Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law
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Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law

Edited by Michael Faure

The Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law is a landmark reference work, providing definitive and comprehensive coverage of this dynamic field. The Encyclopedia is organised into 12 volumes around top-level subjects – such as water, energy and climate change – that reflect some of the most pressing issues facing us today. Each volume probes the key elements of law, the essential concepts, and the latest research through concise, structured entries written by international experts. Each entry includes an extensive bibliography as a starting point for further reading. The mix of authoritative commentary and insightful discussion will make this an essential tool for research and teaching, as well as a valuable resource for professionals and policymakers.
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Abbreviations

AB

Appellate Body

ABNJ

Area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction

ABS

Access and Benefit-Sharing

AC

Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters

ACCC

Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee

ACCOBAMS

Agreement on the conservation of cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and contiguous Atlantic areas

ACHR

American Convention on Human Rights

ACommHPR

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights

ADB

Asian Development Bank

AEWA

Agreement on the conservation of African-Eurasian migratory waterbirds

AfDB

African Development Bank

AIIB

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank

APEEL

Australian Panel of Experts in Environmental Law

APPCL

Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law (China)

ASAP

Antarctic special areas of protection

ASCI

Area of special conservation interest

ASCOBANS

Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic, North East Atlantic, Irish and North Seas

ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

AU

African Union

BASIC

Brazil, India, South Africa

BAT

Best available technique

BAU

Business as usual

BC

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

BCCSAP

Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan

BCCTF

Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund

BIC

Bank Information Center

BITs

Bilateral Investment Treaties

BRICS

Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

BVerwG

Bundesveraltungsgericht

BVerwGE

Entscheidung des Bundesverwaltungsgerichts

BWT

Boundary Waters Treaty

C

Case before the Court of Justice of the European Union

CAFE

Corporate average fuel economy

CAFTA

Central America Free Trade Area

p. xviiiCAFTA-DR

Central America & Dominican Republic – USA Free Trade Agreement

CAIT

Climate Analysis Indicators Tool

CBD

Convention on Biological Diversity

CBDR

Common but differentiated responsibilities

CBDR-RC

Common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities

CBDRRC-NC

Common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities in the light of different national circumstances

CBI

confidential business information

CBNRM

Community-based natural resource management

CBPR

Community-based participatory research

CCAMLR

Convention on the conservation of Antarctic marine living resources

CCH

Common concern of humankind

CCS

Carbon capture and storage

CDM

Clean Development Mechanism

CE

Conseil d’État

CEA

Council of Ecological Advisers (USA)

CEAA

Canadian Environment Assessment Act

CEAA

Canadian Environment Assessment Agency

CEC

Commission on Environmental Cooperation

CEESP

Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy

CEPA

Canadian Environmental Protection Act

CEQ

Council on Environmental Quality (USA)

CEQA

California Environmental Quality Act

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (USA)

CESCR

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

CETA

EU-Canada Comprehensive Trade Agreement

CFC

Chlorofluorocarbon

CFREU

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

CFS

Committee on World Food Security

CG

Compliance Group

CHM

Common heritage of mankind

CIDCE

Centre International du Droit Comparé de l’Environnement International Center of Comparative Environmental Law

CIF

Climate investment funds

CiP

Chemicals in products

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora

CJEU

Court of Justice of the European Union

CLC

Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage

CLR

Commonwealth Law Reports

CLRTAP

Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

CMLR

Common Market Law Review

p. xixCMS

Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals

CNDP

Commission Nationale du Débat Public

CNRS

Centre national de la recherche scientifique

CO2

Carbon dioxide

COAG

Council of Australian Governments

COP

Conference of the Parties

CPs

Contracting Parties

CRFEU

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

CRIDEAU

Centre de Recherches Interdisciplinaires en Droit de

Cth

l’Environnement, de l’Aménagement et de l’Urbanisme Commonwealth

CTSD

Committee on Trade and Sustainable Development

DENR

Department of the Environment and Natural Resources (Philippines)

DG Env

Directorate General on the Environment

DNA

Designated National Authority

DSB

Dispute Settlement Bodies

DSP

Dispute settlement procedure

DTIE

UNEP division of technology, industry and economics

EA

Ecosystem approach

EAC

East African Community

EAP7

Seventh European Union Environment Action Programme

EBRD

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

EC

European Community (Communities)

ECA

Environmental Cooperation Agreement

ECD

Environmental Crime Directive (2008/99)

ECHA

European Chemicals Agency

ECHR

European Convention on Human Rights

ECI

Environmental cost-spreading investment

ECJ

Court of Justice of the European Union

ECLAC

UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

ECLI

European Case Law Identifier

ECOSOC

Economic and Social Council

ECOWAS

Economic Community of West African States

ECtHR

European Court of Human Rights

EEA

European Environment Agency

EEC

European Economic Community

EEZ

Exclusive Economic Zone

EHRR

European Court of Human Rights Review

EHSGS

Environmental Health and Safety Guidelines

EIA

Environmental impact assessment

EIAL

Environment Impact Assessment Law (China)

EIB

European Investment Bank

EIR

Environmental Implementation Review

EIRs

Environmental Information Regulations (UK)

EIS

Environmental impact statement

p. xxELD

Environmental Liability Directive (2004/35)

ENGO

Environmental non-governmental organization

EP

European Parliament

EPs

Equator Principles

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency (USA)

EPB

Environmental Protection Bureau (China)

EPBC

Environmental protection and biodiversity

EPCRA

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act

EPL

Environmental Policy and Law

EPL

Environmental Protection Law (China)

EPR

Extended Producer Responsibility

ERCs

Emission reduction credits

ES

Ecosystem services

ESD

Ecologically sustainable development

ESF

Environmental and social framework

ESG

Environmental, social and governance

ESS

Environmental and social safeguards

ETS

Emission trading system

EU

European Union

EUCFR

European Union Charter on Fundamental Rights

FAO

Food and Agricultural Organization

FCA

Federal Court of Australia

FCCC

Framework Convention on Climate Change

FDI

Foreign direct investment

FPIC

Free prior and informed consent

FPS

Full protection and security

FSC

Forest Stewardship Council

FSDS

Federal Sustainable Development Act (Canada)

FSC

Forest Stewardship Council

GATS

General Agreement on Trade in Services

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GCC

Gulf Cooperation Council

GCF

Green Climate Fund

GCS

Government crediting system

GDP

Gross domestic product

GEF

Global environmental facility

GEO

Global Environmental Outlook

GHG

Greenhouse gas

GIS

Geographic information system

GMO

Genetically modified organism

GNP

Gross national product

GPID

Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement (UN)

GREDEG

Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion

GRI

Global Reporting Initiative

GSP

Generalised System of Preferences

HCA

High Court of Australia

p. xxiHCFC

Hydrofluorocarbon

HCFG

High Commissioner for Future Generations

HELCOM

Baltic marine environmental protection Commission – Helsinki Commission

HNS Convention

Convention on liability and compensation for damage in connection with the carriage of hazardous and noxious substances by sea

IACHR

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

IACommHR

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

IACtHR

Inter-American Court of Human Rights

IAP2

International Association for Public Participation

IB-ETS

Installation-based emission trading system

IC

Implementation Committee

ICCPR

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICERD

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

ICESCR

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

ICJ

International Court of Justice

ICRW

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

ICSID

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes

IDB

Inter-American Development Bank Group

IDPs

Internally displaced persons

IEL

International environmental law

IFC

International Finance Corporation

IGAE

Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment (Australia)

IGO

Inter-governmental Organization

IIA

International Investment Agreement

IIED

International Institute for Environment and Development

IJC

International Joint Commission

ILA

International Law Association

ILC

International Law Commission

ILM

International Legal Materials

ILO

International Labour Organization

IMDS

International Material Data System

IMPEL

Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law

INC

International Finance Corporation

IntAmCtHR

Inter-American Court on Human Rights

IOPC

International Oil Pollution Compensation (Fund)

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPPC

Integrated pollution prevention and control

IPR

Intellectual property rights

ISA (ISBA)

International Seabed Authority

ISDS

Investor-State dispute settlement

ITLOS

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

ITPGR

International treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture

p. xxiiITPGRFA

International treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture

ITTA

International Tropical Timber Agreement

IUCN

International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUU fishing

Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing

JII

Joint Interpretational Instrument

KP

Kyoto Protocol

LASHR

Latin American System of Human Rights

LCA

Life cycle assessment

LCSA

Life cycle sustainability assessment

LDCs

Least developed countries

LEC

Law Extension Committee (Australia)

LEED

Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design

LGERA

Local Government and Environmental Reports of Australia

LMDCs

Like-minded developing countries

LNG

Liquefied natural gas

LOSC

Law of the Sea Convention

LULUCF

Land use, land use change and forestry

MARPOL

International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships

MDBs

Multilateral development banks

MDG

Millennium Development Goals

MEA

Multilateral environmental agreement

MEP

Ministry of Environmental Protection (China)

MEPL

Marine Environmental Protection Law (China)

MIA

Multilateral Investment Agreement

MNC

Multinational corporation

MOP

Meeting of the Parties

MOX

Mixed oxide fuels

MP

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

NAAEC

North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement

NAP

National Adaptation Plan

NAPA

National Adaptation Plan of Action (Bangladesh)

NBSAPs

National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans

NCP

Non-compliance procedure

NDB

New Development Bank

NDCs

Nationally determined contributions

NEPA

National Environmental Policy Act (USA)

NEPAD

New Partnership for Africa’s Development

NGO

Non-governmental organization

NHRCB

National Human Rights Commission Bangladesh

NHTSA

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (USA)

NMMs

New market mechanisms

NOx

Nitrogen Oxides

NPCSC

National People’s Congress Standing Committee (China)

p. xxiiiNSESD

National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development (Australia)

OAS

Organization of American States

OAU

Organization of African Union

ODI

Overseas Development Institute

ODS

Ozone-depleting substances

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OEM

Original equipment manufacturer

OGGO

Office of Greening Government Operations (Canada)

OHCHR

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

OIT

Organisation International de la Francophonie

OMC

Organisation Mondiale de Commerce

OPRC

Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation

OSPAR

Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic

PBT

Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances

PCA

Permanent Court of Arbitration

PCIJ

Permanent Court of International Justice

PES

Payments for ecosystem services

PIC

Prior informed consent

PIL

Public interest litigation

PIP

Pandemic Influenza Preparedness

PNUD

United Nation Programme for Development

POP

Persistent Organic Pollutants

PPP

Polluter pays principle

PRO

Producer Responsibility Organization

PRTR

Pollution release and transfer register

PSNR

Permanent sovereignty over natural resources

PV

Photovoltaic

RCRA

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (USA)

REACH

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (EU)

REDD

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

REFiT

Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff

RES

Renewable electricity/energy standards

RFDA

Revue Française du Droit Administratif

RIAA

Reports of International Arbitral Awards

SACEP

South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme

SADC

Southern African Development Community

SAICM

Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management

S&D

Specialised and differentiated treatment

SDGs

Sustainable Development Goals

SDWA

Safe Drinking Water Act

SEA

Strategic environmental assessment

SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission (USA)

p. xxivSEQRA

State Environmental Quality Review Act (New York)

SERAC

Social and Economic Rights Centre

SERAP

Socio-economic Rights and Accountability Project

SETAC

Society of environmental toxicity and chemistry

SIDS

Small island developing states

SPA

Special protected area

SPAM

Special protected areas in the Mediterranean

SPC

Sustainable production and consumption

SPS

Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement

SRFC

Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission

SRI

Socially responsible investment

SVHC

Substances of very high concern

SWL

Law on the Prevention and Control of Pollution by Solid Waste

TBT

Technical Barriers to Trade

10YFP

10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production patterns

TEU

Treaty on European Union

TFEU

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

3R concept

Reduce, reuse and recycle concept

TIS

Tradable intensity standard

TNCs

Transnational corporations

TPS

Temporary Protected Status

TRI

Toxic Release Inventory (USA)

TSCA

Toxic Substances Control Act (USA)

TTIP

Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement

TTP

Transpacific Partnership Agreement

UDHR

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

UNCCD

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

UNCED

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

UNCITRAL

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

UNCLOS

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNDRIP

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People

UNECE

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCAP

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNGA

United Nations General Assembly

UNHRBA

United Nations Human Rights-Based Approach

UNHRC

United Nations Human Rights Commission

UNITAR

United Nations Institute on Training and Research

UNPFII

United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues

UNRIAA

United Nations Reports of International Arbitration Awards

UNTS

United Nations Treaty Series

p. xxvVCLT

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

VGGT

Voluntary guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests in the context of national food security

WB(G)

World Bank (Group)

WCED

World Commission on Environment and Development

WEEE

Waste of electrical and electronic equipment

WHC

Convention concerning the Protection of the Wild and Natural Heritage

WHO

World Health Organization

WPPCL

Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law (China)

WSSD

World Summit on Sustainable Development

WTO

World Trade Organization