Handbook of Measures for International Entrepreneurship Research
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Handbook of Measures for International Entrepreneurship Research

Multi-Item Scales Crossing Disciplines and Contexts

Edited by Nicole Coviello and Helena Yli-Renko

The Handbook of Measures for International Entrepreneurship Research is a user-friendly collection of multi-item measures developed and used in the research of international entrepreneurship and important areas related to it: international business, entrepreneurship, marketing, strategy, and innovation.
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1 Introduction

Footnotes

Convergent validity refers to the degree to which two measures designed to measure the same construct are related (indicated by high correlation). In contrast, discriminant validity refers to the degree to which two measures, designed to measure similar but conceptually different constructs, are related (indicated by low to moderate correlation). Nomological validity is supported when the formal theoretical predications from a model including the concept in question are confirmed (i.e., they are shown to be theoretically and empirically related). Please consult additional sources for definitional and technical details, such as Campbell (1960), Anderson and Gerbing (1988), Bollen (1989), and Bagozzi et al. (1991).

In brief, reflective (or effect) measurement models assume that latent constructs can be measured with a set of positively correlated items or indicators. Accordingly, indicators are viewed as function of the latent variable. Consequently, any change in the latent variable is reflected in changes to the indicators (see summary in Diamantopoulos and Siguaw 2006 as well as other references noted earlier in this Introduction). In contrast, a formative (or causal) model assumes that changes in the indicators determine changes in the latent variable. That is, they cause the latent variable.

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