Elgar Encyclopedia of International Economic Law
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Elgar Encyclopedia of International Economic Law

Edited by Thomas Cottier and Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer

The Encyclopedia is the definitive reference work on international economic law. This comprehensive resource helps redefine the field by presenting international economic law in its broadest, real-world context.
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Index: Index

  • Baetens, F 283289

  • Bagwell, K 250

  • Bahar, R 566568

  • Bamford, C 67

  • Bank of International Settlements (BIS) 9093

  • banking

    • Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) 13, 92, 95, 97, 252, 558, 559, 560561, 566567, 568

    • central banks see central banks

    • European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 117, 119122

    • Grameen Bank 612

    • Inter-American Development Bank Group 117, 118, 120121, 122

    • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 34, 115, 116, 120

    • World Bank see World Bank

  • Baran, P 26

  • Barrett, S 572

  • Barria, L 120

  • Bartels, L 179, 208, 418

  • Barth, J 252

  • Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) 13, 92, 95, 97, 252, 558, 559, 560561, 566567, 568

  • Bauer, S 161

  • Baumann, J 5659

  • Baumgartner, J 811

  • Beghin, J 419

  • Beretta, L 354359

  • Bergsten, C 556

  • Bernardini, P 199202

  • Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works 58, 129, 131, 401, 402, 403, 519

  • Bernier, I 453

  • Bessen, J 532

  • Betz, K 105107

  • Bhagwati, J 17, 178, 354, 423

  • Bhatia, U 600

  • Bianco, G 615617

  • p. 660Biermann, F 161

  • Biersteker, T 340

  • bilateral agreements 323

    • competition policy 477, 481

    • customary international law in IEL 43, 44, 45

    • domestic courts 279

    • and free trade agreements (FTAs) 34, 35

    • full protection and security (FPS) to foreign investors 212213

    • global value chains (GVCs) 600

    • labour migration 495

    • Model US Bilateral Investment Treaty 199200, 232, 233, 234

    • protectionism and state failures, combating 20

    • taxation 511514

  • Binder, C 614

  • Bingham, G 8990

  • Bjorklund, A 203205

  • Blouin, C 452

  • Bodin, J 22, 31

  • Boisson de Chazournes, L 621623

  • Boldrin, M 532

  • Bonal, X 444446

  • Bonnitcha, J 242

  • Boos, F 216219

  • border measures, most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment principle 167

  • Border Tax Adjustment (BTA) 359361, 624

  • Borio, C 550

  • Borrmann, A 334

  • Bovis, C 465

  • Braga, C 589

  • Braun, J-D 151

  • BRICS States, anti-trust laws 479

  • Brinsmead, S 591594

  • Bronckers, M 13

  • Broude, T 66

  • Brown, D 249251

  • Brown-Weiss, E 644

  • Browne, S 123124

  • Brownlie, I 651

  • Brummer, C 4951, 67

  • Bryson, J 596

  • Buchheit, L 614

  • Buergenthal, T 163

  • Bühler, C 9598

  • Bühler, S 251

  • Buhmann, K 584588

  • Bürgi Bonanomi, E 627628, 638641

  • Burri, M 440443

  • Business Twenty (B20) 105107 see also Group of Twenty (G20)

  • businesses

    • advisory council, Group of Twenty (G20) 589

    • engagement in trade policy advocacy 590

    • multinational corporations (MNCs) 413, 414, 443, 584585, 586, 587

    • responsibility, land grabbing and land registration protection 640 see also corporate social responsibility (CSR)

  • Büthe, T 149, 151

  • Cafaggi, F 592

  • Callejas, J 130

  • Calvo doctrine 203, 233

  • Canada 272, 473

  • cartels, competition policy 482, 483, 489

  • Carzaniga, A 455457

  • Cassarino, J-P 504

  • Castles, S 502

  • central banks 8990

    • European System of Central Banks (ESCB) 548549

    • monetary policies, rule of law 54950 see also banking

  • Chang, H-J 30, 255

  • Chang Kuan-Chun, J 9395

  • Chapman, R 256

  • Charnovitz, S 645

  • Chase, C 290

  • Chase, P 61

  • Chiffelle, C 588591

  • Choudhury, B 653654

  • Christians, A 109113, 506507

  • Clapham, A 584

  • Clark, D 117

  • Clarke, P 631

  • climate change 196, 469, 581, 609, 625627, 634636, 645 see also environmental protection

  • Colgan, J 145

  • collective action problems, multi-level governance and public goods 571572, 573

  • colonialism legacy 25, 44, 639

  • communication services, WTO GATS 440443

  • compensation payments 4445, 265, 273, 542543, 545

  • competition policy

    • abusive behavior 480

    • bilateral agreements 477, 481

    • and Business Twenty (B20) 106

    • cartels 482, 483, 489

    • corporate social responsibility (CSR) enforcement 478479

    • developing countries 482, 491492

    • domestic jurisdiction 481484

    • dominant position abuse 482

    • extraterritorial effects 480483

    • fairness principle 477478

    • free trade agreements and customs unions, impact of 353

    • and health services 452

    • human rights and development 482, 491492

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 375376, 477478, 483, 521, 527529, 532

    • International Competition Network (ICN) 479, 481, 484485, 489, 492

    • mergers 480, 482, 483, 489

    • no disadvantage in competitive opportunities attributable to the government 192

    • OECD role 488489, 492

    • p. 661and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 479, 488489, 492

    • preferential trade agreements (PTAs) 477, 487488

    • private international law 1011

    • rule of law in international economic relations 16

    • technical assistance and capacity-building 490

    • and trade and investment rules, relationship between 476477

    • traditional knowledge (TK) protection 478

    • transaction costs 481

    • UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 489490, 492

    • UNCTAD role 489490, 492

    • unfair competition laws 477479

    • voluntary peer reviews 490

    • WTO, General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) 476, 485

    • WTO, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS Agreement) 477478, 483, 485, 527528

  • competitiveness issues 582, 625626

  • Conde Gallego, B 527529

  • Condon, B 635

  • confidentiality 225, 328

  • conflict management, investor-State 335338

  • conflicts of interest 327328, 462

  • Conrad, C 645

  • constitutionalization issues 573, 574, 575, 576577

  • consumer protection 189, 261, 624

  • cooperation

    • agreements and readmission 503504

    • Bank of International Settlements (BIS) 9192

    • and collaboration patterns 6869

    • disadvantages, ad hoc arbitration 313314

    • globalization and multi-level governance 3940

    • networking and informal cooperation in IEL 5152

    • non-tariff barriers and product regulation 5657

    • regulatory 6364

    • trade, environment and law of the sea 633

    • UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 76, 132

  • cooperation with other organizations

    • African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) 137, 138, 139

    • Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO) 137, 139

    • European Patent Organization (EPO) 134, 138, 139, 140

    • Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 100

    • Group of Seven (G7)/ Group of Eight (G8) 105, 110

    • Group of Twenty (G20) 8586, 110

    • International Development Banks (IDB) 122

    • International Energy Agency (IEA) 145

    • International Monetary Fund (IMF) 89, 105, 116, 117

    • International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) 97

    • International Trade Centre (ITC) 124

    • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 8384, 105, 110, 134

    • Patent Office of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC PO) 140

    • Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) 307

    • UN Development Programme (UNDP) 127, 132, 161

    • UN Environment Programme (UNEP) 161162

    • UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 157, 159

    • World Bank 85, 105, 117118, 122, 161

    • World Health Organization (WHO) 159160

    • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 132, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 159

    • World Trade Organization (WTO) 6768, 73, 105, 137, 138, 148149, 159, 162

  • Coppens, P 227228

  • copyright 521, 525526, 533

  • corporate codes of conduct 586588

  • corporate social responsibility (CSR) 242, 584585, 618619, 628, 640 see also businesses

  • Correa, C 531534

  • Correia de Brito, A 61

  • corruption 228230, 462, 586 see also counterfeiting and piracy

  • Corvaglia, M 465466

  • Cossy, M 446448

  • Cottier, T 13, 5664, 172175, 176177, 180, 181182, 195, 278, 396397, 401405, 448, 477479, 481484, 516517, 536, 550, 573, 575582, 627628, 630, 631, 635, 638641

  • Cotula, L 241243

  • counterfeiting and piracy 373374, 402 see also corruption; intellectual property rights

  • courts

  • Coyle, J 32

  • Cózar, A 633

  • Cremona, M 12

  • Crépeau, F 494496, 503504

  • crisis management 251252, 565

  • Crosby, D 296300

  • Cross, K 613615

  • Cullborg, J 30911

  • Culot, H 252255, 343345

  • culture 246247

    • ‘cultural exception’ debate, communication services 441

    • cultural industries 275

    • cultural pluralism 227

    • cultural and sporting services 453454

  • Cunningham, R 471

  • customary law 6, 7, 8, 4345, 4748, 210, 211, 214, 379380

  • customs law

    • and rules of origin (RoO) 356357

    • and trade facilitation 357358

    • and valuation 354356

  • customs unions 173

  • p. 662Daigrement, C 6

  • Dailler, P 293

  • Daly, B 305307

  • Dam, K 263

  • Danov, M 11

  • Davey, W 168172

  • De Brabandere, E 4546

  • De Búrca, G 577

  • De Haan, E 644

  • de jure and de facto discrimination 192193, 204205

  • De Méstral, A 166168, 175

  • De Schutter, O 638, 640

  • De Sépibus, J 635

  • debt

  • deference technique 68

  • Degener, T 654

  • Delbecq, B 618

  • Delimatsis, P 370373, 397401, 423431

  • Delpeuch, C 604

  • Demaret, P 359

  • democracy

    • democratic legitimacy of trade rules, challenges to 396

    • and minority rights 227228

    • sovereignty issues 233234

    • substantive law 234235

    • and taxation interaction 508

  • deposit insurance, financial stability 251252

  • Desai, B 161

  • Desierto, D 6667

  • developing countries

    • business competitiveness 124

    • common but differentiated responsibility 634

    • competition policy 482, 491492

    • and customs law 356

    • development, fostering 2526

    • development policies and strategies 256258

    • donor reports, developing countries’ suspicion over 603604

    • Economic Diversification Index 180

    • and enabling clause 179180

    • export restrictions 370

    • foreign direct investment 8081

    • Global System of Trade Preferences Among Developing Countries (GSTP) 74

    • graduation 179181

    • health services exporters 452

    • IMF facilities 610611

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 531534

    • International Monetary Fund (IMF) 610611

    • lawyers, courts and legal education 579

    • least-developed countries (LDCs) 176177, 180, 533, 608, 609

    • patent protection in pharmaceuticals 582

    • poverty 1718, 19, 611

    • and preferential trade agreements 173, 179, 180, 266

    • special and differential treatment (SDT) 176177

    • sustainable development and private sector stimulation 618

    • and technology transfer 75, 606610

    • World Bank Group (WBG) development aid 117

    • WTO Agreements on Agriculture (AoA) 470

    • WTO, Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) 461 see also foreign direct investment (FDI); poverty

  • development, fostering 2427

  • development policies and strategies 255258

  • Devereaux, C 61

  • Diaz, N 383385

  • Diddens, A 18

  • Diebold, N 184185, 188189

  • Diehl, E 654

  • differential treatment 182, 269

  • digital economy, and Business Twenty (B20) 106107

  • DiMascio, N 379

  • Dimsey, M 641643

  • diplomatic sanctions 342

  • disability rights 654656

  • discriminatory measures 372, 398, 430 see also non-discrimination

  • dispute settlement

    • Group of Twenty (G20) 85

    • ICSID see International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)

    • International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 77, 7879

    • investor-State (ISDS) 33, 250, 290, 381, 635

    • legal relationship of international organizations 68

    • most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle 182

    • Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) 81

    • provisions, customs law 359

    • sovereignty and policy space, maintaining 23, 24

    • transparency 217, 223225

    • treaties and treaty interpretation 4748

    • working procedures in international arbitration 321322

    • WTO see World Trade Organization (WTO)

    • Dispute Resolution; World Trade

    • Organization (WTO), Dispute Settlement

    • Understanding (DSU) distribution services 443444

  • Disyatat, P 550

  • Dolzer, R 542, 543

  • domestic courts 277281, 580

  • domestic policy

    • balancing a diversity of interests 232235

    • Calvo doctrine 203, 233

    • compensation right 273

    • consumer protection 261

    • cultural industries 275

    • environmental conservation 261, 262

    • fair and equitable treatment (FET) 273, 275

    • free trade agreements (FTAs) 272

    • government procurement and subsidies 275

    • p. 663‘necessity’ requirement 261262

    • space protection 260263, 272275

    • State responsibility rules 285289

    • state succession principle, debt relief 614

    • State transparency 216219

    • two-tier test 260 see also national treatment (NT) principle; sovereignty

  • domestic regulation

    • competition policy 481484

    • counterfeiting and piracy 402

    • democratic legitimacy of trade rules, challenges to 396

    • discriminatory and non-discriminatory measures 398

    • foreign direct investment (FDI) 405406, 406407

    • global value chains (GVCs) 396, 402, 413, 414

    • and goods 396397

    • and IEL, relationship between 1113

    • implementation 235237

    • import bans 411

    • information protection 401402

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) 397, 401405

    • international investment standards, impact of 406407

    • investment law flexibilities in 236237

    • investment protection 404, 405407

    • judicial review 399

    • liberalization measures 406

    • most-favoured-nation (MFN) and national treatment 402, 404

    • multinational corporations (MNCs) 413, 414

    • necessity test 400

    • non-discrimination and transparency 403404

    • preferential trade agreements 403

    • qualifications, licensing and technical standards 399400

    • quantitative restrictions 406

    • regulatory barriers to trade 411415

    • ‘regulatory chill’ risk 407

    • rule of law promotion 16

    • and services 397401

    • Special Economic Zone (SEZ) incentive 406

    • technical barriers to trade 396397

    • transparency and due process requirements 398

    • voluntary licensing 404

    • voluntary private standards in retail business, problems with 414

    • WTO flexibilities 235236

  • dominant position abuse 441, 482

  • Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) 210, 290, 408

  • Dordi, C 351354, 359361

  • ‘double requirement’ practice, customary international law in IEL 44

  • double taxation 506507, 509510, 513

  • Douglas, Z 11, 320

  • dual pricing schemes, energy law 630, 631

  • dualism theories, and domestic law 11, 12, 13

  • due process 211, 398, 542

  • Dumberry, P 4345

  • Dunoff, J 35

  • Dupuy, F 8

  • Dupuy, P-M 58

  • Dür, A 173

  • e-commerce 444, 449450

  • Echandi, R 335338

  • Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 174, 495

  • education, legal 578581

  • educational services 444446

  • Edworthy, C 323327

  • Ehrenhaft, D 367

  • Ehring, L 172175, 191194

  • electricity 626, 647648

  • Ellis, M 115118

  • Elsig, M 173

  • empirical research role in IEL 5254

  • enabling clause, and developing countries 179180

  • energy

  • Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) 142143, 273, 274, 635

    • fork-in-the-road provision 280

    • full protection and security (FPS) 212

    • most-favoured-nation clause 199, 200

    • and Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (SCC) Arbitration Institute 310

  • environmental protection 2627, 241243

    • climate change negotiations and Paris Protocol 581

    • and corporate social responsibility 242

    • development, fostering 2627

    • domestic policy space protection and Article XX GATT, Article XIV GATS 261, 262

    • and energy efficiency 143

    • environmental services 446448

    • marine pollution 632633

    • market access and national treatment 447

    • processes and production methods (PPMs) 623625

    • Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 621, 622, 623

    • taxes and sustainable development 628629

    • and technological progress 447

    • trade and law of the sea 632634 see also climate change; sustainable development

  • equivalence factor 6163, 181, 377378, 390 see also harmonization

  • Eriksen, M 633

  • Erler, G 11

  • Espa, I 363366, 368370, 629631

  • Eterovic Maggio, D 532

  • ethics of international arbitration 327329

  • EU

    • cartels 483

    • Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights for Workers 250

    • copyright protection 525, 530

    • p. 664Council of Europe Convention on Access to Official Documents 217

    • Council of Europe on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters 513

    • equivalence implications 62

    • European Committee for Standardization (CEN) 58

    • European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) 50

    • EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) 40, 61, 200, 202, 209213, 236, 380, 381, 403, 409, 649

    • ‘Everything But Arms’ initiative 178

    • free movement of goods and consumer protection 62

    • free trade agreements 12

    • Fuel Quality Directive 189

    • gender equality 654

    • Generalized Systems of Preferences (GSPs) 408

    • harmonization 9, 59, 62

    • human rights 408

    • Investment Court proposal 15

    • labour mobility 495

    • Lisbon Treaty 40

    • Lomé Convention 279

    • Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM) 134136

    • public procurement 465

    • quantitative restrictions 378

    • Seasonal Workers Directive 495

    • soft law and rulemaking 4951

    • sustainable development 623

    • tax legislation 111, 509, 514

    • transparency strategy 40

  • Euler, D 223225

  • Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO) 137, 138139

  • European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 117, 119122

  • European Convention on Human Rights 216217, 516, 638

  • European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 248

    • Former King of Greece v Greece 543

    • Gorzelik v Poland 228

    • Scordino v Italy 543

    • Thlimmenos v Greece 227

    • Youth Initiative for Human Rights v Serbia 217

  • European Court of Justice (ECJ)

    • Cassis-de-Dijon 9, 60, 61, 62, 378

    • Chiquita Italia 279

    • Dior 277

    • Gauweiler v German Bundestag 577

    • Huawei Technologies v ZTE 528

    • human rights and unilateral sanctions 345

    • Ikea Wholesale 278

    • International Fruit Company 278

    • Kadi 340, 577

    • Kupferberg 279

    • Microsoft Corp v Commission 593

    • Monsanto Technology 278

    • MOX Plant Arbitration – Ireland v United Kingdom 289

    • Murray v The Charming Betsy 277

    • Opel Austria 279

    • Portugal v Council 278

    • Simutenkov 279

    • Wood Pulp 483

  • European Energy Charter 142

  • European Free Trade Agreement (EFTA) 37, 173

  • European Law Students’ Association (ELSA) WTO law moot court 579

  • European Patent Organization (EPO) 133134, 138, 139, 140, 403

  • European System of Central Banks (ESCB), monetary law, allocation of powers and jurisdiction 548549

  • Evenett, S 487, 488

  • exchange rate system, International Monetary Fund (IMF) 88, 89, 553, 554

  • exclusive economic zones (EEZ) 516

  • exports 344, 366370, 390, 391, 470, 472473, 473

  • expropriation

    • environmental protection 241, 242

    • and property rights 541546

  • extraterritorial effects, competition policy 480483

  • Fahkri, M 389

  • fair comparison, anti-dumping measures 386

  • fair and equitable treatment (FET)

    • competition policy 477478

    • democracy and minority rights 234, 235

    • domestic policy space protection 273, 275

    • environmental protection 241, 242

    • and foreign investment protection 208213, 214

    • and full protection and security (FPS) 207

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 529531, 533

    • investment protection, Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) 142

    • and State transparency 218

  • Farha, R 393

  • Feenstra, R 53

  • Fefer, R 421

  • Feichtner, I 266268

  • Feketekuty, G 398, 423

  • Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 98100, 559, 567

  • financial regulation

  • Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) 94, 560, 562563, 564

  • financial sector sanctions 342

  • financial services 449451

  • financial stability 251252

  • p. 665Financial Stability Board (FSB) 13, 92, 94, 100103, 558, 559560, 568

  • Fino, M 153155

  • First, H 489

  • first-sale doctrine, intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 375

  • fisheries and aquaculture 632

  • Fitzmaurice, G 319320

  • Flett, J 175

  • Foltea, M 6769, 596601

  • food

    • ‘food miles’ carbon intensity labels 189

    • right to adequate 651653

    • UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 155157, 573, 627, 638

    • World Food Programme (WFP) 157

    • World Food Summit 653 see also agriculture; water

    • foreign direct investment (FDI) Business Twenty (B20) 106

    • domestic regulation 405406, 406407

    • empirical research role 5354

    • free trade agreements and customs unions, impact of 353

    • full protection and security (FPS) to foreign investors 212214

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 528529

    • investment barriers-to-entry 379

    • Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) 8081

    • property rights and investment protection 539

    • and ‘regulatory chill’ 256 see also developing countries

  • Forere, M 175

  • Fornalé, E 496498

  • Fox, E 484

  • franchising 444

  • Franck, S 250

  • Frank, A 26

  • free trade agreements (FTAs)

    • customs law 356

    • and customs unions 353354

    • domestic law and IEL, relationship between 12

    • domestic policy space protection 272

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 376

    • and multilateralism 34, 35

    • private sector lobbies and associations 589590

    • regional integration and preferential trade 173174

  • free-riding concerns 167, 170

  • Freidberg, S 414

  • Friedman, M 550

  • Friends of Antidumping (Friends Group) 387388

  • friendship, commerce and navigation (FCN) treaties 32, 279

  • full protection and security (FPS) to foreign investors 212214

  • functionalist tradition 6768

  • Gadbaw, R 553556

  • Gagnon, J 554

  • Garcia, F 2427

  • Gass, J 232235, 321323

  • Gaukrodger, D 8184

  • Gelpern, A 613

  • gender empowerment and equality 27, 126, 613, 641, 647, 653654

  • Generalized System of Preferences (GSPs) 74, 178, 179, 180, 250, 408

  • Genser, J 240

  • geographical indications 522, 533

  • Gerber, D 481482

  • Germany, Solange 577

  • Geth, C 565

  • Gilbert, D 587

  • Glicksman, R 647

  • Global Alliance for Trade Facilitation 589

  • Global Business Alliance (GBA) 591

  • Global Environment Facility, UN Development Programme (UNDP) 127

  • Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD) 494, 497

  • Global Master Repurchase Agreement 567

  • Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) 413, 587

  • global response to threat of climate change 635636

  • Global Systemically Important Insurers (G-SIIs) 565

  • global value chains (GVCs)

    • and anti-dumping measures 388

    • domestic regulation 396, 402, 413, 414

    • linking goods and services 596598, 599600

    • manufacturing to services process 597598

    • and non-tariff barriers affecting trade in goods 599600

    • recession impact reduction 597

    • regulatory challenges 598601

    • and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) 599

  • globalization effects

    • customary international law in IEL 44

    • development, fostering 26, 27

    • financial regulation, insurance core principles 563

    • lawyers, courts and legal education 580

    • and multi-level governance 3940

    • taxation jurisdiction and impact of national treatment 510

    • and welfare enhancement 1719

  • Gold, J 68

  • Goldmann, M 616

  • Goldsmith, J 576

  • Gonzalez, J 535

  • good faith principle 21, 42, 212, 278

  • Goodfriend, M 550

  • Gosis, D 544546

  • Gostin, L 243245

  • government changes, and debt relief 614

  • government interventions that ‘create’ markets that would not otherwise exist 391

  • government procurement see World Trade Organization (WTO), Government Procurement Agreement (GPA)

  • Gowlland Gualtieri, A 644

  • p. 666Graham, E 405

  • Grameen Bank 612

  • Graugnard, N 588591

  • Greece, sovereign debt crisis 617

  • Green, A 635

  • Green Climate Fund, Group of Twenty (G20) 572

  • gross domestic product (GDP) and trade data role 582

  • Grosse Ruse-Khan, H 58, 404, 527531, 534536

  • Grossman, G 196

  • Group of Seven (G7)/Group of Eight (G8) 103105, 252

  • Group of Twenty (G20) 8486, 94, 252

    • business advisory council 589

    • and Financial Stability Board (FSB) 101, 102

    • Green Climate Fund 572

    • High-Level Principles on Ownership Transparency 105

    • role in tax 111112

    • transparency 219 see also Business Twenty (B20)

  • Gruszczynski, L 415418

  • Gudas, K 647648

  • Guèvremont, V 453454

  • Gurry, F 130

  • Häberli, C 177179, 468471

  • Hafner, G 67

  • Hailbronner, K 503

  • Hajnal, P 8486, 103105

  • Hallaert, J-J 603606

  • Hamanaka, S 419

  • Handler, M 526

  • Hansen, R 497

  • harmonization 5961

    • anti-money-laundering practices 567

    • and mutual recognition in services 420421

    • tariffs and schedules of concession 35051 see also equivalence factor

  • Harns, C 497

  • health

  • Heiskanen, V 208, 319321

  • Helfer, L 529

  • Henning-Bodewig, F 478

  • Henriques, A 587

  • Hepburn, J 272275

  • Herdegen, M 12

  • Hernandez Crespo Gonstead, M 335338

  • Hertig, M 575576

  • Hess-Klein, C 654656

  • Hestermeyer, H 129133

  • Hilty, R 478, 530

  • Hinojosa Martínez, L 219223

  • Hinricher, J 151

  • Hizon, E 367

  • Hobe, S 162163

  • Hobér, K 142143, 309

  • Hoda, A 351

  • Hoekman, B 385, 419, 424, 429

  • Hoekstra, A 645, 646

  • Holzer, K 185188, 189191, 623625, 624

  • Honeck, D 439440

  • Hong Kong International Arbitration Center (HKIAC) 328

  • Horlick, G 393394, 631

  • Horn, H 361, 502

  • Howse, R 239241, 616, 624

  • Hudec, R 180, 195, 389, 578

  • Hufbauer, G 340341, 361, 471

  • Hughes, V 300303

  • ‘Hull’ formula 45

  • human rights 2479

    • African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights 516, 638, 648

    • African Court of Human Rights 248

    • American Convention on Human Rights 516, 638, 648

    • and competition policy 482, 491492

    • and corporate responsibility 584585

    • and domestic law and IEL, relationship between 11

    • European Convention on Human Rights 216217, 516, 638

    • European Court of Human Rights see European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)

    • and globalization and multi-level governance 40

    • guarantees, readmission and cooperation agreements 503

    • and intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 535, 657

    • Inter-American Convention on Human Rights 216217

    • International Labour Organization (ILO) 153154

    • international trade in virtual water 645647

    • labour standards, impact of 407409

    • land grabbing and land registration protection 639641

    • and legal integration and vertically shared principles 575, 577

    • multi-level governance and public goods 572573, 574

    • property rights 516517, 638639

    • and public morals 240

    • right to access to medicines 650651

    • right to adequate food 651653

    • right to electricity 647648

    • right to health 648650

    • right to water 641645

    • rights of indigenous peoples 656657

    • rights of persons with disabilities 654656

    • rights of women 653654

    • and sovereignty 24, 32

    • treaties and State transparency 216217

    • UN Commission on Human Rights (HRC) 642

    • UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) 638, 641

    • UN Development Programme (UNDP) 126

    • UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) 584585, 586, 640

    • UN Norms on Human Rights Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations 585

    • unilateral sanctions, exemptions for humanitarian reasons 345

    • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 247, 586, 638, 641, 651

    • welfare and Human Development Index 54

  • Humbert, F 407409

  • Hupkes, E 100103, 252, 558560

  • Imeli, B 5963

  • imports 30, 181, 263265, 344, 363366, 411

  • indigenous peoples 638, 6567

    • traditional knowledge (TK) protection 478

  • industrial design 522

  • ‘informal international lawmaking’ (IN-LAW) concept 5152

  • information protection 401402, 520, 523524, 526

  • information sharing 68, 75, 606610, 625

  • information technology changes 441, 442

  • innovation 531532, 617618

  • Institute of International Finance 616

  • institutionalized ‘club goods’ 574

  • insurance core principles 563566

  • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection

    • African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI) 137138, 139, 403

    • African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) 136137, 138, 139, 403

    • and competition law 375376, 477478, 483, 521, 527529, 532

    • copyright 521, 525526, 533

    • counterfeiting and piracy 373374, 402

    • developing countries’ concerns 531534

    • fair and equitable treatment 529531, 533

    • first-sale doctrine 375

    • and foreign direct investment (FDI) protection 528529

    • free trade agreements (FTAs) 376

    • geographical indications 522, 533

    • goals, principles and minimum standards 519524

    • and human rights 535, 655, 657

    • indigenous peoples 657

    • industrial design 522

    • innovation promotion issues 531532

    • investment protection agreement 520521, 527529

    • least-developed countries (LDCs) and temporary exemption from TRIPS Agreement 533

    • minimum standards 58

    • most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle 520, 524525, 527

    • national treatment 519520

    • obligations, ceilings and graduation 534536

    • ‘parallel imports’ and exhaustion 375377, 521522

    • patents 376, 520, 522523, 526, 533534

    • plant variety protection 523

    • and preferential trade agreements (PTAs) 173, 378, 403, 524526

    • private standards, delegated regulations 593594

    • protection of undisclosed information 523, 526

    • regulatory data protection 520, 523524

    • special and differential treatment 524, 535536

    • trade secrets 523

    • trademarks 520, 521522

    • TRIPS Agreement 519, 520, 521, 522, 523524

    • WTO law and domestic policy space 5334 see also property rights

  • Inter-American Convention Against Corruption 229

  • Inter-American Convention on Human Rights 216217

  • Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR) 248

    • Claude-Reyes v Chile 217

    • Mayagna (Sumo) Awas Tingni Community v Nicaragua 638

  • Inter-American Development Bank Group 117, 118, 120121, 122

  • interdependence impact, monetary law, allocation of powers and jurisdiction 548549

  • International Association of Deposit Insurers (IADI) 92, 252, 559

  • International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) 92, 9395, 97, 223, 558, 559, 563, 566

  • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 34, 115, 116, 120

  • International Bar Association (IBA) 327328, 336

  • International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 10, 45, 7679, 143, 233, 313, 326327, 332, 538

    • ADC v Hungary 543

    • Additional Facility arbitration and fact-finding 79, 321, 323, 326

    • Aguas del Tunari v Bolivia 642

    • Amco Asia v Indonesia 284

    • Asian Agricultural Products Limited v Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka 77

    • Bayindir v Pakistan 200

    • Biwater v Tanzania 539540

    • Burlington Resources v Ecuador 657

    • City Oriente Limited v Ecuador 283

    • Clayton and Bilcon of Delaware v Canada 241

    • CMS v Argentina 287

    • Compañia del Desarrollo de Santa Elena v Costa Rica 241, 543

    • El Paso Energy International Company v Argentina 274, 275

    • Emmis International Holding v Hungary 284

    • Enron v Argentina 287

    • Fedax v Venezuela 539

    • Holiday Inns v Morocco 77

    • Inceysa Vallisoletane v El Salvador 284

    • Kardassopoulos and Fuchs v Georgia 544

    • LG&E v Argentina 287

    • Loewen v United States 205

    • Maffezini v Spain 201

    • Metalclad Corporation v United Mexican States 218

    • Methanex v United States 205

    • Mondev International v US 210

    • most-favourable-nation principle 200, 201

    • p. 668and Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) 8081

    • Murphy Exploration v Ecuador 284

    • and national treatment obligations 204205, 327

    • Nations Energy v Panama 275

    • Occidental v Ecuador 211

    • Pac Rim Cayman v El Salvador 241

    • Pantechniki v Albania 281, 284

    • Philip Morris v Uruguay 160, 249, 250251, 404, 528, 650

    • Plama v Bulgaria 201

    • property rights and investment protection 539540

    • Quiborax v Bolivia 542, 545

    • Rumeli Telekom v Kazakhstan 200

    • Salini v Jordan 201

    • Salini v Morocco 539

    • Sempra v Argentina 287

    • Siemens v Argentina 543544

    • Tecmed v Mexico 211, 218, 234, 241

    • Telenor v Hungary 201

    • Toto v Lebanon 280

    • transparency 223, 323

    • Urbaser and Corsorcio de Aguas Bilbao Bizkaia v Argentina 642

    • Vivendi I 280281, 290

    • Waste Management v United Mexican States (II) 210, 211

    • Wintershall v Argentine Republic 201

  • International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) 9, 307309, 328, 346, 589

  • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 162163

  • International Competition Network (ICN) 479, 481, 484485, 489, 492

  • International Convention on the Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) 350, 351, 369

  • International Court of Justice (ICJ) 6, 42, 45, 2924

    • Ambatielos (Greece v UK) 201

    • Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (UK v Iran) 201

    • AS Diallo 292293

    • Barcelona Traction 292293

    • concession contracts 294295

    • concurrent jurisdiction 289

    • Conditions of Admission of a State to Membership in the UN 284

    • Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v Serbia and Montenegro) 286

    • Corfu Channel Case (UK v Albania) 4243

    • and economic sanctions 345

    • Elettronica Sicula SpA (ELSI) 207208, 210, 292

    • Gabčikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary v Slovakia) 284, 623

    • jurisprudence constante’ principle 4546

    • Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons 623

    • Navigational Rights (Costa Rica v Nicaragua) 294

    • Nicaragua (Nicaragua v US) 254, 286, 345

    • Norwegian Loans 293

    • Oil Platforms (Iran v USA) 254, 294

    • pacta sunt servanda 284

    • Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Croatia v Serbia) 46

    • Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v Uruguay) 289, 621, 623, 632

    • Rights of Nationals of the United States of America in Morocco (France v USA) 199, 201, 284

    • Seizure and Detention of Certain Documents and Data (Timor-Leste v Australia) 289

    • Serbian and Brazilian Loans 293

    • US Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran (US v Iran) 286

  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 216217, 247, 408

  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 408, 638, 641, 648, 650, 651652

  • International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), Tadic 286

  • International Development Association (IDA) 611

  • International Development Banks (IDB)/Regional Development Banks 118122

  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 148, 149150

  • International Energy Agency (IEA) 143146, 625

  • International Fiscal Association (IFA) 112113

  • international forum selection 289290

  • international investment agreements (IIAs) 534

    • establishment clauses 380

    • international forum selection 290

    • investor-State conflict management 336

    • private sector lobbies and associations 590

    • property rights and investment protection 538539

    • State transparency 218

  • International Labour Organization (ILO) 1535

    • core labour standards 5859

    • Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work 586

    • Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization 154, 407, 408

    • and Group of Twenty (G20) 85

    • Indigenous and Tribal Peoples protection 638

    • migration initiatives 494

    • Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy 586

    • transparency 222

  • International Law Commission (ILC), Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA) 285288

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) 34, 68, 73, 76, 8889, 5534

    • cooperation with other organizations 89, 105, 116, 117

    • developing countries 610611

    • exchange rate system 88, 89, 553, 554

    • and Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 100

    • and Group of Twenty (G20) 85

    • Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative 615

    • p. 669IMF-World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) 102

    • insurance supervision 564

    • monetary law, allocation of powers and jurisdiction 549

    • Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) membership 80

    • Sovereign Debt Restructuring Mechanism 616

    • Special Drawing Right (SDR) 178

    • Standards and Codes Initiative 559, 560

    • transparency 219220

    • waiver powers 267

  • International Organization for Migration (IOM) 495, 497

  • International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) 9598, 558, 559, 566

  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 58, 148149, 413, 587, 592

  • International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) 68, 157, 415

  • International Social and Environmental

    • Accreditation and Labelling (ISEAL) Alliance 592

  • International Swap and Derivatives Association (ISDA) 567, 568

  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 148, 150151

  • International Trade Centre (ITC) 76, 123124

  • International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) 157, 627

  • International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS), Southern Bluefin Tuna Cases 289, 621

  • International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) 138, 532

  • Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers and Names (ICANN) 573574

  • investment

    • agreements, sovereignty and policy space, maintaining 22

    • barriers-to-entry 379381

    • and climate change 634636

    • and corruption 230

    • and human rights, right to health 649

    • international investment agreements see international investment agreements (IIAs)

    • OECD Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) 34, 246

  • investment arbitration

    • Berschader v Russian Federation 201

    • Renta 4 SVSA et al v Russian Federation 199

  • investment law

    • flexibilities, domestic law implementation 236237

    • international forum selection 289290

    • and ‘jurisprudence constante’ 46

    • and labour migration see labour migration, trade and investment law

    • and national security 256

    • national treatment (NT) principle 203205

  • Investment Policy Reviews, OECD 217

  • investment protection

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 404, 520521, 527529

    • International Court of Justice (ICJ) 292293

    • and property rights 538541

    • and ‘regulatory chill’ debate, environmental protection 241242

  • investor-State

  • ISO 26000 Social Responsibility Guidance Standard 587

  • Italy, Fincantieri-Cantieri Navali Italiani v Iraq 346

  • Jackson, J 4, 12, 194, 366367, 576, 578

  • Jaffe, A 531

  • Jakhu, R 163

  • Jessup, P 11

  • Johnson, L 331332

  • Johnson, P 127

  • Jones, E 35

  • judicial review 343, 399

  • Jung, E 340341

  • jurisdiction

    • and admissibility distinction 319320

    • exclusive clauses, private international law 10

    • in international arbitration 316319

    • and monetary law 548549

    • and most-favoured-nation treatment in investment law 201202

    • taxation jurisdiction and impact of national treatment 510512

  • jurisprudence constante principle 4546, 210

  • Labie, M 613

  • labour protection 24951

    • labour standards 5859, 407409

    • labour-related restrictions, global value chains (GVCs) 600

    • North American Agreement on Labour Cooperation (NAALC) 408

    • preferential trade agreements (PTAs) 250, 502503

  • Laird, S 334

  • Lalani, S 345347

  • land management

    • land access and human rights, property rights beyond foreign direct investment 638639

    • land grabbing and land registration protection, human rights 639641

    • land registration and agricultural management 517

    • and sustainable development 627628

    • WTO Agreements on Agriculture (AoA) 46870 see also property rights

  • land transport services 456457

  • Lang, A 1517

  • Langille, J 239

  • Lanoszka, A 451453

  • Lanz, R 598

  • Laprévote, F-C 487

  • Larionova, M 107

  • Lastra, R 548551

  • lawyers, courts and legal education 578581

  • least-developed countries (LDCs) 176177, 180, 533, 608, 609 see also developing countries

  • Lee, E 18

  • Lee, Y-S 263266, 384

  • Leebron, D 68

  • legal integration and vertically shared principles 575578

  • legal relationship of international organizations 6769

  • Legum, B 538

  • Lerner, J 531

  • Lerner Theorem of equivalence, subsidy rules 390

  • Lesher, M 476

  • less favourable treatment, national treatment (NT) principle 191194

  • Lester, S 389

  • Letnar Černič, J 643

  • Levine, D 532

  • Levine, J 305307

  • Li, X 155157

  • liberalization issues

    • development policies and strategies 256

    • domestic regulation, relating to investment 406

    • domestic services market 428429

    • educational services 445

    • financial services 449, 450

    • health services 452

    • investment barriers-to-entry 379, 380

    • labour migration, trade and investment law 494, 496

    • OECD Code of Liberalization of Capital Movements 381

    • preferential trade agreements, trade in services 435

    • public health 245

    • subsidy rules 390391

    • WTO, General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) 426, 435

  • Lichtenbaum, P 471

  • Lideikyte-Huber, G 510512

  • Lienau, O 614

  • like circumstances approach, national treatment (NT) principle 188189, 204

  • like product analysis 170, 186187, 359, 469, 624

  • List, F 30

  • Liu, C 354

  • lobbies, private sector lobbies and associations 588591

  • London Club, sovereign debt 616, 617

  • London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA) 31112

  • Lopez-Gonzalez, J 582

  • Losada, R 503504

  • Low, P 352, 599, 600

  • Luo, Y 387

  • Maffetone, P 27

  • Magdeleine, J 443444

  • Magraw, K 7376

  • Majone, G 148

  • Mandelbaum, J 538541

  • Marangos, J 116

  • Marceau, G 7173

  • Marchick, D 405

  • marine pollution 632633

  • maritime law, environment and trade 632634

  • maritime transport services 456

  • Markert, L 326

  • market access

    • barriers, quantitative restrictions in services 371372

    • commitments, Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) 35, 36, 159, 421, 436437, 581

    • minimum commitments, WTO Agreements on Agriculture (AoA) 469

    • and national treatment (NT) principle 426, 429430, 441, 447, 452

    • obligation, financial services 450

    • regulation outside of investment agreements 381

  • market definition, and national treatment (NT) principle 189

  • market dominant position abuse 441, 482

  • Martyniszyn, M 479481, 489492

  • Maskus, K 376

  • Maslow, A 27

  • Masters, W 618

  • Matsushita, M 484486

  • Mattli, W 151

  • Maupain, F 153155

  • p. 671Maurer, A 598

  • Mavroidis, P 194197, 361, 365, 390

  • Mayes, D 251

  • Mbengue, M 621623

  • McGrady, B 158160

  • McLachlan, C 11

  • McRae, D 45

  • medicines, right to access 650651

  • Medina, V 635

  • mega-regionalism in IEL, working towards 3739

  • mercantilism 2930

  • MERCOSUR 37, 173, 279, 290, 450, 495

  • Mercurio, B 373374, 524526

  • mergers, competition policy 480, 482, 483, 489

  • Metz, B 625

  • Meurer, M 532

  • microfinance and poverty 612613

  • migration

    • international fora on cooperation 496498

    • International Organization for Migration (IOM) 495, 497

    • irregular 494

    • New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants 494495

    • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 495

    • readmission and cooperation agreements 503504

    • Regional Conference on Migration (Puebla Process) 497

    • trade and investment law 494496

    • UN High Level Dialogue on Migration and Development 497

  • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 126, 127, 605

  • Miller, A 512514

  • Miller, M 502

  • Mills, A 11

  • minimum standards 4445, 5859

  • minority rights, and democracy 227228

  • Miroudot, S 476

  • Mitchell, A 538541

  • Mizaras, V 527

  • modern conceptions of IEL 45

  • Molinuevo, M 371

  • monetary law, allocation of powers and jurisdiction 548549

  • monetary policies, rule of law 549551

  • monetary policy responsibility, central banks 90

  • money laundering 99, 100, 567

  • monopoly rights 593594

  • Moon, S 608

  • moral hazard, and systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs) 102

  • morals, public 239241

  • Moran, T 53

  • Morduch, J 612

  • Moschella, M 66

  • Moser, M 309310

  • Moss Giuditta, C 213, 214

  • most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle 32, 36, 38, 72, 166172

  • air transport services 455

    • and Border Tax Adjustment (BTA) 360

    • conditional 171172

    • enabling clause for preferential treatment of developing countries 177179

    • Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) 199, 200

    • and equivalence and mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) 61, 62

    • export restrictions 369

    • financial services 450, 451

    • implied departures 181182

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 402, 404, 520, 524525, 527

    • International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 200, 201

    • investment barriers-to-entry 380

    • in investment law 199202

    • land transport services 457

    • legal integration and vertically shared principles 575

    • maritime transport services 456

    • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 199, 200

    • obligation on third parties 6061

    • preferential trade agreements 172, 173, 418419, 502503

    • quotas and import licensing 365

    • and tariffs 352

    • UN Conference on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) 201, 202

    • UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 199

    • unconditional 168171

    • WTO Agreements on Agriculture (AoA) 469

    • WTO, General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), specific commitments 429

    • WTO, Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) 460 see also national treatment (NT) principle; regional integration and preferential trade

  • Muchlinski, P 405407, 542, 584

  • Mueller, D 386

  • Muir Watt, H 11

  • Muldoon, R 27

  • Müller, A 460462, 476477, 487488

  • Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) 7981, 116

  • multilateralism

    • cooperation, protectionism and state failures, combating 20

    • and differential treatment 582

    • history of 3335

    • multi-level governance and public goods 571575

    • multilevel governance as legal integration and vertically shared principles 575576

    • OECD Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) 34, 246

    • tariff negotiation modes 351353

    • trade integration effects 353354

    • trade negotiations 555

    • treaties, and domestic courts 278279

    • p. 672and WTO, General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), Mode 4 supply of services, preferential trade agreements (PTAs) 503

  • multinational corporations (MNCs) 413, 414, 443, 584585, 586, 587

  • Murillo Chávarro, J 642

  • mutual recognition agreement (MRA) 9, 61, 181182, 418, 419, 425

  • Nadakavukaren Schefer, K 2124, 125127, 228230, 247249, 278, 449451

  • Nagoya Protocol, rights of indigenous peoples 657

  • Nanda, V 117

  • Nansen Initiative on disaster-induced cross-border displacement 497

  • Nanwani, S 118122

  • Nartova, O 448449, 626

  • national security 252255, 379

  • national treatment (NT) principle

    • comparability in international economic law 185

    • competitive relations and standard of review 194197

    • different functions in goods and services 184, 185189

    • environmental services 447

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 402, 404, 519520

    • International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 204205, 327

    • investment barriers-to-entry 380

    • in investment law 203205

    • legal integration and vertically shared principles 575

    • less favourable treatment concept 191194

    • and market access 426, 429430, 441, 447, 452

    • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 203, 273

    • private international law 9

    • and process and production method (PPM) 188191, 408

    • and quantitative restrictions 406

    • taxation 185187, 510512

    • WTO, Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) 45960 see also domestic policy; most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle; sovereignty

  • nationality objection, admissibility in international arbitration 320

  • necessity test 261262, 400, 409, 415416, 426

  • Nedumpara, J 385388

  • networking and informal cooperation in IEL 512 see also cooperation

  • New International Economic Order 30, 74, 178

  • New York Convention (Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards) 9, 10, 233, 321, 324326, 332, 347

  • New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants 494495

  • Newcombe, A 208, 213

  • news agency services 454

  • Nielson, J 502

  • non-arbitrariness in IEL 207208

  • non-attribution factors, anti-dumping measures 387

  • non-discrimination

    • domestic regulation, relating to intellectual property 403404

    • double tax conventions 511512

    • fair and equitable treatment (FET) and foreign investment protection 211212

    • legal integration and vertically shared principles 575

    • non-tariff barriers and product regulation, shift to 57

    • property rights, right to use and direct expropriation 542

    • quotas and import licensing 365366

    • safeguard measures 384

    • WTO, Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) 45960 see also discriminatory measures

  • non-product-related processes and production methods (npr-PPMs) 624

  • non-tariff barriers 38, 5658, 60, 63, 599600

  • non-violation nullification and impairment (NVNI), subsidy rules 390, 391

  • North American Agreement on Labour Cooperation (NAALC) 408

  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 37, 173, 175, 210, 213, 214, 234

    • Chemtura v Canada 241

    • Ethyl Corporation v Canada 241

    • financial services 449

    • Gallo v Canada 657

    • Glamis Gold Ltd v US 657

    • Grand River Enterprises Six Nations v US 656

    • Implementation Act 279

    • international forum choice 290

    • international minimum standard 209

    • John Andre v Canada 657

    • labour movement 495

    • Lone Pine Resources v Canada 241

    • Methanex Corporation v US 241

    • Mexican Trucking 381

    • most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle 199, 200

    • and national sovereignty 250

    • national treatment (NT) principle 203, 273

    • natural water resources 644

    • Procurement Chapter 466

    • scheduling approach 429

    • Tariffs Applied by Canada to Certain U.S. Origin Agricultural Products 290

    • tax measure exemptions 509

    • transparency 223, 323

  • Oats, L 512514

  • Ockwell, D 609

  • O’Connor, B 651653

  • odious debt concept, sovereign debt 616

  • Oduwole, J 1719

  • Oesch, M 277279

  • Oleschak-Pillai, R 563566

  • Omelaniuk, I 496

  • p. 673Onwuamaegbu, U 312314

  • Orderly Marketing Arrangements (OMAs) and Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs) 366368

  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 814

    • Business and Industry Advisory Council (BIAC) 589

    • Code of Liberalization of Capital Movements 381

    • and competition policy 479, 488489, 492

    • Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials 229

    • export subsidies 473

    • Global Forum on Public Debt Management 616

    • and Group of Twenty (G20) 85

    • Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises 413, 584585, 586, 587

    • ‘Harnessing Freedom of Investment for Green Growth’ 8

    • International Regulatory Cooperation scale 5657

    • Investment Policy Reviews 217

    • Large Aircraft Sector Understanding 472

    • Model Agreement on Exchange of Information in Tax Matters 216

    • Model Convention 109, 110

    • Model Convention with respect to Taxes on Income and Capital 511

    • Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) 34, 246

    • servicification policies 598599

    • stakeholder participation 82

    • as standard setter 559

    • and tax evasion 512, 513514

    • Tax Policy Networks 109110, 112

    • transparency 221222

    • on water scarcity 643

  • organizational models, private sector lobbies and associations 589590

  • Ortino, F 207208, 454

  • outsourcing of repair and maintenance services, air transport services 455

  • Özden, C 179

  • pacta sunt servanda principle 21, 283285, 577

  • Panchaud, P 9093

  • Panizzon, M 478, 501, 502

  • Paparinskis, M 208212

  • Paradell, L 208, 213

  • parallel imports 375377, 403, 521522

  • parallelism rule, safeguard measures 264, 384

  • Paris Agreement on Climate Change 161, 469, 625, 635636

  • Paris Club, sovereign debt 616, 617

  • Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property 402, 403, 477, 478, 479, 519520, 640

  • Partnership for Global Climate Action 636

  • Pasadilla, G 599, 600

  • Patent Office of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC PO) 139140

  • Patent and Trademark Office, US 140

  • patents 139140, 376, 520, 522523, 526, 533534, 582, 593

  • Patten, A 227

  • Paulsson, J 211, 316319

  • Pauwelyn, J 51, 68, 361, 379, 384, 645

  • Payosova, T 625627

  • Pelkmans, J 61

  • Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) 3057

    • Abyei (Government of Sudan/The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army) 306

    • Achmea v The Slovak Republic 210

    • and ad hoc investment arbitration 313

    • Chevron/Texaco v Ecuador 281, 306

    • Chorzow Factory (Germany v Poland) 280, 289, 293, 543, 545

    • Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations 284

    • Franco-Hellenic Lighthouses 294

    • German Minority Schools in Upper Silesia (Germany v Poland) 289, 293

    • German Settlers in Poland 293

    • Iron Rhine Railway (Belgium v The Netherlands) 622, 623

    • Lotus (France v Turkey) 483

    • Mavrommatis Palestine Concessions (Greece v Great Britain) 289, 294

    • Oscar Chinn 294

    • pacta sunt servanda 307

    • Payment in Gold of Brazilian Federal Loans 548

    • Payment of Various Serbian Loans Issued in France 548

    • Philip Morris Asia v Australia 306, 650

    • private property protection 293

    • Saluka v Czech Republic 306

    • San Juan River Road Construction (Nicaragua v Costa Rica) 622

  • Petersmann, E-U 4, 7, 3940, 367, 571575

  • Pfeiffer, J 256

  • Piérola, F 383385

  • Ping, W 413

  • Pirlot, A 628629

  • plant variety protection

    • International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) 68, 157, 415

    • International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) 138, 532

  • Platsas, A 13

  • Plummer, M 353

  • plurilateralism 3536, 436, 437

  • Pogge, T 27

  • Polanco, R 289290, 634636, 635

  • policy making and leadership in IEL 6667

  • Poot, J 494

  • Porges, A 235237

  • Posner, E 576

  • Posner, R 532

  • postal and courier services 442

  • Pottage, A 58

  • poverty 1718, 19, 116, 117, 611, 61213

    • Aid for Trade Initiative 603606

    • Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative 615 see also developing countries

  • Powell, J 7981, 160162

  • Prawitz, C 393

  • p. 674Prebisch, R 26, 30, 178

  • precautionary principle, and sustainable development 621623

  • preferential trade agreements (PTAs) 33, 37, 377379, 517, 581

    • and anti-dumping measures 393394

    • competition policy 477, 487488

    • customs law 356357

    • harmonization 59, 6061

    • human rights, right to access to medicines 651

    • human rights, right to health 649

    • impact on regulations and standards 418420

    • and intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 524526

    • international forum selection 289290

    • property rights, legal security and development 517

    • and regional integration 172175

    • safeguard measures 266

    • sustainable development 627, 635

    • WTO GATS 425, 433436, 502503

    • WTO, Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) 465466

  • price discrimination in international markets, antidumping measures 385386

  • price stability 550551

  • price volatility, and export restrictions 368

  • pricing of civil aircraft 472

  • private international law and IEL 811

  • private property protection, Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) 293

  • private rule-making, financial regulation 567568

  • private sector

    • goods, production and distribution 571

    • lobbies and associations 588591

    • public and private standards, non-tariff barriers and product regulation 58

    • standards, delegated regulations 591594

    • stimulation, and sustainable development 617619

  • privatization debate, educational services 445

  • process and production method (PPM) 188191, 408

    • non-product-related processes and production methods (npr-PPMs) 624

  • Proctor, C 548

  • procurement, transparency 216, 218

  • procurement, WTO, Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) see World Trade Organization (WTO), Government Procurement Agreement (GPA)

  • product testing and conformity assessment procedures 61

  • professional qualifications 62, 399400, 425, 502

  • progressive regulation, graduation of future rights and obligations 581582

  • property rights

    • beyond foreign direct investment 638639

    • indirect expropriation 544546

    • and investment protection 538541

    • legal security and development 516517

    • right to use and direct expropriation 541544

    • and tragedy of the commons 574 see also intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection; land management

  • proportionality principle, banking core principles 561562

  • protectionism 12, 1921, 30, 56, 106, 196, 370371, 397, 634

  • public goods (PGs) 39, 40, 571575, 618

  • public health 243245

  • public hearings 224, 298

  • public interest test, anti-dumping measures 388

  • public international law and IEL, relationship between 58

  • public morals 239241

  • public and private standards, non-tariff barriers and product regulation 58

  • public procurement, UNCITRAL Model Law on Public Procurement 461462

  • public-private partnerships, sustainable development and private sector stimulation 618619

  • Pushkareva, E 162

  • Putten, M 121

  • Rafsendjani, M 3457

  • Rawls, J 27, 227

  • readmission and cooperation agreements 5034 see also migration

  • recreational, cultural and sporting services 453454

  • Redding, S 53

  • Reed, L 326

  • Regan, D 624

  • regional agreements on labour mobility 495

  • Regional Conference on Migration (Puebla Process) 497

  • regional integration and preferential trade 1725 see also most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment principle

  • regional trade agreements (RTAs)

    • and educational services 445

    • effects on third parties 38

    • and equivalence and mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) 62

    • flexibilities in 236

    • and Generalized Systems of Preferences (GSPs) 408

    • and international regulatory alignment 60

    • investment chapters, US 236237

    • WTO, General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) 445

  • regionalism, mega-regionalism in IEL, working towards 3739

  • regulatory approaches, non-tariff barriers and product regulation, shift to 5657

  • regulatory barriers to trade, domestic regulation 411415

  • regulatory chill risk 241242, 256, 407

  • p. 675regulatory convergence, moving towards, preferential trade agreements 419

  • regulatory cooperation and concertation 6364

  • regulatory data protection 520, 523524

  • Reinhardt, E 179

  • Reinhart, C 614

  • Reinisch, A 280281, 614

  • Reiser, N 251252

  • renewable energy 625627

  • resistance to arbitration 331332

  • Ricardian trade theories 53

  • Rickard, S 465

  • Riedel, E 504

  • Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 621, 622, 623

  • risk assessment

    • financial regulation, insurance core principles 564565

    • sustainable development 621622

  • Rittener, O 504

  • Roessler, F 361

  • Rogers, C 327329

  • Roper, S 120

  • Rothstein, R 490

  • Rovetta, D 350351, 354359

  • Roy, M 441

  • royalties and licence fees, customs law 355356

  • Rubini, L 389393, 471474

  • Rubins, N 541544

  • Ruggie, J 584, 585

  • Ruiz Fabri, H 454

  • rule of law

    • international economic relations 1517

    • monetary policies 549551

  • rules of origin (RoO), and customs law 356357

  • ‘rules versus discretion’ debate 550

  • Ryu, J 596

  • Sáez, S 452

  • safeguard measures 263266, 269, 367, 3835 see also security

  • safety standards 414, 450

  • Samuelson, P 526

  • sanctions

    • national security 253

    • and pacta sunt servanda 285

    • smart 344

    • targeted 341343

    • trade sanctions and awards in commercial arbitration 345347

    • unilateral 343345

  • Sansonetti, R 98100

  • Santana, R 352

  • Satragno, L 550

  • Sauvant, K 380381, 477

  • Sauvé, P 423, 436437

  • Scherer, M 223225

  • Schill, S 216219, 257

  • Schneller, L 195

  • Schön, W 507510

  • Schott, J 556

  • Schreuer, C 203, 209, 319, 542, 543

  • Schwarzenberger, G 34, 5

  • Scott, J 415418

  • security

    • exceptions, domestic policy space protection 274

    • interests, WTO, General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) 427

    • national security 252255, 379 see also safeguard measures

  • self-declaration principle, special and differential treatment (SDT) 177

  • self-determination and free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC), indigenous peoples 656, 657

  • Selivanova, Y 143146, 448, 631

  • Sen, N 488489

  • separation of powers effect, domestic courts 278

  • services

    • GATS see World Trade Organization (WTO), General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)

    • and global value chains (GVCs) 596598

    • ‘likeness’ test 188189

    • quantitative restrictions 370373

  • servicification policies 598599

  • Shapiro, C 593

  • Shared Decisions System Design (SDSD), investor-State conflict management 337

  • Shea, E 393

  • Sherman, B 58

  • Shreueur, C 213

  • Sieber-Gasser, C 176177, 418421, 433436, 500503

  • Simma, B 633

  • Simons, H 550

  • Singapore International Arbitration Centre (SIAC) 313

  • slavery prohibition 516

  • small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) 106, 599

  • smart sanctions, unilateral sanctions 344

  • Smith, S 54

  • Society of International Economic Law 579

  • Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) 567

  • soft law 23, 4952, 216, 413, 507, 556, 558, 563564, 616

  • Sornarajah, M 256

  • South Africa

    • Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) policies 235

    • Development Community (SADC) 173

  • sovereign debt 61517 see also debt

  • Sovereign Debt Restructuring Mechanism, International Monetary Fund (IMF) 616

  • sovereignty

    • debt relief, foreign sovereign immunity 614

    • and democracy 233234

    • equality 2021, 42, 43

    • history 3032

    • and labour protection 250

    • monetary 548549

    • p. 676and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 250

    • and policy space, maintaining 2124

    • and taxation 50710 see also domestic policy; national treatment (NT) principle

  • ‘spaghetti-bowl effect’, preferential trade agreements, trade in services 433, 435

  • special and differential treatment principle (SDT) 72, 176177, 257, 463, 524, 535536, 572, 581

  • Special Economic Zone (SEZ) incentive 406

  • special preference schemes, and waiver powers 267

  • Spicer, M 393394

  • sporting and cultural services 453454

  • SPS Agreement see World Trade Organization (WTO), Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement)

  • Ssekandi, F 127

  • Staiger, R 250

  • stakeholder participation, OECD 82

  • standards

    • financial regulation 556560

    • financial stability 252

    • implementation and monitoring 559560

    • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 58, 148149, 413, 587, 592

    • private standards, delegated regulations 591594

    • product 250

    • standard setting bodies, soft law overlap 5051

    • voluntary private standards in retail business, problems with 414

  • standards-essential patents (SEPs) 593

  • State responsibility rules 2859 see also domestic policy

  • state succession principle, debt relief 614

  • State transparency 216219

  • Steiner, H 585

  • Steiner, M 462463

  • Steward, T 386

  • Stewardson, R 359

  • Stiglitz, J 18, 531532

  • Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (SCC) Arbitration Institute 143, 309311, 3467

    • Charanne and Construction Investments v Spain 635

  • Stoll, P-T 3739

  • structure-substance pairings, legal integration and vertically shared principles 576577

  • Strutt, A 494

  • subsidies

    • anti-dumping measures, cross-subsidization 393

    • and government procurement 275

    • and product differentiation rules, WTO Agreements on Agriculture (AoA) 469

    • rules 389393

    • subsidization in large civil aircraft industry 473474

    • sustainable development, climate change mitigation and dumping issues 626

  • supervisory powers, financial regulation, insurance core principles 564, 565

  • supply shortages, and quotas and import licensing 364365

  • supply strategies, adjustment needs, multi-level governance and public goods 572

  • sustainable development

    • climate change mitigation and renewable energy 625627

    • and energy law 629631

    • environmental processes and production methods (PPMs) 623625

    • and environmental protection, relationship between 78

    • and environmental taxes 628629

    • International Development Banks (IDB)/Regional Development Banks 122

    • and international investment, UNCTAD 7475, 257

    • land management and soil as common concern 627628

    • poverty and Aid for Trade Initiative 605606

    • and precautionary principle 621623

    • and private sector stimulation 617619

    • trade, investment and climate change 6346

    • trade mechanisms and harmonization 6061

    • UN 2030 Agenda, private sector lobbies and associations 590591, 619

    • UN Summit on Sustainable Development 27 see also environmental protection

  • Swedish National Board for Trade, servicification policies 599

  • Sweet, C 532

  • Swiss National Research Centre on International Trade Regulation 579

  • Switzerland, Fincantieri-Cantieri Navali Italiani v M 346

  • Sykes, A 264265, 385

  • Sykes, K 239

  • Systemic Investment Response Mechanisms (SIRMs), investor-State conflict management 337

  • systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs) and moral hazard 102

  • Tan, C 255258

  • Tarasov, G 130

  • targeted sanctions 341343

  • tariffs

    • GATT see World Trade Organization (WTO), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

    • harmonized system and schedules of concession 350351

    • multilateral tariff negotiation modes 351353

    • quotas, WTO Agreements on Agriculture (AoA) 469470

    • Tariff Act, US 408

    • tariff preference programmes 178179

  • taxation 5067

    • Border Tax Adjustment (BTA) 359361, 624

    • double taxation 506507, 509510, 513

    • environmental taxes and sustainable development 628629

    • p. 677exceptions, domestic policy space protection 274275

    • exemptions, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 509

    • jurisdiction and impact of national treatment 510512

    • and national sovereignty 507510

    • national treatment (NT) principle 185187, 510512

    • OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information in Tax Matters 216

    • OECD Model Convention with respect to Taxes on Income and Capital 511

    • OECD Tax Policy Networks 109110, 112

    • public health, government power to tax and spend 243244

    • ‘revenue rule’ and collection of taxes charged by another country 512

    • tax evasion 512514

    • UN Model Double Taxation Convention 511512

    • UN Tax Committee 110111

    • WTO, General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) 509

  • TBT Agreement see World Trade Organization (WTO), Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement

  • technical assistance and capacity-building, competition policy 490

  • technical barriers see World Trade Organization (WTO), Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement

  • technical barriers to trade 251, 396397

  • technical compliance and effectiveness assessments, Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 99100

  • technical regulations, most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle and special and differential treatment (SDT) 181

  • technical specifications, treatment of, WTO, Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) 460461

  • technical standards, harmonization 6061

  • technological progress, and environmental services 447

  • technology

    • evolution effect, non-tariff barriers and product regulation 56

    • information technology changes, communication services 441, 442

    • and innovation, sustainable development and private sector stimulation 617618

    • role, poverty and microfinance 613

  • technology transfer 75, 606610, 625

  • telecommunications 430, 440441

  • Temmerman, F 643647

  • terrorism, money laundering 99, 100

  • third parties

    • certifications (TPCs), private standards 414

    • harmonization participation 6061

    • oversight institutions, private standards 413

    • participation in arbitral proceedings 234

    • regional trade agreements (RTAs) effects 38

    • and transfer of interpretive power 48

  • Thirkell-White, B 8889

  • Tietje, C 1113, 449

  • time limitations

    • admissibility in international arbitration 320

    • anti-dumping measures 387

  • tobacco disputes 533, 649650

  • Todaro, M 54

  • Tomuschat, C 13

  • Tourinho, M 341343

  • TPP see Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)

  • Trachtman, J 11, 289

  • Trachtmann, J 418

  • trade

    • agreements, sovereignty history 3132

    • climate change, sustainable development, trade and investment 634636

    • and corruption 229230

    • councils 7172

    • effects, global value chains (GVCs) 598

    • environment and law of the sea 632634

    • facilitation agreements (TFAs) and sustainable development goals 605606

    • facilitation, and customs law 357358

    • International Trade Centre (ITC) 76, 123124

    • and investment law, international forum selection 289290

    • and investment rules, relationship between, and competition policy 476477

    • secrets 523

    • and State transparency 218

    • Trade Facilitation Agreement, special and differential treatment (SDT), developing countries and LDCs 177

    • trade-distorting programmes, WTO Agreements on Agriculture (AoA) 470

    • WTO see World Trade Organization (WTO)

  • trade law

    • domestic law and IEL, relationship between 12

    • and environmental protection 242243

    • migration, trade and investment law 494496

  • Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) 334335

  • Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA), GATS 35, 36, 159, 421, 436437, 581

  • trademarks 135136, 140, 520, 521522

  • traditional knowledge (TK) protection 478 see also indigenous peoples protection

  • Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) 35, 36, 37, 38, 202, 234, 246, 381, 419, 442

    • business engagement 590

    • competition policy 488

    • and customary law 210, 214

    • fair and equitable treatment (FET) 209

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 403, 524

    • and international minimum standard 209

    • labour protection 250, 251

    • legitimate expectations 211

    • most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle 60

    • Professional Services Annex 439

    • three-step-test 530

  • Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (P-4) 36

  • p. 678transaction costs, competition policy 481

  • Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) 37, 38, 57, 61, 6364, 174, 234, 576

    • business engagement 590

    • civil society opposition 40

    • gender equality 654

    • harmonization 59

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 403

    • labour protection 408

    • liberalization 445

    • most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle 60

    • regulatory convergence 419

    • transparency 396

  • transnational corporations, corporate codes of conduct 586

  • transnational law, importance of studying, lawyers, courts and legal education 580

  • Transpacific Trade Partnership (TTP) 174

  • transparency

    • and accountability, ethics of international arbitration 328

    • in dispute settlement 223225

    • and due process requirements, domestic regulation, relating to services 398

    • fair and equitable treatment (FET) and foreign investment protection 211

    • globalization and multi-level governance 40

    • human rights, land grabbing and land registration protection 640

    • International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 223, 323

    • in international institutions 219223

    • non-tariff barriers and product regulation 57

    • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 223, 323

    • State 216219

    • UN Conference on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) 216, 223224, 323

    • working procedures in international arbitration 322323

    • World Bank 220221

    • WTO, General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) 425, 429, 435

    • WTO, Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), 2012 revision 462

  • transport

    • air transport 455, 471474

    • land transport services 456457

    • maritime transport services 456

    • routes, environment and law of the sea 632

    • travel prohibitions, unilateral sanctions 344345

  • treaties

    • national security 252253

    • norms, domestic courts 277, 278

    • as sovereignty-reinforcing 23, 24

    • and treaty interpretation 4649

    • treaty-based investor-State disputes 3312 see also individual treaties

  • Trebesch, C 614

  • Triepel, H 11, 12

  • triple-identity test, domestic courts 280281

  • TTIP see also Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)

  • Tully, S 648

  • Tumer, I 328

  • two-tier test, domestic policy space protection 260

  • Ueno, A 466

  • UK

    • Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 529

    • Debt Relief (Developing Countries) Act 615

    • Fiona Trust v Privalov 318

  • UN 2030 Agenda and sustainable development, private sector lobbies and associations 590591, 619

  • UN Central Product Classification (CPC) 188, 427428

  • UN Commission on Human Rights (HRC) 642

  • UN Commission on Transnational Corporations 586

  • UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) 638, 641

  • UN Conference on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) 9, 10, 45, 143, 316, 318319, 327

    • and ad hoc international arbitration 312313, 321

    • Chemtura Corporation v Canada 241

    • Chevron v Ecuador 657

    • CME v Czech Republic 213, 286

    • Eli Lilly v Canada 528

    • Ethyl Corporation v Canada 241

    • Gallo v Canada 657

    • Glamis Gold v US 210, 657

    • Grand River Enterprises Six Nations v US 692

    • Hulley Enterprises v Russian Federation 283284, 284285

    • ICS Inspection and Control Services Ltd v Argentine Republic 201

    • Lone Pine Resources v Canada 241

    • Merril   Ring Forestry LP v Canada 210

    • Methanex Corporation v US 277, 331

    • Model Law on Public Procurement 461462

    • most-favoured-nation principle 201, 202

    • National Grid v Argentina 202

    • Philip Morris v Australia 250251, 528

    • procurement transparency 216

    • Saluka Investments v Czech Republic 218

    • SD Myers v Canada 273

    • transparency 223224, 323

    • UPS v Canada 246, 275

    • Yukos Universal v Russia 542, 544

  • UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 7376, 132, 176, 177, 178

    • Code of Conduct on the Transfer of Technology 607

    • competition policy 489490, 492

    • establishment clauses in IIAs 380

    • GATT/UNCTAD International Trade Centre 123124

    • general exceptions clause 272

    • Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) 74, 178, 179, 180, 250

    • Investment Policy Reviews 217

    • migration initiatives 494

    • ‘Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment’ 199

    • p. 679679>and New International Economic Order 74

    • Principles on Responsible Sovereign Lending and Borrowing 616

    • sustainable economic development and international investment 7475, 257

    • technical assistance to developing countries 75

    • World Investment Forum (WIF) 75, 76, 406

  • UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) 229, 586

  • UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) 641, 647648

  • UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 632633

  • UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), exclusive economic zone (EEZ) 516

  • UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) 654656

  • UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) 627

  • UN Convention on Transparency in Investor-State Arbitration 323

  • UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) 638, 656

  • UN Development Programme (UNDP) 76, 1257

    • cooperation with other organizations 127, 132, 161

    • gender equality and empowerment of women 126

    • Global Environment Facility 127

    • human rights approach 126

    • migration initiatives 494

    • Millennium Development Goals Report 126, 127

    • public/private debate 619

    • South-South Cooperation 126

  • UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 110, 125, 132, 157, 180

  • UN Environment Programme (UNEP) 16062

  • UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 155157, 573, 627, 638

  • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 634

  • UN Global Compact 413, 586587

  • UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) 584585, 586, 640

  • UN High Level Dialogue on Migration and Development 497

  • UN Human Rights Commission 585

  • UN initiatives, labour migration, trade and investment law 494495

  • UN International Conference on Population and Development 496

  • UN Millennium Development Goals, human rights, right to water 641

  • UN Model Double Taxation Convention 511512

  • p. 667UN Norms on Human Rights Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations 585

  • UN Security Council Resolutions 325, 340341, 343

  • UN Sovereign Debt Restructuring Processes 616

  • UN Summit on Sustainable Development 27

  • UN Sustainable Development Goals 654

  • UN Tax Committee 110111

  • UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 247, 454, 573

  • unilateral governance

    • labour migration, trade and investment law 495496

    • sanctions 343345

    • tax evasion and mutual assistance 512513

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 247, 586, 638, 641, 651

  • US

    • African Growth Opportunity Act (AGOA) 178179, 267

    • American Convention on Human Rights 516, 638, 648

    • and anti-trust 479

    • Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran v Cubic Defense Systems 347

    • Babitt v Dynascan 10

    • Belship Navigation v Sealift 346

    • CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) 195

    • Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act 250

    • Copyright Act 529

    • copyright protection extension 525

    • counterfeiting and piracy losses 373374

    • Federal Arbitration Act 327

    • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) 50

    • Federal Reserve Act 550

    • Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) 512513

    • Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) 49

    • Friendship, Commerce and Navigation (FCN) Treaties 380

    • Generalized Systems of Preferences (GSPs) 250, 408

    • Helms-Burton Act 254

    • McKesson HBOC v Iran 279

    • Model United States Bilateral Investment Treaty 199200, 232, 233, 234

    • Patent and Trademark Office 140

    • regional trade agreements, investment chapters 236237

    • Securities and Exchange Commission 50

    • Sherman Act 481

    • soft law and rulemaking 49, 5051

    • Tariff Act 408

    • Timberlane Lumber v Bank of America 483

    • US v Aluminum Co of America 483

    • US v Watchmakers of Switzerland Information Center 483

  • US-Mexico General Claims Commission, Neer (US v Mexico) 7, 210

  • Vadi, V 246247

  • Valdés, R 334

  • valuation, and customs law 354356

  • Van Aaken, A 5254

  • Van Damme, I 4649

  • Van den Bossche, P 66, 239, 260263, 352, 366

  • Van der Wende, M 445

  • VanDuzer, J 212214

  • p. 680VanGrasstek, C 2932, 352

  • Varian, H 593

  • Vasani, B 311312

  • Vasciannie, S 208

  • Verdross, A 11

  • Verger, A 444446

  • vertically shared principles and legal integration 575578

  • Victor, D 635

  • Vicuña, F 289

  • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) 68, 11, 31, 47, 48, 175, 202, 209, 278, 283, 284285, 530

  • Viner, J 353

  • Vinuales, J 6, 8

  • visas, fast-track procedure 501502

  • Viterbo, A 610611

  • Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs) and Orderly Marketing Arrangements (OMAs) 366368

  • voluntary licensing, domestic regulation, relating to intellectual property 404

  • voluntary peer reviews, competition policy 490

  • Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights 587

  • Von Bogdandy, A 616

  • von der Crone, H 251

  • Von Stein, L 11

  • Voon, T 648650

  • waiver powers 266268, 269

  • Washington Consensus 20, 2526, 116117

  • Watal, J 375377

  • water

    • human rights, bulk water trade 643645

    • international trade in virtual water 645647

    • natural water resources, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 644

    • right to water 641643

    • scarcity, OECD on 643 see also food

  • Weaver, C 66

  • Wehrli, J 632634

  • Weiler, T 1921, 212, 213

  • welfare enhancement, and globalization effects 1719

  • Wellman-Labadie, O 618

  • Wermelinger, G 479

  • Westphalian paradigm 20, 21, 31

  • White, J 120

  • Whitehead, C 49

  • Wilke, M 268270, 656657

  • Will, M 504

  • Wilske, S 323327

  • Winkler, I 645

  • Winters, L 494

  • Wirth, D 149

  • Woldesenbet, M 459460

  • Wolff, R 325

  • working procedures in international arbitration 321323

  • World Bank 73, 76, 326, 559

    • cooperation with other organizations 85, 105, 117118, 122, 161

    • and Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 100

    • Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative 615

    • IMF-World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) 102

    • insurance supervision 564

    • and International Monetary Fund (IMF) 89, 116, 117

    • and Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) membership 80, 81

    • servicification policies 599

    • Standards and Codes Initiative 559, 560

    • Systemic Investment Response Mechanisms (SIRMs) 337

    • transparency 220221

    • World Bank Group (WBG) 34, 115118

    • World Report on Disability 655

  • World Commission on Environment and Development, ‘Our Common Future’ report 622

  • World Customs Organization (WCO) 350, 354, 355, 356

  • World Development Index 582

  • World Economic Forum 589, 590

  • World Food Programme (WFP) 157

  • World Food Summit 653

  • World Health Organization (WHO) 158160, 533, 648, 650, 655

  • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 68, 129133, 401, 402404, 478, 534, 573574, 655

    • cooperation with other organizations 132, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 159

    • Copyright Treaty 5256 see also intellectual property; World Trade

    • Organization (WTO), Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS Agreement)

  • World Investment Forum (WIF), UNCTAD 75, 76, 406

  • World Report on Disability 655

  • World Trade Organization (WTO) 7173

  • administrative agencies 12

  • Agreement on Agriculture 653

  • Agreement on Civil Aircraft 172

  • Agreement on Customs Valuation (CVA) 354355, 355

  • Agreement on Rules of Origin (ARO) 356, 357

  • Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft 471474

  • Agreements on Agriculture (AoA) 468470

  • Aid for Trade Initiative 603606

  • anti-dumping see anti-dumping measures

  • breach of obligations 286

  • Committee on Agriculture, Decision on Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) and Food-Importing Developing Countries (NFIDC) 470471

  • competition policy 194, 485486

  • consensus decisions 3435, 221

  • cooperation with other organizations 6768, 73, 105, 137, 138, 148149, 159, 162

  • corruption see corruption

  • p. 681culture in 246

  • E-Commerce Work Programme 442

  • and Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) 142

  • environmental protection see environmental protection

  • fair and equitable treatment see fair and equitable

  • treatment (FET) in financial services 450451

  • flexibilities, domestic law implementation 235236

  • general exceptions clause 272, 273, 274

  • and Group of Twenty (G20) 85

  • and harmonization see harmonization

  • instruments, derogations and exceptions 268270

  • intellectual property rights see intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection

  • ‘jurisprudence constante’ principle 46, 210

  • Kyoto Convention 357, 634

  • labour protection see labour protection

  • less favourable treatment concept 191194

  • and mega-regional agreements 37, 38

  • most-favoured nation (MFN) treatment principle see most-favoured-nation treatment principle

  • mutual recognition agreement (MRA) 9, 61, 181182, 418, 419, 425

  • and national security 252255, 379

  • national treatment principle see national treatment (NT) principle

  • pacta sunt servanda 284

  • plurilaterals 3536, 436, 437

  • precautionary principle 621

  • preferential trade agreements see preferential trade agreements (PTAs)

  • Preshipment Inspection Agreement (PSA) 359

  • product standard 250

  • products’ ‘like product’ test 170, 186187, 359, 469, 624

  • public morals see public morals

  • renewable energy in WTO law 626627

  • safeguard measures see safeguard measures

  • services see services

  • servicification policies 598599

  • and sovereignty see sovereignty

  • special and differential treatment principle 72, 176177, 257, 463, 524, 535536, 572, 581

  • and State transparency see State transparency

  • subsidy rules see subsidy rules

  • sustainable development see sustainable development

  • tariffs see tariffs

  • taxation see taxation

  • trade councils 7172

  • Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) 358, 581, 588589, 606

  • Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) 334335

  • Trade Review Policy Mechanism 217

  • Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMS) 218, 397, 406, 407, 476, 485, 626

  • transparency see transparency

  • waiver powers 267268

  • water trade 644, 645, 645647

  • World Trade Organization (WTO), Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) 57, 68, 157, 159, 184, 218, 270, 397, 412, 415418, 468, 628

    • equivalence 61, 62, 416

    • harmonization 59, 6061

    • health policy flexibility 649

    • mutual recognition 182

    • national treatment and most-favoured-nation principles 416, 418419

    • necessity test 400, 415416

    • precautionary principle 621

  • World Trade Organization (WTO) Dispute Resolution 12, 45, 48, 60, 66, 71, 723

  • World Trade Organization (WTO), Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) 4748, 68, 71, 7273, 287, 288, 289, 298300

    • compensation agreements 302

    • due process rights 297298

    • implementation stage procedures 300302

    • jurisdiction and procedures 296298

    • non-violation complaints 301

    • procedural improvement suggestions 298

    • public hearings 298

    • ‘reasonable period of time’ (RPT) arbitrations 300301, 302

    • remedies 302303

    • suspension of concessions 302303

  • World Trade Organization (WTO), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 32, 34, 37, 38, 46, 60, 68, 74

    • Article XX exceptions, Border Tax Adjustment (BTA) 361

    • Article XX GATT analysis, sustainable development, environmental processes and production methods (PPMs) 624625

    • exceptions (Article XXI), national security 253, 254

    • export restrictions 368369

    • GATT/UNCTAD International Trade Centre 123124

    • GATT/World Trade Organization (WTO) discretions 351352

    • General Elimination of Quantitative Restrictions 363

    • Import Licensing Agreement (ILA) 366

    • Kennedy Round 35, 56

    • liberalization efforts, subsidy rules 390391

    • monetary affairs role 554556

    • and non-discrimination principle 57, 509

    • plurilaterals 35

  • World Trade Organization (WTO), General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) 32, 37, 38, 74, 218, 4237

    • and air transport services 455

    • business services 439440

    • communication services 440443

    • competition policy 476, 485

    • and education in trade forums 445

    • in environmental services 447

    • exceptions 426427

    • fast-track visa procedure 501502

    • and government procurement, financial services 449

    • liberalization 426

    • market access and national treatment 426

    • migration initiatives 495

    • Mode 4 supply of services 500502

    • Mode 4 supply of services, preferential trade agreements (PTAs) 502503

    • most-favoured-nation exemptions 425

    • p. 683mutual recognition agreement (MRA) 425

    • necessity standard 426

    • preferential agreements 425, 433436

    • prudential measures 426427

    • qualifications, recognition of 62, 425

    • quantitative restrictions in services 371372

    • and recreational, cultural and sporting services 453, 454

    • regional trade agreements (RTAs) 445

    • security interests 427

    • specific commitments 427431

    • tax measure exemptions 509

    • Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) 35, 36, 159, 421, 436437, 581

    • transparency 425

  • World Trade Organization (WTO), Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) 172, 217, 22930, 253, 277, 459460, 626

  • World Trade Organization (WTO), Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement 57, 68, 159, 181, 184, 269, 270, 397, 411412, 414, 468, 472

    • climate change 634635

    • Code of Good Practice 592593, 640

    • competition policy 485

    • equivalence 61, 62

    • harmonization 59

    • health and trade 649

    • labelling measures 409

    • labour protection 251

    • legitimate regulatory distinction 170

    • most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle 418419

    • mutual recognition 420

    • national treatment obligation 193194

    • necessity test 400

    • processes and production methods (PPMs) 190191

    • water trade 646

  • World Trade Organization (WTO), Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS Agreement) 58, 132, 173, 196, 197, 218, 253, 397, 403, 404, 517, 519

    • commercially relevant information 401402

    • competition policy 477478, 483, 485, 527528

    • Doha Declaration 11, 34, 38, 172, 245, 267, 352353, 387388, 441, 445447, 486, 603604, 627, 648, 651

    • human rights, right to access to medicines 650651

    • and intellectual property rights, developing countries and technology transfer 607608

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection 519, 520, 521, 522, 523524

    • intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection, and preferential trade agreements (PTAs) 524525

    • labour protection 251

    • minimum standards 58

    • national treatment (NT) provisions 191

    • transparency 218

    • TRIPS-plus 527528

    • waivers 2678 see also intellectual property; World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

  • Wouters, J 5152

  • Young, K 26