Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law
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Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law

Edited by Michael Faure

The Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law is a landmark reference work, providing definitive and comprehensive coverage of this dynamic field. The Encyclopedia is organised into 12 volumes around top-level subjects – such as water, energy and climate change – that reflect some of the most pressing issues facing us today. Each volume probes the key elements of law, the essential concepts, and the latest research through concise, structured entries written by international experts. Each entry includes an extensive bibliography as a starting point for further reading. The mix of authoritative commentary and insightful discussion will make this an essential tool for research and teaching, as well as a valuable resource for professionals and policymakers.
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Abbreviations

AAU

Assigned amount unit

AB

Appellate Body

ABNJ

Areas beyond national jurisdiction

ABS

Access and benefit-sharing

ACAP

Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels

ACCOBAMS

Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and contiguous Atlantic Area

AEWA

Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds

AIA

Advanced Informed Agreement

ALIDES

Alliance for Sustainable Development

AMEP

Assessment and Management of Environment Pollution

ASCOBANS

Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans in the Baltic, North East Atlantic, Irish and North Seas

ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

ASR

Articles on State Responsibility

ATS

Antarctic Treaty System

BBNJ

Biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction

BCH

Biosafety Clearing-House

BECCS

Bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration

BIT

Bilateral investment treaty

BOD

Biochemical oxygen demand

BSC

Black Sea Commission

BSEC

Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization

BTU

British Thermal Unit

CAC

Command-and-control

CAFE

Corporate average fuel economy

CBD

Convention on Biological Diversity

CBDR

Common but differentiated responsibility

CBDRRC

Common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities

CC

Climate change

CCA

Climate change adaptation

CCAC

Climate and Clean Air Coalition

CCAD

Central American Commission for Environment and Development

CCAMLR

Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

CCP

Cities for Climate Protection

CCS

Carbon capture and storage

CDM

Clean development mechanism

CDR

Carbon dioxide removal

p. xvCEE

Central and Eastern European Countries

CEP

Caribbean Environment Programme

CEQ

Council on Environmental Quality

CER

Certified Emission Reductions

CETA

Communication, Education, Training and Awareness

CFL

Compact fluorescent lamp

CGIAR

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

CHP

Combined heat and power

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

CJEU

Court of Justice of the European Union

CMS

Convention on Migratory Species

COP

Conference of the Parties

CPC

Central American Convention for the Protection of the Environment

CRAMRA

Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities

CSR

Corporate social responsibility

DDA

Doha Development Agenda

DICE

Dynamic Integrated Climate Economy

DOE

Designated Operational Entity

DRR

Disaster risk reduction

DSB

Dispute Settlement Body

DSU

Dispute Settlement Understanding

EA

Environmental Assessment

EAG

Environment Advisory Group

EBSA

Ecologically or biologically significant marine area

EBV

Essential Biodiversity Variable

EC

European Commission

ECA

Economic Commission for Africa

ECOWAS

Economic Community of West African States

ECtHR

European Court of Human Rights

EEA

European Economic Area

EEDI

Energy Efficiency Design Index

EEZ

Exclusive economic zone

EIA

Environmental impact assessment

EIS

Environmental impact statement

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EPDRB

Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin

ESM

Environmentally sound management

ETS

Emissions Trading Scheme

EU

European Union

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

FCCC

Framework Climate Change Convention

FET

Fair and equitable treatment

FIP

Feed-in premium

FIT

Feed-in-tariff

FLEG

Forest Law Enforcement and Governance

p. xviFVA

Framework for Various Approaches

GATS

General Agreement on Trade in Services

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GBP

Global Bioenergy Partnership

GCF

Green Climate Fund

GEF

Global Environment Facility

GFCM

General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean

GGGI

Global Green Growth Institute

GHG

Greenhouse gas

GIACC

Group on International Aviation and Climate Change

GLISPA

Global Island Partnership

GMO

Genetically modified organism

HAP

Hazardous air pollutant

HELCOM

Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission

IACHR

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights IAM Integrated assessment model

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

ICCAs

Indigenous peoples’ and community conserved territories and areas

ICCP

Intergovernmental Committee for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

ICCPR

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICJ

International Court of Justice

ICLEI

International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives

ICOMOS

International Council on Monuments and Sites

ICPDR

International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River

ICRW

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

ICSID

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes

IDP

Internally displaced person

IEA

International Energy Agency

IET

International emissions trading

IFC

International Finance Corporation

IFCS

Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety

IIA

International investment agreement

ILA

International Law Association

ILC

International Law Commission

ILCs

Indigenous people and local communities

ILS

Insurance-linked security

IMO

International Maritime Organization

INC

Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee

INDC

Intended Nationally Determined Contribution

IPBES

Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPSO

International Programme on the State of the Ocean

IRENA

International Renewable Energy Agency

ISA

International Seabed Authority

ITLOS

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

ITPGRFA

International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

p. xviiITTA

International Tropical Timber Agreement

ITTO

International Tropical Timber Organization

IUCN

International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resource

IWC

International Whaling Commission

JI

Joint Implementation

KP

Kyoto Protocol

LDC

Least-developed country

LED

Light-emitting diode

LEV

Low Emissions Vehicle

LID

Low impact development

LMMC

Like Minded Megadiverse Countries

LMO

Living modified organism

LOSC

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

LRTAP

Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

LULUCF

Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry

MARPOL

International Convention for the Prevention of Oil Pollution from Ships

MAT

Mutually agreed terms

MBI

Market-based instrument

MBM

Market-based mechanism

MEA

Multilateral environmental agreement

MEPC

Marine Environment Protection Committee

MFN

Most favoured nation

MMPA

Marine Mammal Protection Act

MOP

Meeting of the Parties

MOU

Memorandum of Understanding

MPA

Marine protected area

MPLBA

Marine pollution from land-based activities

MPR

Minimum Program Requirement

MRV

Monitoring, Reporting and Verification

NAFO

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement

NAMMCO

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission

NBF

National biosafety framework

NCSD

National Councils for Sustainable Development

NDF

Non-detriment finding

NEPAD

New Partnership for Africa’s Development

NESHAP

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

NGO

Non-governmental organization

NMM

New market mechanism

NSRL

No Significant Risk Level

NT

National treatment

OAU

Organization of African Unity

ODECA

Organization of Central American States

ODS

Ozone-depleting substance

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

p. xviiiOEHHA

Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment

OHCHR

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

OPEC

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

OPIC

Overseas Private Investment Corporation

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSHRC

Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission

PACD

Plan of Action to Combat Desertification

PAGE

Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect

PAT

Perform Achieve Trade

PES

Payments for environmental services

PET

Punctuated equilibrium theory

PIC

Prior informed consent

PM

Particulate matter

POP

Persistent organic pollutant

PoWPA

Programme of Work on Protected Areas

PPM

Processes and production method

PTC

Production tax credit

PWIB

Programme of Work on Island Biodiversity

RAC

Regional Activity Centre

REC

Renewable energy credit

REDD

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

RES

Renewable Electricity Standard

RFMOs

Regional fisheries management organizations

RGGI

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

RIEL

Research Institute of Environmental Law

RIN

Renewable Identification Number

RPS

Renewable portfolio standard

SAP

Strategic action plan

SBSTA

Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice

SBSTTA

Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice

SCM

Subsidies and Countervailing Measure

SDGs

Sustainable Development Goals

SEA

Strategic environmental assessment

SEEMP

Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan

SHPF

Severely hazardous pesticide formulations

SICA

System for Regional Integration

SIDS

Small Islands Developing States

SLCP

Short-lived climate pollutant

SLR

Sea level rise

SPAW

Specially Protected Areas of Wildlife

SPS

Sanitary and phytosanitary

SRM

Solar radiation management

SST

Surface sea temperature

STAC

Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee

STECF

Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Black Sea Fisheries

STRP

Scientific and Technical Review Panel

p. xixTBPAs

Transboundary protected areas

TBT

Technical barriers to trade

TEU

Treaty on European Union

TFEU

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

UCLG

United Cities and Local Governments

UN

United Nations

UNCCD

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

UNCED

UN Conference on Environment and Development

UNCLOS

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

UNCOD

United Nations Conference on Desertification

UNDP

UN Development Programme

UNDRIP

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

UNECE

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

UNECLAC UN

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

UNEP

United Nations Environmental Programme

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFF

United Nations Forum on Forests

UNGA

United Nations General Assembly

UNHRC

United Nations Human Rights Council

UNWTO UN

World Tourism Organization

USGBC

United States Green Building Council

VCLT

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

VER

Voluntary Emissions Reduction

VMEs

Vulnerable marine ecosystems

VOC

Volatile organic compound

WCR

Wider Caribbean Region

WIPO

World Intellectual Property Organization

WMO

World Meteorological Organization

WTO

World Trade Organization