Concise Guide to Entrepreneurship, Technology and Innovation
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Concise Guide to Entrepreneurship, Technology and Innovation

Edited by David B. Audretsch, Christopher S. Hayter and Albert N. Link

This landmark book will be the first port of call for any student or scholar seeking a brief introduction to each of the fundamental topics in entrepreneurship, technology, and innovation. Written by the top international scholars in their field, this book has an encyclopedic range; from academic entrepreneurship to valuing an entrepreneurial enterprise. Each chapter provides an informed overview of the topic and references in each chapter guide the reader to the more advanced literature. Students of entrepreneurship, technology, and innovation as well as those who wish to have an introduction to the scope of this field of study will be benefit from this exemplary collection.
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Index: Index

  • agency theory

    • views on buyout governance structure 623

  • Amazon.com, Inc. 106

  • American Psychological Association 124

  • anthropology 78

    • cultural 20

  • Apple, Inc. 83, 106

  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 32, 34

  • Australia

    • habitual entrepreneurs in 98

  • Austrian School

    • key figures in 184

  • Batavia Industrial Center 108

  • Baudeau, Nicolas

    • definition of entrepreneur 70

  • Baumol, W.J.

    • thoughts on entrepreneurial theory 767

  • Beretta 89

  • Best, Charles 1856

  • Bhide, Amar 14

  • bio-banks 37

  • Biogen 224

  • Bonferroni correction 32

  • Booths 89

  • bootstrapping finance 1318

    • categories of 15

    • methods 16

    • performance 1617

    • uses of 15, 17

  • Boston Consulting Group 101

  • British Petroleum (BP) 228

  • Broadcom 224

  • business accelerators/incubator 110, 117, 133, 141

  • buyouts 612, 65

    • busted tech buyouts 64

    • divisional 64

    • investor-led (IBO) 62

    • leveraged (LBO) 62

    • management (MBO) 62, 97

      • buyin (MBI) 62, 97

      • hybrid (BIMBOs) 62

    • secondary 64

    • use as managerial strategy 624

  • Canada 225

  • candidate gene studies 28, 30

    • non-replication of 324

    • shortcomings of 289, 31

  • Cantillon, Richard

    • definition of entrepreneur 7071, 85

  • capital 13, 86

  • capitalism 71, 149

  • Catmull, Ed 127

  • Chandler, Alfred 1

  • China, People’s Republic of 161

  • Chiron 224

  • Christensen, C.M.

    • Innovator’s Dilemma, The (1997) 39, 412

  • Cisco Systems 224

  • p. 256clusters 21

    • interactions 1978

      • industrial agglomeration 198

    • membership 199

  • collectivism 21

  • Columbia University

    • Columbia Technology Ventures (CTV) 248

  • commercialization 12, 101, 1413

  • commitment theory 79

  • Compaq Computer Corporation 41

  • Confucianism 20

  • Cornell University

    • Johnson Graduate School

  • Corning 101

  • corporate governance 169

  • Creative Commons 217

  • creativity 1245

  • crowdfunding 186

    • equity 171

    • use in risk funding 17071

    • use in social entrepreneurship 185

  • crowdsourcing 186

    • use in social entrepreneurship 185

  • culture 234

    • national 2021, 24

      • influence on entrepreneurship 2021

    • organizational 224

      • innovative 223

    • professional 22, 24

    • regional 21, 24

  • Cunningham, J. 67

  • debt 64, 1646

  • Dell Computers 2245

  • Digital Equipment Corporation 224

  • disruptive technology 43

    • definitions of 3942

      • low performance/low price 39, 41

    • structure of consumer preferences 423

      • distribution of demand 43

      • innovation activities 43

      • market structure 43

      • preference asymmetry 42

      • preference overlap 423

  • Drucker, P.F. 4

  • DSM 101

  • DuPont

    • R&D activity of 103

  • Energy Biosciences Institute 228

  • engineering research centers 54, 568

    • cooperative research centers (CRCs) 54, 60

    • potential use of 589

    • principal investigator (PI) 54

  • entrepreneurial cognition 77

  • entrepreneurial enterprise valuation 2513

    • models of

      • limitations of 2512

  • entrepreneurial finance 165, 171, 219

    • development of 219

    • unexplored issues

      • lack of policies in early stage entrepreneurial firms 22021

      • literature limitations 2212

      • role of bank debt 21920

  • entrepreneurial networks 656, 68

    • four-quadrant typology 66

      • Collective/Internal quadrant 67

      • Collective/External quadrant 67

      • Individual/External quadrant 67

  • entrepreneurial orientation (EO) 95

    • in family firm research 94

  • entrepreneurship 13, 7, 1314, 17, 289, 37, 61, 635, 678, 7074, 824, 105, 108, 113, 141, 161, 187

    • academic/student 34, 78, 19091, 1934

      • characteristics/motivations 1912

      • p. 257emergence of 191

      • programs 1923

      • relationship with regional growth 191

      • role of institutional roles in 5

      • role of university in 46

    • backdoor 910

    • collective 67

    • corporate 67, 77

      • in family businesses/firms 95

    • definitions of 76, 834

      • development of 823

    • education 4953, 77

      • business basics 5051

      • emergence of 478

      • entrepreneurship basics 51

      • experience in 512

      • persistent gaps in 49

    • habitual 97100

      • research into 989

    • heritability of 28, 35

    • impact of 105, 107

      • national economic 106

      • on business cycle 107

      • regional prosperity 106

    • influence of national culture on 2021

    • nascent 1314

    • novice 97, 99100

    • pooling

      • horizontal 86

      • vertical 86

    • portfolio 99

    • private sector 1489, 151

    • public sector 1489, 151

    • research 934, 98, 1334, 181

      • biological determinants 28, 367

    • role of geography in 1889

    • scientific 205

    • serial 97, 139, 180, 182

      • concept of 18081

      • entrepreneurial persistence 181

      • value of prior experience in 1812

    • social 77, 1834, 186

      • process of 183

      • role of technology in 185

    • spillover theory of 194

    • theory development 7680, 867, 184

      • examples 77

      • multi-lens 7980

    • university-derived 2236

      • characteristics of 2256

      • examples of 224

    • methodological issues in studies of 2245

  • equity 90, 105, 109, 119, 1667, 176

  • Etkowitz, H. 4

    • triple helix model of 210

  • European Community Innovation Survey 230

  • European Union (EU) 166

  • Facebook 106, 2245

  • family businesses/firms 77, 93

    • corporate entrepreneurship in 95

    • definitions of 934

    • management of innovation in 8991

      • temporal dynamics 91

    • R&D in 90

    • research 934

  • Fiat 89

  • Finland

    • habitual entrepreneurs in 98

    • Helsinki 113

  • foreign direct investment (FDI) 119

  • Gates, Bill 2, 85

  • General Electric (GE) 55, 101

  • Genentech 224

  • p. 258genetics

    • DNA 31, 36

    • dopamine 32, 34

    • minoe allele frequency (MAF) 30

    • OXTR gene 31

    • single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 3032, 346

  • genome-wide association (GWA) studies 28, 3031, 356

    • meta-analysis 36

      • of self-employment 356

    • shortcomings of 29

  • genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) studies 29

  • Germany 120, 228

  • Ghana

    • credit rationing in 99

    • habitual entrepreneurs in 98

  • Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 87, 1313

  • global value chain 120

  • globalization 23, 18990

  • Google, Inc. 106, 224

  • Granz, Norman 1245

  • Guilford, J.P.

    • Structure of Intellect (SI) theory of creativity 124

  • Hamilton, B.H. 105

  • HapMap project 30

  • Harvard Business Review

    • articles in 14

  • Harvard Business School 82

  • Hewlett-Packard (HP) 41

    • founding of 187

  • Hofstede, G.

    • conceptualization of national culture 20

  • India 160

  • Industrial Research Institute (IRI) 102

  • individualism 21

  • initial public offering (IPO) 634, 1679

    • impact on M&As 170

    • markets 170

    • venture-backed 168

  • innovation 24, 91, 1034, 113, 143, 187

    • breakthrough (BI) 1034, 106

    • conceptualization of 24

    • corporate 67

    • destructive 41

    • disruptive 415

      • measurement of 434

    • economic aspects of 85

    • in culture 223

    • large-scale 84

    • management 89

      • family involvement 9091

    • open (OI) 137

    • outputs 9091

    • policies 151

    • processes of 70

    • radical (RI) 83, 101

      • definitions of 1023

      • programs 1012

    • role of geography in 1889

    • sustained 3940

  • Intel Corporation 137

    • founding of 187

  • intellectual property (IP) 145, 205

    • commercialization of 9

    • legislation 11

    • ownership 193, 206

    • patents 10

    • protection of 119, 21516

  • International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation 101, 137

    • SiGe-chip 41

  • Japan 1, 120

    • manufacturing sector of 1

    • organizational culture in 23

  • Jobs, Steve 2, 127

  • Kerr, C.

    • concept of multiversity 210

  • Knauf 89

  • Kirzner, Israel 184

    • Competition and Entrepreneurship (1973) 184

  • p. 259Knight, Frank 712, 86

    • Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit (1921) 70

  • Kodak

    • R&D activity of 101

  • Koontz, Harold

    • management theory jungle 756

  • labour

    • costs 13, 16

    • division of 85

    • market pooling 198

    • specialized 189

  • Lasseter, John 127

  • licensing 11920, 123, 142

    • agreement 212

    • definitions of 11920

    • use in pharmaceutical companies 11820, 123

  • localization economies

    • concept of 188

  • MakerBot 139

  • Malaysia

    • habitual entrepreneurs in 98

  • management

  • manufacturing

    • industrial competition 1

  • marketing 78

  • Markman, Gideon D.

    • observation of patenting activities 1011

  • Marshall, Alfred 198

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 1, 191

    • alumni/students of 192

    • Commission on Industrial Productivity 12

      • Made in America; Regaining the Edge (1990) 1

    • Deshpande Center 142

  • Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (MRSECs) 54

  • mergers and acquisitions (M&As) 170

    • impact of IPOs on 170

  • Microsoft Corporation 83, 2245

  • von Mises, Ludwig 184

    • Human Action (1949) 184

  • multinational corporations (MNCs) 137

    • as source of dispersed knowledge 11819

  • Napolitano, Janet 244

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 54

  • National Cancer Institute 10

  • National Governor’s Association 142

  • National Innovation Systems 54

  • National Science Foundation (NSF) 557, 203

    • Engineering Research Centers (ERCs) program 5460

      • aims of 58

      • criticisms of 578

      • funding of 556

      • metrics of 58

    • I-Corps program 204

  • Netscape 224

  • New York University

  • New Zealand 238

  • Nokia Corporation 101

  • Northeastern University

    • IDEA

  • Norway

    • habitual entrepreneurs in 98

  • open source software (OSS) 138

  • Oregon State University

    • Venture Development Fund 246

  • Organ, Damien 67

  • Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

  • ownership 89

  • Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED) 1312

  • patents 1012, 58, 64, 90, 1412

  • Pennsylvania State University

    • Garber Venture Capital Fund 244

  • Pixar Studios 1278

  • Porter, Michael

    • Competitive Strategy (1980) 82

  • Portland State University

    • University Venture Development Fund 244

  • prior business ownership experience (PBOE) 97, 99100

  • private equity (PE) firms 614

  • Proof of Concept Center (PoCC) 1413

    • concept of 141

    • programs of 142

  • psychology 78

    • social 84

  • Ray, Alby 127

  • Republic of Ireland 238

  • research and development (R&D) 83, 90, 138, 191, 208, 22930

  • returnee entrepreneurs 15960, 162

    • disadvantages of 162

    • knowledge spillovers 162

    • location choice 16061

    • research 16061

  • risk and uncertainty 7074

    • Knightian uncertainty 71

  • risk funding 163

    • capital

    • crowdfunding 17071

    • debt and equity 1645

      • equity capital markets 166

      • private/public equity 166

  • Rolls-Royce Research 228

  • Rotterdam Study (RS)

    • binary variables in 323

    • concept of 323

  • Route 128 224

  • Salewa 89

  • SAS 225

  • schizophrenia 36

  • Schumpeter, Joseph 1, 163

    • Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy (1950) 184

    • concept of ‘creative destruction’ 70, 106

    • Theory of Economic Development, The (1934) 184

    • views on innovation in entrepreneurship 835

  • Science and Technology Centers (STCs) 54

  • Second World War (1939–45) 1, 201, 234

  • seed and venture capital 178, 220, 2478

    • concept of 175

    • investment 220

    • process of 1757

      • information asymmetries 176

      • outcome of 1778

  • self-employment 289, 367, 823, 181

    • GWA studies of 356

    • relationship with serial entrepreneurship 181

  • shareholders

    • as entrepreneurs 86

  • Silicon Graphics 224

  • Silicon Valley 21, 24, 187, 189, 224

    • firms founded in 1878

    • regional culture of 22

  • Simonton, Dean Keith 127

  • small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) 1389

    • p. 261funding of 175

    • OI in 137, 139

    • R&D in 90

    • role of business accelerators/incubators in 110

    • technology transfer in 206

  • small business start-ups 823

  • Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR)

  • Smith, Adam 85

  • social networks 65, 73

  • sociology 20, 78

  • South Korea

  • Space X 106

  • Stanford University 187

  • StartX 245

  • Stiglitz, J.E.

    • Roaring Nineties: A New History of the World’s Most Prosperous Decade, The (2004) 12

  • strategic technology alliances 1537

    • antecedents 154

    • cooperative capability 155

    • environmental conditions 156

    • partnership incentives 1534

  • Structural Genomics Consortium 228

  • Sun Microsystems 2245

  • Supercomputing Centers 54

  • Sweden

    • habitual entrepreneurs in 98

    • SMEs in 138

  • Switzerland 120

  • Uber 106

  • UC Venture Funds 243, 247

  • unemployment 82, 181

  • United Kingdom (UK) 99, 105, 120, 208, 228, 242

    • Community Innovation Survey 229

    • habitual entrepreneurs in 98

    • London 87

  • United States of America (USA) 1, 1415, 234, 84, 105, 110, 120, 17071, 228, 238, 242

    • academic sector of 12, 59

      • research universities 910

    • Advanced Industries Accelerator Act 142

    • America Invents Act (2011) 145

    • automobile industry of 2

    • Bayh-Dole Act (1980) 11, 141, 2012, 210

    • Boise, ID 1889

    • Department of Defense (DoD) 54

    • Department of Energy (DoE) 203

    • economy of 55

    • Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)(1974) 2423

    • Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer 201

    • Federal Technology Transfer Act (1986) 202

    • government of 9, 54

      • Government Accountability Office 58

    • habitual entrepreneurs in 98

    • p. 262Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act (2012) 17071

    • Kansas City, MS 1889

    • Madison, WI 225

    • manufacturing sector of 1

    • National Academy of Engineering (NAE) 58

    • National Academy of Science 55

    • National Institutes of Health (NIH) 54

    • New York 14

      • Loft Scene 125

    • Portland, OR 21, 1889, 244

    • San Diego, CA 225

    • Small Business Innovation and Research (SBIR) program 243

    • steel industry of 2

    • Supreme Court

      • MedImmune v. Genentech (2007) 146

    • Technology and Research Accelerating National Security and Future Economic Resiliency Act (2013) 1423

    • US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) 1456

      • post-grant proceeding 146

    • White House

      • Office of Science and Technology Policy 55

  • university-industrial relations 2278

    • academic engagement 2278, 23031

      • benefits/consequences 2289

      • relationship with firm performance 23031

    • firm perspective on 22930

  • University of California, Berkeley 224, 228, 23031

  • University of California, San Diego 225

    • von Liebig Center 142

  • University of Georgia President’s Venture Fund 245

  • University of Illinois, Chicago

    • IllinoisVENTURES 245

  • University of Kansas

    • KUIC Venture Fund 245

  • University of Michigan

    • Social Venture Fund 244

    • Wolverine Venture Fund 246

  • University of Oregon

    • Venture Development Fund 245

  • University of Pennsylvania

    • MinorTech Ventures 245

    • Wharton Social Venture Fund 244, 246

  • University of Rochester

    • University Technology Seed Fund 2435

  • University of Utah

    • University Venture Fund 246

  • university research parks (URPs) 234

    • influence of 2345

    • research on 234

  • University Technology Centres 228

  • university venture funds

    • activity of 243

    • concept of 2423

    • examples of 2435

      • categorisation of 2446

    • potential development of 2489

    • structure of 2468

  • US Survey of Incomes and Program Participation 105

  • venture capitalists (VC)/financing 77, 1089, 167

    • backing of IPOs 168

    • role in fostering of entrepreneurship 167

  • Walmart 89

  • Waterloo University 225

  • Westinghouse 55

  • Whittington, Dick 87

  • Xerox Corporation 55

  • Yahoo!, Inc. 224

  • Yunus, Muhammad 184