulber, Daniel F. 78

  • Staaf, Robert J. 126

  • standards 177

    • legal rules compared with 4344

      • information costs 47

      • judicial interpretation problem 4446

      • policy implications 52

      • precedent, other legal interpretations and evolution of legal commands 2728

      • problem 2325

      • related issues and literature 2829

      • social cost of lawmaking and adjudication 4652

  • Stearns, Maxwell L. 114

  • Stefanadis, Christodoulos 239

  • Stein, Arthur 322

  • Stephenson, Matthew C. 67, 175

  • Steunenberg, Bernard 65, 73

  • stigmasee social stigma

  • Story, Joseph 377

  • Strauss, David A. 176

  • strict liability 3738, 126127

  • Stulz, René M. 155

  • Stuntz, William J. 186, 190

  • subjective value 127128

  • subsequent objector doctrine 297, 304306

  • subsidiarity principle 366367

  • Sugden, Robert 179

  • Sunshine, Jason 190

  • Sunstein, C. 212

  • supply-side model of common law efficiency 114117

  • Swaine, Edward T. 287

  • Sweeny, James L. 76

  • Switzerland 13

  • Sykes, Alan O. 280, 298

  • Tabellini, G. 10, 11

  • Tanimura, J. 220

  • taxation 23

  • Terrebonne, R. Peter 96, 112

  • terrorism 191

  • Tiebout, Charles 346352, 390

  • Tiller, Emerson H. 74

  • timing

    • optimal timing of lawmaking 5455

      • basic problem 5657

      • extensions 5758

      • political agency problem 5861

  • Tirole, Jean 77, 210

  • Tocqueville, Alexis de 342

  • tort law, bias and long-term interests of tort lawyers 133134

  • Trachtman, Joel 258

  • trade 179

  • traditionssee legal traditions

  • traffic situations 177178

  • transaction costs 4445, 115, 322

  • transition rules 2930

    • additional issues 36

    • effects on private actors’ incentives and risk-bearing costs 3132

    • literature 3637

    • related issues 3233

  • p. 431treaties 256258, 272273, 289290

    • customary international law and 278280

    • formation

      • factors conducive to treaties and other international cooperation 273278

      • modalities of 282284

    • non-legal international agreements and 281282

    • reservations 284287

      • reserving versus non-reserving states 287288

  • Tsebelis, G. 11

  • Tullock, Gordon 5, 1112, 94, 120, 121, 123

  • Twight, Charlotte 97, 119

  • Tyler, Tom R. 190

  • unanimity: deviations from unanimity rule 45

  • uncertainty 5, 28, 5152

  • under-inclusion problem 4546

  • United Kingdom 114115, 139

  • United Nations 262, 272, 311312, 313, 314, 316

  • United States of America

    • abortion rights 197

    • allocation of legal costs 139

    • bureaucracies in 67

      • control of bureaucratic discretion 7071, 73

      • legal rule making process 8082

    • conflict of laws in 377, 381

    • constitution 7, 8, 256, 414

    • corporate law in 370371

    • courts in 116

    • direct democracy in 13

    • federalism in 339, 340

    • interest groups 118119, 134

    • judges in 95, 99

    • prohibition in 190191

    • regulation in 234235, 236

    • terrorist attacks 191

    • treaties and 256, 257, 278

  • unjust laws 191192

  • utilitarianism 108

  • utility maximization by judges 9495

  • Waltz, Kenneth N. 318

  • Wangenheim, Georg von 97, 192, 194, 195

  • wealth-maximization framework 127

  • Weingast, Barry R. 6467, 69, 72, 73, 175, 176, 179, 238

  • Whitman, D. 136

  • Wicksell, Knut 4

  • Wiley, John Shepard 77, 78

  • Williamson, Dean 156

  • Williamson, Rohan 155

  • Winetrobe, Ronald 81

  • Winter, R. 371

  • World Bank 263

  • World Trade Organization (WTO) 265, 312, 406

  • Yackee, Susan Webb 72

  • Yarbrough, Beth V. 322

  • Yarbrough, Robert M. 322