Elgar Encyclopedia of International Economic Law
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Elgar Encyclopedia of International Economic Law

Edited by Thomas Cottier and Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer

The Encyclopedia is the definitive reference work on international economic law. This comprehensive resource helps redefine the field by presenting international economic law in its broadest, real-world context.
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Contributors

Frederick M Abbott is Edward Ball Eminent Scholar Professor of International Law at Florida State University College of Law. He has served as expert consultant for numerous international and regional organizations, governments and nongovernmental organizations, mainly in the fields of intellectual property, public health, trade, and sustainable development.

Georges Abi-Saab is Emeritus Professor of International Law at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (Geneva). He also served, inter alia, as member and chairman of the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Felix Addor is Deputy Director General, and Director of the Legal and International Affairs Division at the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property. He also acts as a Professor of Law (International Negotiations and Intellectual Property Law) at the University of Bern (Switzerland) and Senior Fellow at the Global Health Center, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva.

Philipp Aerni heads the Center for Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability (CCRS) at the University of Zurich. He is an interdisciplinary social scientist with a particular interest in the role of science, technology, and innovation for sustainable development. In this context, he examines public-private partnerships and their potential as driving forces of sustainable change.

Stanimir A Alexandrov is global Co-Chair of the International Arbitration practice at Sidley Austin LLP and focuses on investor-state treaty-based arbitration. He has represented private parties and governments in arbitration before all major arbitration institutions and often serves as an arbitrator.

Wolfgang Alschner is an Assistant Professor at the University of Ottawa, Common Law Section. His research focuses on the computational and empirical analysis of international trade and investment law.

Robert D Anderson is Counsellor and Team Leader for Government Procurement and Competition Policy in the Secretariat of the WTO in Geneva (Switzerland) and Honorary Professor in the School of Law at the University of Nottingham (UK).

Arthur E Appleton, J.D., Ph.D. is a Partner in Appleton Luff – International Lawyers, Senior Trade and Investment Consultant at the World Bank, Adjunct Professor of International Trade Law at Johns Hopkins University (SAIS-Europe), and a visiting faculty member at: World Trade Institute (WTI, Bern), International Economic Law and Policy Program (Barcelona), and the Graduate Institute (Geneva).

Beatriz Armendáriz is the founder of the first Grameen replication in southern Mexico, the coauthor of The Economics of Microfinance (MIT Press 2010), and co-editor of The Handbook of Microfinance (World Scientific 2011).

Idil Atak is an Associate Professor in the Department of Criminology at Ryerson University (Toronto). She is a member of the International Association for the Study of Forced Migration’s (IASFM) Executive Committee, the immediate past president of the Canadian Association for Refugee and Forced Migration Studies (CARFMS), and a research associate at Hans & Tamar Oppenheimer Chair in Public International Law (McGill University).

Jeffery Atik is Professor of Law and Jacob Becker Fellow at the Loyola Law School, Los Angeles. He writes on international finance and on international trade, intellectual property, and competition law issues with a focus on technology transfer. Atik is a member of the United States’ North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Chapter 19 roster and has served on three NAFTA binational panels. He first practiced in Shearman & Sterling, New York City, and later with law firms in Boston, Milan, and St. Louis. He is a member of the New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Missouri bars.

Freya Baetens is Professor of Public International Law at the PluriCourts Centre (Faculty of Law, Oslo University) and affiliated with the Europa Institute (Faculty of Law, Leiden University). As a member of the Brussels Bar, she also acts as counsel or expert in international disputes. She specializes in public international law, including law of treaties, p. xviiiresponsibility of states and international organizations, law of the sea, WTO and investment law, energy law, and sustainable development.

Rashid Bahar is Associate Professor at the Law Faculty of the University of Geneva and Partner at Bär & Karrer. His academic and professional interests focus on financial markets regulation, legal aspects of corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, and corporate governance. He holds a doctoral degree from the University of Geneva and an LL.M. from Harvard Law School, which he also attended as a visiting researcher.

Jonas Baumann, M.Law is a Junior Research Fellow at the Institute of European and International Economic Law, University of Bern, and a personal assistant to Prof. Em. Thomas Cottier.

Jorun Baumgartner works in the International Investment Agreements Section at the Division for Investment and Enterprise, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). She specializes in international investment law, international economic law, and public international law, including international humanitarian law.

Laura Carola Beretta, Ph.D. is Professor at the School of Management of Bocconi University, Milan, Italy, and International Trade Advisor in Brussels, Belgium. She is specialized in international trade law and EU law including market access, trade remedies, customs law, export controls, and economic sanctions.

Piero Bernardini is Former Chair of International Arbitration at Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali (LUISS) University, Rome, and President of the Italian Arbitration Association. He has served as a member of International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) panels as well as arbitrator, president of arbitral tribunals, member of ICSID annulment committees and counsel in more than 250 commercial and investment treaty cases. Professor Bernardini is also the author of books and articles on states contracts, investment protection, commercial contracts, and arbitration.

Kathrin Betz completed her Ph.D. in Law at the University of Basel in 2016, supervised by Dr. Mark Pieth and Dr. Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer. She is the author of Proving Bribery, Fraud and Money Laundering in International Arbitration: On Applicable Criminal Law and Evidence (Cambridge University Press 2017).

Giuseppe Bianco is Research Fellow in International Economic Law at the University of Oslo and at Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne.

Gavin Bingham is a Member of Systemic Policy Partnership LLP. Previously he worked at the Bank for International Settlements, serving as Secretary General of the Central Bank Governance Forum and Secretary General of the Group of Ten.

Andrea K Bjorklund is Full Professor and L. Yves Fortier Chair in International Arbitration and International Commercial Law at McGill University Faculty of Law. She formerly worked on the NAFTA arbitration team in the Legal Adviser’s Office of the US Department of State.

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes is Professor of International Law and International Organization at the Faculty of Law of the University of Geneva, Switzerland, and Associate Member of the Institute of International Law (IDI). She specializes in public international law, including international environmental law, WTO law, international investment law, and the law of international organizations.

Xavier Bonal is Professor of Sociology at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) and Special Professor of Education and International Development at the University of Amsterdam (UvA). He is the Director of the research group Globalisation, Education and Social Policies (GEPS) at the UAB and Coordinator of the GLOBED Project, an Erasmus Mundus Master on Education Policies for Global Development.

Felix Boos studied law at Heidelberg University and the University of Ottawa. Felix was a student assistant at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law from 2014 until 2016. In 2016, he obtained his First State Examination in Law. Since 2016, he has been a Ph.D. Candidate in international law and Research Fellow at the University of Potsdam.

Simon Brinsmead is Senior Legal Officer in the Attorney-General’s Department (Australia), p. xixOffice of International Law. Mr. Brinsmead advises the Australian Government on public international law, including law of the sea and international economic law.

Drusilla Brown is an Associate Professor of Economics at Tufts University. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1984. Prof. Brown’s main research focus is on working conditions in global supply chains.

Stephen Browne is Senior Fellow at the Ralph Bunche Institute, Graduate Center, City University of New York, and Co-Director of the Future UN Development System (FUNDS) Project (FutureUN.org). He is a board member of the Academic Council on the UN System (ACUNS) and the author of several books on aid, development, and the UN.

Chris Brummer is a Professor of Law and Director of Georgetown’s Institute of International Economic Law. He earned his J.D. with honors from Columbia Law School and a Ph.D. in Germanic Studies from the University of Chicago.

Christoph B Bühler has been practicing as an Attorney-at-Law and Partner with böckli bühler partners. His practice focus is on capital market law and corporate governance related matters. Since 2009 he has also been lecturing at the Universities of Zurich and Basel as a professor in the areas of Swiss and international business law.

Karin Buhmann is Professor with special responsibilities for Business and Human Rights. She is employed at Copenhagen Business School. Since 2012 she has also been a member (parttime) of the Danish National Contact Point (NCP) under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

Elisabeth Bürgi Bonanomi, Attorney-at-Law, is Lecturer in Sustainable Development Law and Senior Research Scientist at the Centre for Development and Environment and the WTI, both University of Bern (Switzerland). She specializes in public international law, amongst others in international sustainable development law, trade, and human rights.

Mira Burri is Senior Lecturer and Managing Director for Internationalization at the Faculty of Law of the University of Lucerne. She is also the principal investigator of the Swiss National Research Programme project ‘The Governance of Big Data in Trade Agreements’. Her current research interests are in the areas of digital trade, law and the Internet, copyright, trade and culture, and adaptive global governance.

Antonia Carzaniga is Counsellor in the Trade in Services Division at the WTO and Secretary to the WTO Council for Trade in Services. She specializes in international services trade and the obligations and disciplines of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, with a particular focus on mode 4 (presence of natural persons), health services, transport services, and most favoured nation treatment (MFN) exemptions.

Johnny Chang Kuan-Chun is the Professor of Law at National Chengchi University in Taiwan, and also serves as the President of the Financial Ombudsman Institution in Taiwan. He received his Doctor of Juridical Science from Georgetown University Law Center in Taiwan.

Cristián Rodríguez Chiffelle is Head of Trade and Investment Policy, Global Leadership Fellow at the World Economic Forum in Geneva, Switzerland. He is a member of the Business 20 (B20) Task Force on Trade and Investment, and Economic Advisor to the Mission of Chile before the OECD in Paris, France. Prior to joining the Forum, he served as trade diplomat and negotiator in various positions for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He holds a Master of Laws (LL.M) from Harvard Law School and an MPA from the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, where he was an Edward S. Mason Fellow.

Barnali Choudhury is an Associate Professor at University College London. She has published widely, including a monograph entitled Public Services and International Trade Liberalization: Human Rights and Gender Implications (Cambridge University Press 2012), and is a frequent speaker at institutions around the world.

Allison Christians is the H Heward Stikeman Chair in the Law of Taxation at the McGill University Faculty of Law where she teaches and writes on national, comparative, and international tax law and policy. She focuses especially on the relationship between taxation and economic development; the role of p. xxgovernment and non-government institutions and actors in the creation of tax policy norms; and the intersection of taxation and human rights. She has published widely, addressing a broad array of topics. Her recent research focuses on the role of activists in reforming disclosure rules for multinational companies; evolving international norms of tax cooperation and competition; the relationship between tax and trade; and evolving conceptions of taxpayer rights. Professor Christians also engages on topics of tax law and policy via social media with her Tax, Society, and Culture blog and on twitter @taxpolblog.

Beatriz Conde Gallego is Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition in Munich (Germany). She specializes in intellectual property and competition law, particularly in legal issues at the interface between both fields of law.

Philippe Coppens studied law and philosophy at the University of Louvain. He is Senior Research Fellow at the Fund for Scientific Research (FSR-FNRS Belgium) and Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Louvain. He also teaches about the economic and philosophical foundations of international economic law.

Carlos M Correa is Director of the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies on Industrial Property and Economics at the Law Faculty, University of Buenos Aires, and Special Advisor on Intellectual Property and Trade of the South Centre (Geneva). He is specialized in international trade, investment, intellectual property, and genetic resources.

Maria Anna Corvaglia has been a Lecturer at the Birmingham Law School since January 2017. She holds a Ph.D. in Law from the University of Zurich and she previously worked as Post Doctoral Researcher at the Durham Law School and at the WTI, University of Bern. Most of her research to date has focused on the international regulation of public procurement and the protection of socio-environmental concerns in international economic law, following a strong comparative and interdisciplinary approach.

Mireille Cossy is Senior Counsellor in the Legal Affairs Division of the WTO. She has extensive experience in the law of the WTO, which she joined in 1995. She regularly publishes on various WTO-related topics, in particular trade in services and dispute settlement.

Thomas Cottier is Emeritus Professor of European and International Economic Law and Senior Research Fellow at the WTI, University of Bern, Switzerland, and Adjunct Professor of Law at the University of Ottawa, Canada. He specializes in public international law, including the law of the sea, constitutionalization, WTO law, intellectual property, and European Union (EU) and Swiss external economic relations law.

Lorenzo Cotula is a Principal Researcher in Law and Sustainable Development at the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and a Visiting Research Fellow at the Centre for the Law, Regulation and Governance of the Global Economy (GLOBE), Warwick Law School.

François Crépeau is Full Professor and the Hans & Tamar Oppenheimer Chair in Public International Law at McGill University, as well as Director of the McGill Centre for Human Rights and Legal Pluralism and the Robert F Drinan, SJ, Visiting Professor of Human Rights Chair at Georgetown University (Washington, DC) and is Guest Professor at the Université catholique de Louvain. He is United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants.

Daniel C Crosby is a Partner in the International Trade Practice Group at King & Spalding and manages the firm’s Geneva office. Mr. Crosby has worked in the area of international trade for over 17 years and has practiced in Switzerland since 2000. Mr. Crosby is active in Switzerland’s diplomatic community and serves as Vice Chairman of the Club Diplomatique de Genève.

Karen Halverson Cross teaches contracts, international business transactions, WTO law and international commercial dispute resolution at the John Marshall Law School in Chicago, Illinois.

Joel Dahlquist Cullborg is a Doctoral Candidate and Lecturer at Uppsala University, researching the intersection between commercial arbitration and treaty disputes. He teaches international arbitration and international investment law and is also a regular contributor to the electronic newsletter, Investment Arbitration Reporter.

p. xxiHenri Culot is Professor of Economic Law at the Université catholique de Louvain, Invited Professor at the Université Saint-Louis, Bruxelles and member of the Brussels Bar (Belgium). His academic interests encompass WTO and international trade law, as well as Belgian and European company law.

Brooks W Daly is the Deputy Secretary-General and Principal Legal Counsel at the Permanent Court of Arbitration. He also lectures at Leiden University School of Law. He previously practiced with law firms in Los Angeles and London and served as Counsel at the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) International Court of Arbitration in Paris.

William J Davey is Guy Raymond Jones Chair in Law (retired) at the University of Illinois College of Law, Champaign, Illinois. He is specialized in international trade law, with particular reference to the WTO and its dispute settlement system.

Eric De Brabandere is Professor of International Dispute Settlement at the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University. He is also Attorney-at-Law (Of Counsel) at the Ghent Bar (Belgium), practicing in international law and arbitration, and Editor-in-Chief of the Leiden Journal of International Law.

Armand de Mestral is Emeritus Professor, Jean Monnet Professor Faculty of Law at McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada, and Senior Fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation. He specializes in international law, international economic law, international arbitration and dispute settlement, and law of the sea.

Panagiotis Delimatsis is Professor of European and International Trade Law and Director of the Tilburg Law and Economics Center (TILEC) at Tilburg University, the Netherlands. He specializes in international economic law, EU internal market law, and the law of EU external relations. His publications focus on the study of phenomena of transnational governance and private regulation from a comparative and interdisciplinary viewpoint.

Diane A Desierto, J.S.D. (Yale) is the Michael J Marks Distinguished Professor, tenured Associate Professor of Law, and Co-Director of the ASEAN Law & Integration Center at the University of Hawaii Richardson School of Law and Fellow at Stanford University’s Center of Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (CASBS).

Nathalie Diaz is a Legal Officer at the Rules Division of the WTO. She previously acted as junior counsel at the Advisory Centre on WTO Law and as legal coordinator to the Peruvian trade remedies’ authority.

Nicolas F Diebold is Professor of Public and Economic Law at the University of Lucerne Law Faculty. He specializes in Swiss and international economic law, including competition law, trade and internal market law, investment protection, public procurement, and Swiss external relations law.

Mariel Dimsey, LL.M. is an international commercial and investment arbitration specialist. She has over ten years’ experience acting as advisor and advocate in numerous international arbitrations covering a wide range of legal systems and industries. She practices international arbitration at Hogan Lovells in Hong Kong.

Claudio Dordi is Associate Professor of International Law, Bocconi University, Milan, and Team Leader of the Multilateral Trade Assistance Project (MUTRAP), Hanoi, Vietnam. He is specialized in international trade law, trade and economic policy, international trade negotiations and implementation of international agreements in domestic legal systems, EU external trade policy, and institutions.

Patrick Dumberry is Associate Professor at the University of Ottawa (Faculty of Law, Civil Law Section). He practiced international arbitration for several years with law firms (Lalive in Geneva and Ogilvy Renault in Montreal), as well as with Canada’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Trade Law Bureau). He is the author of more than 60 publications in the fields of international investment law and international law.

Jeffrey L Dunoff is the Laura H Carnell Professor of Law at the Temple University Beasley School of Law in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Pierre-Marie Dupuy is Emeritus Professor of Public International Law (University of Paris, Panthéon-Assas), Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (Geneva), and an international arbitrator (investor/ state p. xxiiarbitration). He specializes in public international law, including the general theory of law, general international law, international economic law, and international environmental law.

Roberto Echandi is Global Lead on Investment Policy and Promotion of the World Bank Group as well as Member of the Faculty of the WTI, of the Masters in International Economic Law (IELPO) at the University of Barcelona, of the Editorial Board of the Journal of International Economic Law (JIEL), and the Journal of World Investment and Trade (JWIT).

Chloë Edworthy is an Assistant in the Dispute Resolution team of Macfarlanes LLP, London. She is admitted as a Solicitor of the Senior Courts of England and Wales. She advises clients in respect of corporate and commercial cross-border litigation and international arbitration. She has advised clients in English High Court litigation and arbitrations under London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA), International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), Singapore International Arbitration Centre (SIAC), Swiss, and ICSID Rules. She studied at Edinburgh University before attending BPP law school in London.

Lothar Ehring, Assessor juris (Germany) and Master of Public Administration (Harvard), is Senior Expert in the Legal Unit of the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Trade, and Lecturer at the universities of Barcelona, Bern, and Münster. He was formerly legal affairs officer in the Legal Affairs Division and the Appellate Body Secretariat of the WTO. He specializes in WTO law, notably non-discrimination.

Mark S Ellis is Executive Director of the International Bar Association, the largest association of law firms, bar associations, and lawyers in the world.

Ilaria Espa is Senior Research Fellow and Lecturer at the WTI, University of Bern, Switzerland, and Academic Coordinator of the WTI Doctoral School. She specializes in international economic law, international environmental and energy law, and EU law.

Dimitrij Euler is a Consultant and Scholar for International Investment Protection. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Basel and was Visiting Scholar at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law in Cambridge at Trinity Hall, University of Cambridge, and the British Institute for International and Comparative Law.

Isabel Feichtner, LL.M. (Cardozo Law School) is Professor of Public Law and International Economic Law at the University of Würzburg.

Marialaura Fino holds a B.A. and M.A. in International Law from LUISS, Rome, and a Master of Laws in Comparative Law from the University of Macau. She is currently Legal and Labour Law Officer at the International Labour Organization (ILO) in Geneva. Previously, Marialaura conducted research on investment and trade law in China and she worked on development cooperation in Kenya and Uganda.

Marina Foltea, Ph.D. (University of Bern) is Managing Director at Trade Pacts – an international economic law consultancy based in Geneva. She specializes in linkages between various international legal regimes, WTO dispute settlement, and market access issues.

Elisa Fornalé is Swiss National Science Foundation Professor for the project entitled ‘Framing Environmental Degradation, Human Mobility and Human Development as a Matter of Common Concern’ at the WTI, University of Bern, and responsible for the Horizon 2020 Project ‘Climate Security with Local Authorities’. She specializes in international public law, international migration law, and human rights law.

R Michael Gadbaw is an Adjunct Professor and Distinguished Senior Fellow at the Institute of International Economic Law at Georgetown Law School. His focus is on international economic law and regulation, particularly the interaction of trade, financial regulation, monetary policy, investment, competition, and anticorruption.

Frank J Garcia is Professor and Dean’s Global Fund Scholar at the Boston College Law School, with research interests in international economic law, global law, and global justice theory. His most recent monograph is Global Justice and International Economic Law: Three Takes (CUP 2013).

Jonathan Gass is an Arbitration Practitioner who has appeared in more than a dozen investor-state cases on behalf of both claimants p. xxiiiand states. He is admitted to practice in New York as well as England and Wales and has published and lectured on a variety of topics related to arbitration and international economic law.

David Gaukrodger is Senior Legal Adviser at the OECD, Investment Division. He leads analysis at the OECD about investment treaties and dispute settlement under those treaties, and provides support for the work of an investment Roundtable that regularly gathers OECD, G20 and other governments. He earlier worked on the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention and helped design the G20-mandated peer review system used by a Global Forum monitoring the exchange of tax-related information. Prior to joining the OECD, David was a Special Counsel with Sullivan & Cromwell LLP. David graduated from Sciences Po Paris with a ‘mention lauréat’ and obtained law degrees with distinction from the University of Toronto and the Université de Paris 1. He clerked for Justice Gerard La Forest at the Supreme Court of Canada.

Diego Brian Gosis is a Partner at GST LLP (Miami, FL) and is licensed in Argentina. He has acted as counsel, arbitrator, or conciliator in over 55 arbitrations under ICSID, United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), ICC, International Centre for Dispute Resolution (ICDR), and other rules in proceedings in Spanish, English, and Portuguese, and as counsel or expert before the courts of several jurisdictions. He frequently speaks and writes on issues of international investment and commercial arbitration.

Lawrence O Gostin is University Professor (Georgetown’s highest academic rank) and Faculty Director of the O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law. He is Global Correspondent for JAMA and directs the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center on Public Health Law and Human Rights.

Nicolle Graugnard is the Senior Policy Manager in charge of trade and investment policy at the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). Ms. Graugnard holds a juris doctor from Georgetown University and a bilingual M.A. in International Security Affairs from l’Institut d’Etudes Politques de Paris (Sciences Po Paris).

Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan is Reader in International and European Intellectual Property Law and a Fellow of King’s College, University of Cambridge. He is Co-Director of the Centre for Intellectual Property and Information Law, Fellow at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, and External Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition. His research and teaching focuses on international intellectual property protection and development issues, world trade, and investment law.

Lukasz Gruszczynski is an Associate Professor of Public International Law at the Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Warsaw, Poland) and currently is a Visiting Fellow at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Social Sciences Institute for Legal Studies and Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Budapest, Hungary). He specializes in WTO law and risk regulation, including regulation of tobacco products.

Karolis Gudas is an External Research Fellow at the WTI and the Head of the Legal Division at UAB Vilniaus kogeneracinė jegaine (Lietuvos Energija group). He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Bern, Switzerland.

Véronique Guèvremont teaches international law with a focus on culture, cultural diversity, trade, and sustainable development. As an expert in trade and cultural policies, she was actively involved in the negotiation of the 2005 Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. She published a book on WTO and non-trade values, Valuers non marchandes et droit de l’OMC (Bruylant, 2013). She conducted several projects on the treatment of cultural goods and services in trade agreements. Recently she also published several articles and reports on the protection of cultural diversity in the digital environment. She is co-founder of the International Network of Lawyers for the Diversity of Cultural Expressions and holds the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Chair on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions.

Christian Häberli is a Fellow at the WTI, University of Bern (Switzerland). He was formerly a member of the WTO Committee on Agriculture and WTO Panel Chair. He has over 50 publications on trade, agriculture, sanitary and phytosanitary standards, technical barriers, employment, development, food security, obesity, and climate change.

p. xxivPeter I Hajnal is author or editor of ten books, including The G8 System and the G20: Evolution, Role and Documentation (Ashgate 2007) and The G20: Evolution, Interrelationships, Documentation (Ashgate 2014), as well as of numerous articles. Based at the University of Toronto, he is a Fellow of Senior College, Research Associate of the Munk School of Global Affairs, and Research Associate in Arts, Trinity College.

Jean-Jacques Hallaert is an economist who has spent his career with international organizations (notably the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the OECD) as well as with the French Ministry of Finances. He is associated with the Groupe d’Economie Mondiale (GEM) and used to teach at the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris.

Veijo Heiskanen is a Partner with LALIVE, Geneva. He graduated from the University of Helsinki (LL.B., 1983; LL.Lic., 1985) and holds an LL.M. (1988) and a Doctorate of Juridical Science (S.J.D.) from Harvard Law School (1992). He is Professor of International Arbitration at the University of Lausanne and taught at the Hague Academy of International Law (2002).

Jarrod Hepburn is a McKenzie Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Melbourne Law School. Jarrod’s research interests lie largely in international economic law and general international law. He is the author of Domestic Law in International Investment Arbitration (Oxford University Press 2017), and his other writings have appeared in journals including the International and Comparative Law Quarterly and the Journal of International Dispute Settlement. Jarrod is also a regular contributor to the specialized news service Investment Arbitration Reporter.

Mariana Hernandez Crespo Gonstead is Deputy to the Dean for International Legal Studies and Executive Director of the International Dispute Resolution Research Network at St. Thomas Law School, holds J.D. and LL.M. degrees from Harvard Law School and a law degree from Universidad Católica Andrés Bello. Her broad international experience includes: leading national consensus building in Brazil, working with the Trust of the Americas (Organization of American States), teaching at the WTI in Switzerland, developing capacity for the Economic Partnership Agreement between Mongolia and Japan, and participating as an expert at UNCTAD and the World Bank. She has co-chaired the American Bar Association (ABA) Dispute Resolution Section Law Schools Committee and has publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.

Caroline Hess-Klein is the Director of the Disability Equality Rights Department of the Swiss umbrella organization, Inclusion Handicap. Since 2001, she has also been working at the University of Basel with Professor Markus Schefer on the constitutional and administrative law aspects of disability rights, and as an adjunct instructor in that faculty.

Holger Hestermeyer is Shell Reader in International Dispute Resolution at King’s College London, Director of the King’s Forum on International Dispute Resolution, Co-Executive Vice-President of the Society of International Economic Law, and currently Specialist Adviser of the House of Lords EU External Affairs Sub-Committee. He was formerly référendaire at the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and head of a research group at Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law (MPIL).

Luis Miguel Hinojosa Martínez is Chair of International and European Law and Director of the Public International Law Department of Granada University as well as Vice-President of the European Society of International Law.

Stephan Hobe has a chair for Public International Law, European Law, European and International Economic Law and is the Director of the Institute of Air and Space Law as well as the Managing Director of the International Investment Law Centre Cologne at the University of Cologne. He has published approximately 40 books as author and editor and around 300 articles in scientific journals.

Kaj Hober is Professor of International Investment and Trade Law at Uppsala University, where he is in charge of a one-year Master’s programme in Investment Treaty Arbitration. He is also Chairman of the Board of the Swedish Chamber of Commerce (SCC) Institute, as well as an associate member of 3 Verulam Buildings, London. He has more than three decades of experience, as counsel and arbitrator, from international arbitration, p. xxvincluding energy disputes and investment treaty arbitration.

Kateryna Holzer is Visiting Scholar at the Trade and Environment Division of the World Trade Organization (WTO). She specializes in international economic law, international environmental law, energy, and climate change law. She holds a Ph.D. from the University of Bern, Switzerland.

Dale Honeck has been a Counsellor at the WTO Trade in Services and Investment Division since 1997, and was promoted to the Senior Counsellor level in July 2002. His responsibilities include issues related to professional services, services aspects of WTO accession issues, tourism services, and conducting technical assistance. From March 1992 to June 1997 he was an analyst in the Trade Policies Review Division.

Gary N Horlick is Partner in the law offices of Gary N Horlick, specializing in international trade and investment. He is also an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University, teaching courses in Brexit and in the internet economy, and has taught international trade law courses at Yale, Columbia, Bern, and Barcelona universities.

Robert Howse is Lloyd C. Nelson Professor of International Law at New York University Law School and co-author of The Regulation of International Trade, 4th ed., (Routledge 2012) among other works.

Gary Clyde Hufbauer is Reginald Jones Senior Fellow at Peterson Institute for International Economics. He specializes in economic sanctions, US free trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), international trade, investment, and tax issues.

Valerie Hughes is Assistant Adjunct Professor at Queen’s University (Canada) and specializes in international trade law. Previously she served as Director of the Legal Affairs Division and Director of the Appellate Body Secretariat, WTO. She has represented the Government of Canada before a number of international adjudicative bodies.

Franziska Humbert is a lawyer and advisor on business and human and labour rights at Oxfam Germany, Berlin, an international development organization. She holds a Ph.D. from the University of Bern, Switzerland and is doing her postdoctoral thesis at the WTI, University of Bern, on WTO law and constitutionalization. She specializes in public international law, including constitutionalization, WTO law, and human rights.

Eva Hüpkes is Adviser on Regulatory Policy and Cooperation of the Financial Stability Board (FSB) since 2009, prior to which she held positions at the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (FINMA), its predecessor organization, the Swiss Federal Banking Commission, and the IMF. She is a member of the New York Bar and studied law and international relations at the University of Passau, Germany, the Graduate Institute of International Studies and University of Geneva, and Georgetown University, Washington, DC, and holds a Doctorate in Law from the University of Bern.

Brigitta Imeli is Junior Research Fellow at the Institute of European and International Economic Law, University of Bern. While currently involved in the M.Law program, she works with Professor Michael Hahn and Professor Emeritus Thomas Cottier, focusing on international trade law and Swiss–EU external economic relations law.

Lise Johnson is the Head of Investment Law and Policy at the Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment. She focuses on analyzing the substantive and procedural norms governing international investment, and exploring implications for sustainable development. She has her B.A. from Yale University, J.D. from the University of Arizona, and LL.M. from Columbia Law School.

Euijin Jung is a Research Analyst at Peterson Institute for International Economics. Jung has written on free trade agreements, international trade, and economic sanctions.

Olia Kanevskaia is a Ph.D. Candidate at Tilburg Law and Economic Center (TILEC), researching due process in international standard-setting. She specializes in international trade law, technical barriers to trade and competition law and policy.

Mathias Kende is Deputy of the Kingdom of Belgium at the European Trade Policy Committee and Associate Fellow at the Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies. He is a Belgian career-diplomat and scholar specializing p. xxviin international and European economic diplomacy. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Bern, Switzerland.

Robert Kolb is Professor of Public International Law at the University of Geneva.

Shaheeza Lalani is a lawyer and currently a Senior Research Fellow at the Sorbonne Law School. Formerly she was the Director of the Doctoral Programme at the WTI, University of Bern, Switzerland, and a Senior Legal Counsel to the Geneva Chamber of Commerce and the Swiss Chambers’ Arbitration Institution. She specializes in private international law, comparative law and civil procedure and holds a Ph.D. from the University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Andrew Lang is Professor of International Law and Global Governance at the University of Edinburgh. Prior to that, he was Professor of Law at the London School of Economics, and from 2004–2006 was Junior Research Fellow at Trinity Hall, University of Cambridge. He specializes in international trade and investment law.

Anna Lanoszka is Associate Professor of International Economic Relations at the University of Windsor. Her research interests include international trade, investment, and economic development. Before accepting an academic position, she worked in the Accessions Division of the WTO and participated in numerous technical assistance programs in Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and Africa.

Rosa María Lastra is Professor in International Financial and Monetary Law at the Centre for Commercial Law Studies (CCLS), Queen Mary University of London. She is a member of the Monetary Committee of the International Law Association (MOCOMILA), and a founding member of the European Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee (ESFRC). She lives in London with her husband and their four children.

Yong-Shik Lee is the Director and Professorial Fellow of the Law and Development Institute and the Editor-in-Chief of the Law and Development Review. Author of the Reclaiming Development in the World Trading System, 2nd ed., (Cambridge University Press 2016), he has over 70 academic publications in international economic law and law and development.

Judith Levine is Senior Legal Counsel at the Permanent Court of Arbitration, where she serves as Registrar in interstate arbitrations and assists tribunals in investor-state and commercial cases. She is a visiting lecturer at King’s College London, previously practiced at White & Case in New York, and is also admitted to practice in Australia.

Meredith Kolsky Lewis is Professor of Law, Vice Dean for International and Graduate Programs, and Director of the Cross-Border Legal Studies Center at the SUNY Buffalo Law School. She is also Associate Professor at the Victoria University of Wellington Law School.

Xuan Li is Senior Policy Officer and Delivery Manager of the Regional Initiative on Zero Hunger Challenge, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). She specializes in food security and nutrition, agriculture, WTO law and economics, intellectual property and innovation, trade, and investment.

Giedre Lideikyte-Huber holds a Ph.D. degree in Law from the University of Geneva, Switzerland. The subject of her dissertation is ‘Conceptual Problems of the Corporate Tax: Swiss and Comparative Aspects’. She holds a B.A. in Law degrees from Vilnius and Geneva Universities, an M.A. in European Public Affairs from the University of Maastricht and an LL.M. in Business Law from the University of Geneva (highest honors). Her main areas of research and interest include international and Swiss tax law, public finance, and legal theory. Giedre’s work experience extends to both private and public sectors.

Rosa Maria Losada, M.Law is a Research Fellow at the WTI of the University of Bern and specializes in European and international law, particularly in the law of migration. Until May 2013, Rosa Maria Losada worked as deputy head and head ad interim of the Unit of Third-State Nationals of the Swiss Federal Office for Migration (FOM) – now State Secretariat for Migration (SEM).

Joscelyn Magdeleine is an Economic Affairs Officer in the Trade in Services and Investment Division of the WTO. He deals with the Services Integrated-Trade Intelligence Portal (I-TIP services) database as well as economics related questions relating to trade in services. He has participated in the activities of the p. xxviiUN Interagency Task Force on Statistics of International Trade in Services as well as the Task Force’s Subgroup on the Movement of Natural Persons – Mode 4. Within the activities under the responsibility of the Task Force he notably contributed to the recent revision of the Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services, as well as its accompanying Compiler’s Guide.

Kendra Magraw specializes in international dispute settlement (particularly investment, commercial, and sports arbitration) and has worked in private practice, UNCTAD’s International Investment Agreement Section, ICSID, and the International Court of Justice.

Jacky Mandelbaum is Special Counsel at a leading Australian law firm. Prior to that, Jacky worked for a number of years as a Senior Legal Researcher at the Columbia Center for Sustainable Investment at Columbia University in New York. Her work focused on international investments in the extractive industries (oil, gas, and mining). In particular, she looked at optimizing legal frameworks for promoting sustainable development from these investments – with the objective of balancing the country’s interest in capturing the benefit of the resources while remaining competitive. She researched and provided advice in relation to issues concerning environmental regulation, local community development requirements, transparency, fiscal reforms, local content requirements, and allocation rights.

Gabrielle Marceau is Senior Counsellor in the Legal Affairs Division of the WTO Secretariat. Dr. Marceau is also Associate Professor at the Law Faculty of the University of Geneva, and she teaches in other institutions. Professor Marceau is President of the Society of International Economic Law (SIEL).

Marek Martyniszyn is a Lecturer in Law at Queen’s University Belfast (UK). His research focuses on various aspects of competition law and policy in international and transnational contexts. Dr. Martyniszyn is a Non-Governmental Advisor to the International Competition Network and a Member of the Research Partnership Platform of the UNCTD.

Mitsuo Matsushita is a Professor Emeritus of Tokyo University and a Counsel to Nagashima, Ohno & Tsunematsu, a leading international law firm in Tokyo. Currently he is a member of the Industrial Structure Council attached to the Ministry of Economics, Trade and Industry. He is also a member of the advisory board of the Academy of the World Intellectual Property Organization.

Francis Maupain holds a Ph.D. in law from the Sorbonne, an LL.M. from Harvard Law School, and an M.P.A. from Harvard JFK School of Government. He spent most of his professional career at the ILO, first as Legal Counsel and more recently as Special Adviser to the Director-General.

Petros C Mavroidis is an Edwin B Parker Professor of Law at Columbia Law School, NY and a Professeur extraordinaire at the University of Neuchâtel.

Makane Moïse Mbengue is Associate Professor of International Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Geneva, Switzerland, and Affiliated Professor at Sciences Po Paris (School of Law), France. He specializes in public international law, including international environmental law, WTO law, and international investment law.

Benn D McGrady serves as Technical Officer (Legal) in the Department of Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases at the WTO. Among other publications, Benn is the author of Trade and Public Health: The WTO, Tobacco, Alcohol and Diet (Cambridge University Press 2011). Benn has taught at Georgetown University Law Center and Sydney Law School.

Bryan Mercurio is Professor of Law, Associate Dean (Research) and Vice Chancellor’s Outstanding Fellow of the Faculty of Law at The Chinese University of Hong Kong. He specializes in WTO law, free trade agreements, and the interaction of international economic law and intellectual property rights, with particular interest and expertise in pharmaceutical patents.

Angharad Miller is Senior Lecturer in Taxation at Bournemouth Business School, University of Bournemouth, UK, and co-author of Principles of International Taxation, 5th ed., (Bloomsbury 2016).

Andrew Mitchell is Professor at Melbourne Law School, Australian Research Council Future Fellow, Director of the Global Economic Law Network, a member of the Indicative List of Panelists to hear WTO disputes, and a member of the Energy Charter Roster of Panelists.

p. xxviiiPeter Muchlinski is Emeritus Professor of International Commercial Law at the School of Law, the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He is the author of Multinational Enterprises and the Law, 2nd ed., (Oxford University Press 2007). He specializes in the regulation of multinational enterprises, international investment law and business, and human rights.

Anna Caroline Müller is Legal Affairs Officer in the Intellectual Property, Government Procurement and Competition Policy Division of the WTO in Geneva, Switzerland. A lawyer qualified in Germany, England, and Wales, she holds Master’s degrees in Intellectual Property Law and International Relations.

Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer is Co-Head of Legal Services at the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law and Senior Fellow at the WTI, Bern, Switzerland. She was formerly a SNSF Research Professor at the University of Basel, and she continues to teach at Basel and Bern. She received her juris doctor from Georgetown University Law School, and her doctorate and Habilitation from the University of Bern.

Suresh Nanwani was formerly Advisor at the Asian Development Bank, with 28 years’ development work experience in other organizations including European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). He is presently Honorary Associate Professor at Australian National University (ANU) College of Law, Visiting Professorial Fellow at University of New South Wales (UNSW), and Visiting Research Fellow at Birkbeck University of London.

Olga Nartova is a Law Department Chair and an Assistant Professor at Dar Al-Hekma University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Olga holds a Ph.D. degree in Law from the University of Bern and she is a qualified lawyer in Russia. She has published on international trade, energy, and climate change.

James J Nedumpara is an Associate Professor of Law and the Executive Director of the Centre for International Trade and Economic Laws (CITEL) at Jindal Global Law School. James has also taught courses in international trade law as a visiting faculty at Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV) Law School, São Paolo, National Law School of India University, Bangalore, and the CWS-WTI Joint Summer Academy. His specializes in trade remedy law and international trade regulation.

Lynne Oats is Professor of Taxation and Accounting at the University of Exeter. She is Co-Director of the Tax Administration Research Centre, co-author of a number of books including Principles of International Taxation, 5th ed., (Bloomsbury 2016) and author of numerous journal articles on various aspects of taxation policy and practice.

Bernard O’Connor is a Partner in the law firm Nctm, a member of the faculty of the MILE program at the WTI and the International Economic Law and Policy programme in Barcelona, as well as contract Professor at the State University in Milan. He specializes in international trade law with particular interest in trade defence, subsidies, food and agriculture, geographical indications, and litigation.

Jumoke Oduwole is Senior Special Assistant to the President of Nigeria on Industry, Trade and Investment. She is also a lecturer at the Faculty of Law of the University of Lagos. She holds an LL.M. degree in Commercial Law from the University of Cambridge and a doctorate degree in International Trade and Development from Stanford University.

Matthias Oesch is Professor of Public Law, European Law and International Economic Law at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. He specializes in Swiss external economic relations, EU law (foundations, institutions, external economic relations), WTO law, and regional integration.

Rekha Oleschak-Pillai works as Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Federalism, University of Fribourg. Previously she held positions at the Swiss Financial Markets Supervisory Authority (FINMA) in Bern and University of St. Gallen. She holds a Doctorate in Law from the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland, an LL.M. from the University of Aberdeen, UK, and an LL.B. from the University of Kerala, India.

Ucheora Onwuamaegbu is an International Attorney with Arent Fox LLP, Washington, DC. For about ten years, he was Senior Counsel at the World Bank’s International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) and, prior to ICSID, with the United Nations Compensation p. xxixCommission in Geneva, Switzerland, having previously been in private law practice in London. Qualified in the UK and Nigeria, and licensed in the District of Columbia, Mr. Onwuamaegbu sits as arbitrator in international disputes.

Federico Ortino is Reader in International Economic Law at The Dickson Poon School of Law, King’s College London.

Pierre Panchaud is Deputy General Counsel at the Bank for International Settlements. In 2006 and 2007, he worked in the Legal Division of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in Washington, DC. Since 2012, Mr. Panchaud has lectured on financial law at the University of Basel.

Martins Paparinskis is Reader in Public International Law and Director of Graduate Research Studies at the Faculty of Laws, University College London, a Member of the Panel of Arbitrators of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, and a Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration.

Jan Paulsson is Professor of Law and Michael Klein Distinguished Scholar Chair at the University of Miami. He is also Founding Partner of Three Crowns LLP.

Tetyana Payosova is a Lecturer in Law and Ph.D. Candidate at the Institute of European and International Economic Law, University of Bern, Switzerland, and Legal Adviser at the International Rail Transport Committee (CIT). She specializes in European and international law, including WTO law, international trade and investment aspects of renewable energy and climate change policies, international and EU rail transport law.

Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann is Emeritus Professor of International and European Law at the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, and Legal Consultant for the WTO. He specializes in international and European law, international economic law, and comparative constitutional law.

Fernando Piérola is Senior Counsel at the Advisory Centre on WTO Law. Prior to this appointment he served as legal adviser to the trade remedies’ authority of Peru and as a research fellow of the WTI of the University of Bern.

Alice Pirlot is a Belgian National Research Foundation (FNRS) Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium. She defended her Ph.D. in 2016 on the topic of environmental border tax adjustments. She conducts research in the following areas: EU and international tax law, environmental law, and international trade law.

Rodrigo Polanco is an Assistant Professor at University of Chile School of Law and Senior Research Fellow and Lecturer at the WTI, University of Bern, Switzerland. He specializes in public international law, including international economic law, investment law, trade law, environmental law, air and space law, and international humanitarian law.

Amelia Porges is Principal of the Law Offices of Amelia Porges PLLC in Washington, DC, and formerly Senior Counsel for Dispute Settlement at the office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), and Senior Legal Officer in the GATT Secretariat during the Uruguay Round. She teaches international trade law at the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University.

Julian M Powell holds Master’s degrees in Law from the Universities of Basel and Strasbourg as well as an LL.M. in International Law from the University of Freiburg (Germany). Formerly he was a research assistant for Dr. Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer at the University of Basel.

Mansur Pour Rafsendjani is Co-Head of International Trade Group, Noerr. He is an internationally experienced attorney specializing in international contract law and court representation in trade and distribution law and logistics (global purchasing, global supply, distribution, franchising and commercial agency, and supply chain advice).

August Reinisch is Professor of International and European Law at the University of Vienna. He is a member of the International Law Commission (ILC), membre associé of the IDI, and President of the Austrian Branch of the International Law Association (ILA). He is also a member of the ICSID Panels of Conciliators and of Arbitrators and of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. He has published widely in international law with a focus on international investment law, the law of international organizations, international responsibility, and non-state actors.

p. xxxNina Reiser, Attorney-at-Law, LL.M. (Harvard Law School), is a Senior Lecturer (Privatdozentin) in Civil and Business Law at the Faculty of Law, University of Zurich, and a senior legal and policy specialist in the Regulation group of the Strategic Services division at the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority FINMA.

Catherine A Rogers is Professor at Penn State Law and of International Arbitration and Professional Ethics at Penn State Law, with a dual appointment as Professor of Ethics, Regulation, and the Rule of Law at Queen Mary University of London, where she is also Co-Director of the Institute for Ethics and Regulation. A scholar of international arbitration and professional ethics, she is a leading expert on the topic of the professional ethics of international arbitrators.

Davide Rovetta is a Trial Attorney and Of Counsel at Grayston & Company law firm in Brussels (Belgium). He specializes in international trade and customs law, WTO Dispute Settlement tariff classification cases, EU Common Foreign and Security Policy sanctions law, as well as in EU law including litigation before the CJEU and national jurisdictions in the EU.

Luca Rubini is Reader in International Economic Law at the University of Birmingham. His main expertise lies in the regulation of state intervention in the economy, particularly public subsidies. His recent focus is on law and political economy of subsidy rules in the WTO, on the various linkages between energy, trade, and climate change, and on the legal history of subsidy and state aid rules.

Noah Rubins is a Partner at Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP, and heads the firm’s arbitration practice in Paris. He is also the leader of the firm’s global CIS/Russia dispute resolution group. Noah was educated in the United States, and specializes in energy and infrastructure disputes. Investment treaty cases in which he has been involved include Loewen v United States, Libananco v Turkey, CMS v Argentina, Parkerings v Lithuania, and Rusoro v Venezuela.

Riccardo Sansonetti is Head of the Financial Crime Section within the Swiss State Secretariat for International Finance. He has represented the Swiss Ministry of Finance in numerous international fora dealing with financial markets regulation and international exchange of information. He is currently the Deputy Head of the Swiss delegation at the Financial Action Task Force.

Pierre Sauvé is the Senior Trade Specialist in the Geneva office of the World Bank Group’s Trade and Competitiveness Global Practice. He was previously Director for Program Development at the WTI of the University of Bern, on whose faculty he still serves. He holds a Visiting Professor appointment at the University of Barcelona, whose LL.M. program in international economic law and policy (IELPO) he advises, as well as at the College of Europe in Bruges. His research interests lie in the fields of trade in services, the regulation of foreign direct investment, and comparative regionalism.

Judith Schäli is a Doctoral Student at the Institute of European and International Economic Law and the Graduate School of Economic Globalisation and Integration of the WTI, University of Bern. She specializes in international environmental governance, especially with relation to marine governance and the law of the sea. Her thesis focuses on the problem of marine plastic pollution in international law.

Maxi C Scherer holds the Chair in International Arbitration, Dispute Resolution, and Energy Law at Queen Mary University of London, and she is also the Director of the Centre for Commercial Law Studies (CCLS) in Paris. She is a Special Counsel at Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr in London and regularly sits as an arbitrator.

Stephan W Schill is Professor of International and Economic Law and Governance at the University of Amsterdam, Principal Investigator of the ERC-funded Lex Mercatoria Publica Project (Grant Agreement No. 313355), and Editor-in-Chief of The Journal of World Investment and Trade.

Wolfgang Schön is Director and Scientific Member of the Max Planck Institute for Tax Law and Public Finance, Munich, and Honorary Professor at Munich University; International Research Fellow at Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation; and Chairman of the Board of the European Association of Tax Law Professors.

p. xxxiJoanne Scott is Professor of European Law at the European University Institute in Florence. She is on special leave as Professor of European Law from University College London, where she has taught since 2010. She has published on a wide range of areas in EU and WTO Law including a commentary on the SPS Agreement (The WTO Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, Oxford University Press 2007) and recent articles examining the global reach of EU law.

Yulia Selivanova is an independent Expert Consultant specializing in International Economic Law with experience of working in international law firms as well as intergovernmental organizations. She advises governments, companies, and intergovernmental organizations on different aspects of WTO rules, investment law, and energy regulation. She holds a Ph.D. from the University of Bern, Switzerland.

Nivedita Sen is a Doctoral Candidate in International Law at the Graduate Institute, Geneva. She was formerly a research assistant in intellectual property at the Government Procurement and Competition Division, WTO Secretariat. Qualified as a lawyer in India, she completed her LL.M. from the University of Cambridge, UK, and her B.A. LL.B. from West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences (NUJS), India.

Charlotte Sieber-Gasser is Senior Research Fellow and Lecturer in Law at the Center for Law and Sustainability, University of Lucerne, Lecturer in International Relations at the University of St. Gallen, and Fellow of the WTI, University of Bern. She specializes in public international law and constitutional law with a focus on preferential trade agreements, EU integration, and democratic legitimation of international integration.

Margaret J Spicer is an Associate in International Trade at White & Case, LLP in Washington, DC. She specializes in trade remedies before the US Department of Commerce, export controls, and sanctions.

Marc Steiner is a Judge at the Swiss Federal Administrative Court.

Peter-Tobias Stoll is a Professor for Public Law and International Law at the University of Göttingen and the Managing Director of the Institute for International Law and European Law. His areas of specialization include international economic law and environmental law. Tobias has been the co-convenor on a study group on preferential trade agreements of the International Law Association and co-chairs the International economic law interest group of the European Society of International Law.

Celine Tan is Associate Professor at the School of Law, University of Warwick, UK, and Director of the Centre for Law, Regulation and Governance of the Global Economy (GLOBE) at Warwick.

Fitzgerald Temmerman, LL.M. currently works as a Lawyer at law firm Ryckbost & Ryckbost environmental lawyers in Ostend, Belgium. He specializes in (international) environmental law and public (international) law. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Bern, Switzerland.

Ben Thirkell-White is Associate Professor of International Relations at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. He is author of The IMF and the Politics of Financial Globalisation (Palgrave 2005) and co-author of The Politics of Poverty Reduction (Oxford University Press 2012).

Christian Tietje is Professor of Public Law, European Law and International Economic Law and Director of the Institute of Economic Law and the Transnational Economic Law Research Centre (TELC) at the University Halle, Germany. He specializes in EU common commercial policy, world trade law, international dispute settlement, investment protection, and investment arbitration.

Marcos Tourinho is Assistant Professor of International Relations at the School of International Relations, Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV) in São Paulo, Brazil, and Research Fellow at the Programme for the Study of International Governance, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva, Switzerland. He specializes in the relationship between international law and politics, global governance, international organizations, and collective security.

Valentina Vadi is Professor of International Economic Law at the Law School, University of Lancaster, United Kingdom.

Anne van Aaken is Professor for Law and Economics, Legal Theory, Public International p. xxxiiLaw and European Law at the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland, and has been a guest professor at several universities in the United States, Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. She was Vice-President of the European Association of Law and Economics and is Vice-President of the European Society of International Law. She has been an expert consultant for the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), OECD, UNCTAD and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für international Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.

Isabelle Van Damme works as an Associate at Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels), with a practice focused on EU law and WTO law. She is also a Visiting Lecturer at the Université catholique de Louvain. She previously worked as a legal secretary (référendaire) in the chambers of Advocate General Sharpston at the CJEU, as an associate in Sidley Austin’s Geneva office, and as a lecturer and the Turpin-Lipstein Fellow at Clare College, University of Cambridge, where she taught public international law, EU law and WTO law.

Peter Van den Bossche has been a Member of the Appellate Body of the WTO since 2009 and served as its Chairman in 2015. He is Director of Studies and Professor of International Economic Law at the WTI of the University of Bern, Switzerland.

J Anthony VanDuzer is a Professor and former Vice Dean of Research with the Faculty of Law at the University of Ottawa, as well as an Adjunct Research Professor at the Carleton University’s Norman Paterson School of International Affairs.

Craig VanGrasstek is President of Washington Trade Report and a Lecturer at the Harvard Kennedy School. He holds a Master of Science in Foreign Service from Georgetown University and a Doctorate in Political Science from Princeton University. He specializes in the political economy of trade policymaking at both the national and international level. Among his publications is The History and Future of the World Trade Organization (WTO 2013).

Baiju S Vasani is a Partner at Jones Day, an International Arbitration Lawyer and Arbitrator with particular experience in energy, oil and gas, mining (including coal, gold, silver, silica, and uranium), cement, and other large-scale project disputes in Eastern Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and Latin America. He has served as counsel and arbitrator in international arbitrations involving ICSID, ICC, LCIA, ICDR, SIAC, UNCITRAL Rules, bilateral investment treaties (BITs), the Energy Charter Treaty, NAFTA, Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA), and public international law.

Antoni Verger is Associate Professor at the Department of Sociology of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. A former postdoctoral fellow at the Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Verger’s research analyses the relationship between global governance institutions and education policy.

Annamaria Viterbo is Associate Professor of International Law at the University of Torino and Law Affilliate at Collegio Carlo Alberto. She obtained a Ph.D. in International Economic Law from the Bocconi University of Milan. After a legal internship at the European Central Bank, she was Jean Monnet Fellow at the Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies of the European University Institute, Florence, and visiting scholar at the IMF Legal Department.

Tania Voon is Professor at Melbourne Law School, former legal officer of the Appellate Body Secretariat of the WTO, and member of the Roster of Panelists for the Energy Charter Treaty and the WTO’s Indicative List of Panelists. She specializes in international trade law and international investment law in the broader context of public international law.

Jayashree Watal is Counsellor in the Intellectual Property, Government Procurement and Competition Division of the WTO. She is a member of the Governance Board of the Medicines Patent Pool, and holds part-time faculty positions at the Georgetown University Law Center and at the University of Barcelona. She specializes in the law and economics of intellectual property rights.

Todd Weiler is a Canadian Barrister who specializes in the arbitration of international investment law disputes, and a historian of international economic law and policy.

Marie Wilke is a trade lawyer with a strong work and research background in matters relating p. xxxiiito the intersection of trade regulation and other public policy concerns. She works and lives in Southern Africa, advising governments and intergovernmental institutions.

Stephan Wilske FCIArb is a Partner in Gleiss Lutz, Stuttgart (Germany). He has been admitted to the New York and German bars as well as to the US Supreme Court and is a lecturer at the Universities of Heidelberg and Jena. He specializes in international commercial and investment arbitration.

Mintewab Gebre Woldesenbet is working for the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank Group as a Legal Consultant. She is based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Jan Wouters is Full Professor of International Law and International Organizations, Jean Monnet Chair Ad Personam in EU and Global Governance, and founding Director of the Institute for International Law and of the Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies at the University of Leuven. He is Adjunct Professor at Columbia University and Visiting Professor at Sciences Po Paris, LUISS (Rome), and the College of Europe (Bruges). He is a Member of the Royal Academy of Belgium for Sciences and Arts, President of the United Nations Association Flanders Belgium, and Of Counsel at Linklaters, Brussels. He has published widely on international and EU law, international organizations, global governance, and financial law. He is coordinator of a number of major research projects, including FRAME (a large-scale FP7 Programme on human rights in EU Policies), advises various international organizations and governments, trains officials, and often comments on international events in the media.

Xavier-Yves Zanota is an executive director, governmental affairs advisor, at UBS. He was a Member of the Basel Committee Secretariat. He has 20 years of experience, combined from industry practice and from international public policy development. He holds a Master’s of Law and Economics from the University of Toulouse, France.

Galina Zukova is a Partner at Belot Malan & Associés (Paris, France), Associate Professor at the University of Versailles Saint-Quentin (Paris Saclay) and the Riga Graduate School of Law, and a member of the ICC International Court of Arbitration.